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Inhambane, Mozambique

Brentlinger P.E.,Friends in Global Health LLC | Brentlinger P.E.,West Health Institute | Silva W.P.,Friends in Global Health LLC | Silva W.P.,Vanderbilt University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2014

A new Mozambican guideline for management of fever in HIV-infected adults requires malaria testing and systematic consideration of specific alternative diagnoses (eg, tuberculosis and bacterial infections) in addition to malaria. We conducted a prospective observational study of the guideline's performance. Of 258 HIV-infected subjects with axillary temperature ≥37.5° C or history of fever, 76.0% improved, 13.6% died or were hospitalized, and 10.5% were lost to follow-up. In multivariate analyses, factors associated with adverse outcomes were bacterial blood stream infection, syndromically diagnosed tuberculosis, lower CD4+ T-lymphocyte count, no antiretroviral therapy, lower body mass index, lower hemoglobin, and nonprescription of antibiotics. Copyright © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Ciampa P.J.,Vanderbilt University | Vaz L.M.E.,Vanderbilt University | Vaz L.M.E.,Friends in Global Health LLC | Blevins M.,Vanderbilt University | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: Limited literacy skills are common in the United States (US) and are related to lower HIV knowledge and worse health behaviors and outcomes. The extent of these associations is unknown in countries like Mozambique, where no rigorously validated literacy and numeracy measures exist. Methods: A validated measure of literacy and numeracy, the Wide Range Achievement Test, version 3 (WRAT-3) was translated into Portuguese, adapted for a Mozambican context, and administered to a cross-section of female heads-of-household during a provincially representative survey conducted from August 8 to September 25, 2010. Construct validity of each subscale was examined by testing associations with education, income, and possession of socioeconomic assets, stratified by Portuguese speaking ability. Multivariable regression models estimated the association among literacy/numeracy and HIV knowledge, self-reported HIV testing, and utilization of prenatal care. Results: Data from 3,557 women were analyzed; 1,110 (37.9%) reported speaking Portuguese. Respondents' mean age was 31.2; 44.6% lacked formal education, and 34.3% reported no income. Illiteracy was common (50.4% of Portuguese speakers, 93.7% of non-Portuguese speakers) and the mean numeracy score (10.4) corresponded to US kindergarten-level skills. Literacy or numeracy was associated (p<0.01) with education, income, age, and other socioeconomic assets. Literacy and numeracy skills were associated with HIV knowledge in adjusted models, but not with HIV testing or receipt of clinic-based prenatal care. Conclusion: The adapted literacy and numeracy subscales are valid for use with rural Mozambican women. Limited literacy and numeracy skills were common and associated with lower HIV knowledge. Further study is needed to determine the extent to which addressing literacy/numeracy will lead to improved health outcomes. © 2012 Ciampa et al.

Ciampa P.J.,West Health Institute | Ciampa P.J.,Vanderbilt University | Burlison J.R.,West Health Institute | Blevins M.,West Health Institute | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2011

Low mother/infant retention has impeded early infant diagnosis of HIV in rural Mozambique. We enhanced the referral process for postpartum HIV-infected women by offering direct accompaniment to the location of exposed infant testing before discharge. Retrospective record review for 395 women/infants (September 2009 to June 2010) found enhanced referral was associated with higher odds of follow-up (adjusted odds ratio = 3.18, 95% confidence interval: 1.76 to 5.73, P < 0.001); and among those followed-up, earlier infant testing (median follow-up: 33 days vs. 59 days, P = 0.01) compared with women receiving standard referral. This simple intervention demonstrates benefits gleaned from attention to system improvement through service integration without increasing staff. Copyright © 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Howard L.M.,Vanderbilt University | Tique J.A.,Friends in Global Health LLC | Gaveta S.,Eduardo Mondlane University | Sidat M.,Eduardo Mondlane University | And 4 more authors.
AIDS | Year: 2014

Objectives: Little is known about adult caregivers' ability to accurately dose pediatric antiretroviral medications. We aimed to characterize the frequency of dosing errors for liquid zidovudine using two dosing devices and to evaluate the association between HIV literacy and dosing errors in adults living with HIV infection. Design: Cross-sectional study enrolling 316 adults receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for HIV infection in Maputo Province, Mozambique. Methods: Participants were administered the HIV Literacy Test (HIV-LT) and asked to measure 2.5 ml of liquid zidovudine using both a cup and syringe. Dosing measurement errors for liquid zidovudine were defined as 'any error' (≥20% deviation from reference dose) and 'major error' (≥40% deviation from reference dose). Results: Dosing errors were common using the cup (any error: 50%, major error: 28%) and syringe (any error: 48% of participants, major error: 28%). There were no significant differences in proportions of any dosing error (P=0.61) or major dosing errors (P=0.82) between dosing instruments. In multivariable models, associations (P≤0.03) were found between higher HIV-LT score and dosing errors for both the cup [any error adjusted odds ratio, AOR: 0.91 (0.84-0.99), major error AOR: 0.84 (0.75-0.92)] and syringe [any error AOR: 0.82 (0.75-0.90), major error AOR: 0.88 (0.80-0.97)]. Conclusion: Liquid antiretroviral medications are critical for prevention and treatment of pediatric HIV infections, yet dosing errors were exceedingly common in this population and were significantly associated with lower HIV literacy levels. Targeted interventions are needed to improve HIV knowledge and skills for pediatric medication dosing, particularly for caregivers with limited literacy. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health.

Moon T.D.,Vanderbilt Institute for Global Health | Moon T.D.,Friends in Global Health LLC | Silva-Matos C.,Ministry of Health | Cordoso A.,Friends in Global Health LLC | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the International AIDS Society | Year: 2013

Background: In order to maximize the benefits of HIV care and treatment investments in sub-Saharan Africa, programs can broaden to target other diseases amenable to screening and efficient management. We nested cervical cancer screening into family planning clinics at select sites also receiving PEPFAR support for antiretroviral therapy (ART) rollout. This was done using visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) by maternal child health nurses. We report on achievements and obstacles in the first year of the program in rural Mozambique. Methods: VIA was taught to clinic nurses and hospital physicians, with a regular clinical feedback loop for quality evaluation and retraining. Cryotherapy using carbon dioxide as the refrigerant was provided at clinics; loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) and surgery were provided at the provincial hospital for serious cases. No pathology services were available. Results: Nurses screened 4651 women using VIA in Zambézia Province in year one of the program, more than double the Ministry of Health service target. VIA was judged positive for squamous intraepithelial lesions in 8% (n = 380) of the women (9% if age ≥30 years (n = 3154) and 7% if age <30 years (n = 1497); p = 0.02). Of the 380 VIA-positive women, 4% ( n = 16) had lesions (0.3% of 4651 total screened) requiring referral to Quelimane Provincial Hospital. Fourteen (88%) of these 16 women were seen at the hospital, but records were inadequate to judge outcomes. Of women screened, 2714 (58%) either had knowledge of their HIV status prior to VIA or were subsequently sent for HIV testing, of which 583 (21%) were HIV positive. Conclusions: Screening and clinical services were successfully provided on a large scale for the first time ever in these rural clinics. However, health manpower shortages, equipment problems, poor paper record systems and a limited ability to follow-up patients inhibited the quality of the cervical cancer screening services. Using prior HIV investments, chronic disease screening and management for cervical cancer is feasible even in severely resource-constrained rural Africa. © 2012 Moon TD et al; licensee International AIDS Society.

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