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Kuala Selangor, Malaysia

Teoh Y.P.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Don M.M.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Ujang S.,FRIM
Chemical Product and Process Modeling | Year: 2012

This paper describes the use of the Box-Behnken experimental design to optimize the extraction parameters for producing maximum yield and total flavonoid content (TFC) from S.commune mycelia extract. The range of the independent variables, such as methanol-water concentration (0-100% v/v), extraction temperature (25-65°C), and mixing rate (0-250 rpm) were identified by a first set of single factor experiments. The actual values of the independent variables coded at three-level were selected based on the results of single factor experiments. Results showed that 3.0% extraction yield and 1.1 g% TFC were obtained under extraction condition of 84.6% (v/v) methanol-water concentration, extraction temperature 40.5°C, and mixing rate 162 rpm, respectively. In such condition, the error percentage between experimental and predicted data was 0.11 to 0.82%, which was less than 1%, thus indicating that the suitability of the models developed in optimizing the extraction conditions. The extraction mechanism was also investigated using a parabolic diffusion model, which described the washing and diffusion-controlled step. The proposed empirical model was valid with MSE value less than 10%. © 2012 De Gruyter. All rights reserved. Source


Mohd Zaki A.,FRIM | Nor Fadilah W.,FRIM | Abdul Rashid L.,FRIM | Nurnadiah R.,FRIM | And 7 more authors.
Jurnal Teknologi | Year: 2015

Provenance trial of Eurycoma longifolia is currently being carried out in order to provide necessary information for breeding strategies, which is crucially needed for the production of high quality planting materials. Assessment of polysaccharides content in the root part of the plant is taken among the important characteristics in the selection of the best provenance. Polysaccharides compound is chosen as bioactive marker due to the non-toxicity nature of the compound and potential pharmacological properties possessed. Polysaccharides compound of the root part is extracted by using water extract procedure from nine selected provenances (Johor, Melaka, Pahang A, Pahang B, Pahang D, Perak, Pulau Pinang, Selangor and Terengganu) of E. longifolia collected throughout forest reserves of Peninsular Malaysia. The analysis of the actual weight of the compound is conducted using phenol-sulfuric acid method by UV-VIS and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) is used for the detection of structural components of the polysaccharides compound. The assessment showed that polysaccharides content in the root part of Terengganu provenance significantly has the highest with 1.06 % actual weight of polysaccharides (out of 30 g extracted dry roots). Meanwhile, there are four provenances showed undetectable range of polysaccharide content which were Melaka, Pahang A, Pulau Pinang and Selangor. In a nutshell, based on the preliminary assessment of polysaccharide content alone, Terengganu provenance has the potential to be declared among the best provenances that has high quality. The provenance trial also has taken into considerations several important parameters such as the growth performances variation and the tolerance of the plants to pests and diseases besides the phytochemical screening. Provenance trial of E. longifolia is still ongoing, data for various parameters are still being collected, and thus it is still too early to derive a conclusion of which is the best provenance. © 2015 Penerbit UTM Press. All rights reserved. Source


Mohd Zaki A.,FRIM | Nor Fadilah W.,FRIM | Mohd Radzi A.,FRIM | Sui Kiong L.,FRIM | And 6 more authors.
Malaysian Applied Biology | Year: 2015

Eurycoma longifolia has been widely used in traditional herbal preparation and presently there are many commercial products available for general health and libido. However, study on plant breeding of this species is still in its infancy. Thus, Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM) has taken an initiative to conduct provenance trial of this species in order to select the best provenance and eurycomanone is chosen as bioactive marker. The aim of this study was to analyze the percentage of eurycomanone extracted from root, stem and leaves parts of E. longifolia from different provenances collected throughout Peninsular Malaysia. The eurycomanone compound is extracted with pure water and the present is detected by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC). Findings showed that the highest percentage of eurycomanone present in the root extract of Terengganu with 1.46% while the lowest is Melaka with 0.17%. Stem part of the plant showed there was presence of eurycomanone compound relatively in small percentage except for Terengganu, while there was no eurycomanone compound detected in leaves extract from all provenances tested (Johor, Kedah/Perlis, Melaka, Pahang, Perak, Pulau Pinang, Selangor and Terengganu). However, it is still too early to derive any conclusion on the best provenance based on chemical marker itself. © 2015, Malaysian Society of Applied Biology. All rights reserved. Source


Sist P.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Rutishauser E.,CarboForExpert carboforexpert.ch | Pena-Claros M.,Wageningen University | Shenkin A.,University of Florida | And 38 more authors.
Applied Vegetation Science | Year: 2015

While attention on logging in the tropics has been increasing, studies on the long-term effects of silviculture on forest dynamics and ecology remain scare and spatially limited. Indeed, most of our knowledge on tropical forests arises from studies carried out in undisturbed tropical forests. This bias is problematic given that logged and disturbed tropical forests are now covering a larger area than the so-called primary forests. A new network of permanent sample plots in logged forests, the Tropical managed Forests Observatory (TmFO), aims to fill this gap by providing unprecedented opportunities to examine long-term data on the resilience of logged tropical forests at regional and global scales. TmFO currently includes 24 experimental sites distributed across three tropical regions, with a total of 490 permanent plots and 921 ha of forest inventories. To improve our knowledge of the resilience of tropical logged forests, 20 research institutes are now collaborating on studies on the effects of logging on forest structure, productivity, biodiversity and carbon fluxes at large spatial and temporal scales. These studies are carried out in the Tropical managed Forests Observatory (TmFO), an international network including 24 sites and 490 permanent sample plots across South America, Africa and South East Asia. © 2014 International Association for Vegetation Science. Source

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