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Asadollahi R.,University of Zurich | Oneda B.,University of Zurich | Sheth F.,FRIGEs Institute of Human Genetics | Azzarello-Burri S.,University of Zurich | And 9 more authors.
European Journal of Human Genetics

A chromosomal balanced translocation disrupting the MED13L (Mediator complex subunit13-like) gene, encoding a subunit of the Mediator complex, was previously associated with transposition of the great arteries (TGA) and intellectual disability (ID), and led to the identification of missense mutations in three patients with isolated TGA. Recently, a homozygous missense mutation in MED13L was found in two siblings with non-syndromic ID from a consanguineous family. Here, we describe for the first time, three patients with copy number changes affecting MED13L and delineate a recognizable MED13L haploinsufficiency syndrome. Using high resolution molecular karyotyping, we identified two intragenic de novo frameshift deletions, likely resulting in haploinsufficiency, in two patients with a similar phenotype of hypotonia, moderate ID, conotruncal heart defect and facial anomalies. In both, Sanger sequencing of MED13L did not reveal any pathogenic mutation and exome sequencing in one patient showed no evidence for a non-allelic second hit. A further patient with hypotonia, learning difficulties and perimembranous VSD showed a 1 Mb de novo triplication in 12q24.2, including MED13L and MAP1LC3B2. Our findings show that MED13L haploinsufficiency in contrast to the previously observed missense mutations cause a distinct syndromic phenotype. Additionally, a MED13L copy number gain results in a milder phenotype. The clinical features suggesting a neurocristopathy may be explained by animal model studies indicating involvement of the Mediator complex subunit 13 in neural crest induction. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source

Sheth J.,FRIGEs Institute of Human Genetics | Mistri M.,FRIGEs Institute of Human Genetics | Bhavsar R.,FRIGEs Institute of Human Genetics | Sheth F.,FRIGEs Institute of Human Genetics | And 3 more authors.
Indian Pediatrics

Objective: To study the etiology of neuroregression in children having deficiency of the lysosomal enzymes. Design: Review of medical records. Setting: Specialized Genetic Center. Participants: 432 children aged 3 mo-18 y having regression in a learned skill, selected from 1453 patients referred for diagnostic workup of various Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs). Methods: Plasma chitotriosidase, quantitative and qualitative glycosaminoglycans, and mucolipidosis-II/II screening followed by confirmatory enzyme study using specific substrate was carried out; Niemann-Pick disease Type-C was studied by fillipin stain method on skin fibroblasts. Results: Total 309 children (71.5%) were diagnosed with different lysosomal storage disorders as the underlying cause of neuroregression. Plasma chitotriosidase was raised in 82 of 135; 64 (78%) of these had various LSDs. 69 out of 90 cases showed high excretion of glycoaminoglycans, and 67 (97.1%) of these were confirmed to have enzyme deficiency for various mucoplysaccharide disorders. While 3/90 children with positive I-cell screening had confirmed mucolipidosis-II/III disease. Among all, glycolipid storage disorders were the most common (50.2%) followed by mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) (21.7%) and sulphatide degradation defect (17.5%). Neuronal ceroid lipofucinosis-1 & 2 (7.4%), mucolipidosis-II/III (1%), Sialic acid storage disorder (1%), Niemann-Pick disease type-C (1%) and Fucosidosis (0.3%) were observed with less frequency. Most common phenotypes in all subjects were cherry red spot (18.5%), hepatosplenomegaly (17.9%), coarse facies (15%), seizures (13.1%) and skeletal abnormalities (12.14%). Conclusions: Lysosomal storage disorders are considered to be one of the common causes in children with regression in learned skill, dysmorphic features and cherry red spot. Among these, glycolipid storage disorders are the most common, followed by mucopolysaccharidosis. © 2015, Indian Academy of Pediatrics. Source

Sheth J.,FRIGEs Institute of Human Genetics | Mistri M.,FRIGEs Institute of Human Genetics | Datar C.,Clinical Geneticist | Kalane U.,Clinical Geneticist | And 6 more authors.
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports

