Friendship Hospital for Animals

Washington, DC, United States

Friendship Hospital for Animals

Washington, DC, United States
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Marchant T.W.,Roslin Institute | Johnson E.J.,Roslin Institute | McTeir L.,Roslin Institute | Johnson C.I.,Roslin Institute | And 18 more authors.
Current Biology | Year: 2017

In morphological terms, “form” is used to describe an object's shape and size. In dogs, facial form is stunningly diverse. Facial retrusion, the proximodistal shortening of the snout and widening of the hard palate is common to brachycephalic dogs and is a welfare concern, as the incidence of respiratory distress and ocular trauma observed in this class of dogs is highly correlated with their skull form. Progress to identify the molecular underpinnings of facial retrusion is limited to association of a missense mutation in BMP3 among small brachycephalic dogs. Here, we used morphometrics of skull isosurfaces derived from 374 pedigree and mixed-breed dogs to dissect the genetics of skull form. Through deconvolution of facial forms, we identified quantitative trait loci that are responsible for canine facial shapes and sizes. Our novel insights include recognition that the FGF4 retrogene insertion, previously associated with appendicular chondrodysplasia, also reduces neurocranium size. Focusing on facial shape, we resolved a quantitative trait locus on canine chromosome 1 to a 188-kb critical interval that encompasses SMOC2. An intronic, transposable element within SMOC2 promotes the utilization of cryptic splice sites, causing its incorporation into transcripts, and drastically reduces SMOC2 gene expression in brachycephalic dogs. SMOC2 disruption affects the facial skeleton in a dose-dependent manner. The size effects of the associated SMOC2 haplotype are profound, accounting for 36% of facial length variation in the dogs we tested. Our data bring new focus to SMOC2 by highlighting its clinical implications in both human and veterinary medicine. © 2017 The Authors


Mossman H.,Veterinary Surgical Centers | von Pfeil D.J.F.,Friendship Hospital for Animals | Nicholson M.,Central Animal and Referral Emergency Hospital | Phelps H.,Veterinary Center | And 4 more authors.
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology | Year: 2015

Objectives: To prospectively compare the accuracy of three preoperative measurement techniques in tibial plateau levelling osteo - tomy (TPLO) planning. Methods: Fifty-nine dogs were randomly assigned to one of three measurement techniques; A, B or C. Surgeons measured the intended osteotomy location on preoperative radiographs according to the assigned technique. Measurements were used intra-operatively during osteotomy placement. Postoperative measurements were made by a single blinded observer and compared to preoperative measurements. Results: Fifty-one dogs were included for final statistical analysis. The mean absolute differences between pre- and postoperative measurements was 1.72 mm ± 0.958, 1.79 mm ± 1.010, and 3.56 mm ± 1.839, for techniques A, B and C, respectively. No significant differences were identified for patient age, gender, limb or surgeon. Techniques A and B were not significantly different (p = 0.8799). Techniques A and B were significantly more accurate than C (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.0003, respectively). Weight was significantly different among the groups (p = 0.047) but the statistical results did not change when an adjustment was made for bodyweight (p = 0.4971, p <0.001 and p = 0.0007, respectively). Clinical significance: Preoperative measuring for planning a TPLO osteotomy is recommended. Techniques A and B in the current study were clinically practical and significantly more accurate compared to technique C. © 2015 Schattauer.


Roberts N.J.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | Zhang L.,Biomedical Valley Discoveries Inc. | Janku F.,University of Houston | Collins A.,Biomedical Valley Discoveries Inc. | And 36 more authors.
Science Translational Medicine | Year: 2014

Species of Clostridium bacteria are notable for their ability to lyse tumor cells growing in hypoxic environments. We show that an attenuated strain of Clostridium novyi (C. novyi-NT) induces a microscopically precise, tumor-localized response in a rat orthotopic brain tumor model after intratumoral injection. It is well known, however, that experimental models often do not reliably predict the responses of human patients to therapeutic agents. We therefore used naturally occurring canine tumors as a translational bridge to human trials. Canine tumors are more like those of humans because they occur in animals with heterogeneous genetic backgrounds, are of host origin, and are due to spontaneous rather than engineered mutations. We found that intratumoral injection of C. novyi-NT spores was well tolerated in companion dogs bearing spontaneous solid tumors, with the most common toxicities being the expected symptoms associated with bacterial infections. Objective responses were observed in 6 of 16 dogs (37.5%), with three complete and three partial responses. On the basis of these encouraging results, we treated a human patient who had an advanced leiomyosarcoma with an intratumoral injection of C. novyi-NT spores. This treatment reduced the tumor within and surrounding the bone. Together, these results show that C. novyi-NT can precisely eradicate neoplastic tissues and suggest that further clinical trials of this agent in selected patients are warranted. © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Interventional Imaging, BluePearl Veterinary Partners, University of Houston and 10 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Science translational medicine | Year: 2014