Tay-Sachs disease is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder occurring due to impaired activity of β- hexosaminidase-A (EC, resulting from the mutation in HEXA gene. Very little is known about the molecular pathology of TSD in Indian children except for a few mutations identified by us. The present study is aimed to determine additional mutations leading to Tay-Sachs disease in nine patients confirmed by the deficiency of β- hexosaminidase-A (<2% of total hexosaminidase activity for infantile patients) in leucocytes. The enzyme activity was assessed by using substrates 4-methylumbelliferyl-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamine and 4-methylumbelliferyl-N-acetyl- β-D-glucosamine-6-sulfate for total-hexosaminidase and hexosaminidase-A respectively, and heat inactivation method for carrier detection. The exons and exon-intron boundaries of the HEXA gene were bi-directionally sequenced on an automated sequencer. 'In silico' analyses for novel mutations were carried out using SIFT, Polyphen2 and MutationT@ster software programs. The structural study was carried out by UCSF Chimera software using the crystallographic structure of β-hexosaminidase-A (PDB-ID: 2GJX) as the template. Our study identified four novel mutations in three cases. These include a compound heterozygous missense mutation c.524A>C (D175A) and c.805G>C (p.G269R) in one case; and one small 1 bp deletion c.426delT (p.F142LfsX57) and one splice site mutation c.459+4A>C in the other two cases respectively. None of thesemutations were detected in 100 chromosomes from healthy individuals of the same ethnic group. Three previously reported missense mutations, (i) c.532C>T (p.R178C), (ii) c.964G>T (p.D322Y), and (iii) c.1385A>T (p.E462V); two nonsense mutations (i) c.709C>T (p.Q237X) and (ii) c.1528C>T (p.R510X), one 4 bp insertion c.1277-1278insTATC (p.Y427IfsX5) and one splice site mutation c.459+5G>A were also identified in six cases. We observe from this study that novel mutations are more frequently observed in Indian patients with Tay-Sachs disease with clustering of ∼73% of disease causing mutations in exons 5 to 12. This database can be used for a carrier rate screening in the larger population of the country. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. Source

Sheth F.,FRIGEs Institute of Human Genetics | Andrieux J.,Laboratory of Medical Genetics | Tewari S.,FRIGEs Institute of Human Genetics | Sheth H.,Northumbria University | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Cytogenetics

Exact breakpoint determination by oligonucleotide array-CGH has improved the analysis of genotype-phenotype correlations in cases with chromosome aberrations allowing a more accurate definition of relevant genes, particularly their isolated or combined impact on the phenotype in an unbalanced state. Chromosomal imbalances have been identified as one of the major causes of mental retardation and/or malformation syndromes and they are observed in ∼2-5% of the cases. Here we report a female child born to non-consanguineous parents and having multiple congenital anomalies such as atrial septal defect and multiple ventricular septal defects, convergent strabismus, micropthalmia, seizures and mental retardation, with her head circumference and stature normal for her age. Cytogenetic study suggested 46,XX,add(8)(p23). Further analysis by array-CGH using 44K oligonucleotide probe confirmed deletion on 8p23.3p23.1 of 7.1 Mb and duplication involving 15q23q26.3 of 30 Mb size leading to 46,XX,der(8)t(8;15) (p23.3;q23)pat.arr 8p23.3p23.1(191,530-7,303,237)x1,15q23q26.3(72,338,961-102, 35,195)x3. The unique phenotypic presentation in our case may have resulted from either loss or gain of a series of contiguous genes which may have resulted in a direct phenotypic effect and/or caused a genetic regulatory disturbance. Double segmental aberrations may have conferred phenotypic variability, as in our case, making it difficult to predict the characteristics that evolved as a result of the global gene imbalance, caused by the concomitant deletion and duplication. © 2013 Sheth et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Sheth F.,FRIGEs Institute of Human Genetics | Liehr T.,Jena University Hospital | Shah K.,FRIGEs Institute of Human Genetics | Sheth J.,FRIGEs Institute of Human Genetics
Molecular Cytogenetics

Background: Prader-Willi syndrome, due to microdeletion of proximal 15q, is a well-known cause of syndromic obesity. Case characteristics: A couple with history of repeated first trimester abortions had a son with balanced Robertsonian translocation of chromosomes 13 and 15 according to cytogenetic banding technique. Results: Chromosomal analysis for the couple was performed. A balanced translocation involving BP1-BP3 region of proximal 15q was observed in the father. Discussion: Investigations of the parents is mandatory when a structural rearrangement is detected in a dysmorphic child. © 2015 Sheth et al. Source

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