Species of Clostridium bacteria are notable for their ability to lyse tumor cells growing in hypoxic environments. We show that an attenuated strain of Clostridium novyi (C. novyi-NT) induces a microscopically precise, tumor-localized response in a rat orthotopic brain tumor model after intratumoral injection. It is well known, however, that experimental models often do not reliably predict the responses of human patients to therapeutic agents. We therefore used naturally occurring canine tumors as a translational bridge to human trials. Canine tumors are more like those of humans because they occur in animals with heterogeneous genetic backgrounds, are of host origin, and are due to spontaneous rather than engineered mutations. We found that intratumoral injection of C. novyi-NT spores was well tolerated in companion dogs bearing spontaneous solid tumors, with the most common toxicities being the expected symptoms associated with bacterial infections. Objective responses were observed in 6 of 16 dogs (37.5%), with three complete and three partial responses. On the basis of these encouraging results, we treated a human patient who had an advanced leiomyosarcoma with an intratumoral injection of C. novyi-NT spores. This treatment reduced the tumor within and surrounding the bone. Together, these results show that C. novyi-NT can precisely eradicate neoplastic tissues and suggest that further clinical trials of this agent in selected patients are warranted.


Rankin K.A.,Flathead Animal Clinic | Alroy K.A.,Friendship Hospital for Animals | Kudela R.M.,University of California at Santa Cruz | Oates S.C.,Marine Wildlife Veterinary Care and Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Toxins | Year: 2013

A two and a half year old spayed female Miniature Australian Shepherd presented to a Montana veterinary clinic with acute onset of anorexia, vomiting and depression. Two days prior, the dog was exposed to an algal bloom in a community lake. Within h, the animal became lethargic and anorexic, and progressed to severe depression and vomiting. A complete blood count and serum chemistry panel suggested acute hepatitis, and a severe coagulopathy was noted clinically. Feces from the affected dog were positive for the cyanobacterial biotoxin, microcystin-LA (217 ppb). The dog was hospitalized for eight days. Supportive therapy consisted of fluids, mucosal protectants, vitamins, antibiotics, and nutritional supplements. On day five of hospitalization, a bile acid sequestrant, cholestyramine, was administered orally. Rapid clinical improvement was noted within 48 h of initiating oral cholestyramine therapy. At 17 days post-exposure the dog was clinically normal, and remained clinically normal at re-check, one year post-exposure. To our knowledge, this is the first report of successful treatment of canine cyanobacterial (microcystin) toxicosis. Untreated microcystin intoxication is commonly fatal, and can result in significant liver damage in surviving animals. The clinical success of this case suggests that oral administration of cholestyramine, in combination with supportive therapy, could significantly reduce hospitalization time, cost-of-care and mortality for microcystin-poisoned animals. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Boozer L.B.,University of Georgia | Boozer L.B.,Friendship Hospital for Animals | Platt S.R.,University of Georgia | Haley A.C.,University of Georgia | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Veterinary Research | Year: 2015

OBJECTIVE To compare the pharmacokinetics of various formulations of levetiracetam after oral administration of a single dose to healthy dogs. ANIMALS 6 neurologically normal mixed-breed dogs. PROCEDURES A crossover study design was used. Blood samples for serum harvest were collected from each dog before and at various points after oral administration of one 500-mg tablet of each of 2 generic extended-release (ER) formulations, 1 brand-name ER formulation, or 1 brand-name immediate-release (IR) formulation of levetiracetam. Serum samples were analyzed to determine pharmacokinetic properties of each formulation by means of ultra–highperformance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS No dogs had clinically important adverse effects for any formulation of levetiracetam. All ER formulations had a significantly lower maximum serum drug concentration and longer time to achieve that concentration than did the IR formulation. Half-lives and elimination rate constants did not differ significantly among formulations.Values for area under the drug concentrationversus-time curve did not differ significantly between ER formulations and the IR formulation; however, 1 generic ER formulation had a significantly lower area under the curve than did other ER formulations. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE All ER formulations of levetiracetam had similar pharmacokinetic properties in healthy dogs, with some exceptions. Studies will be needed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the various formulations; however, findings suggested that twice-daily administration of ER formulations may be efficacious in the treatment of seizures in dogs. © 2015, American Veterinary Medical Association. All rights reserved.

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