Jena, Germany

Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller was a German poet, philosopher, historian, and playwright. During the last seventeen years of his life , Schiller struck up a productive, if complicated, friendship with already famous and influential Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. They frequently discussed issues concerning aesthetics, and Schiller encouraged Goethe to finish works he left as sketches. This relationship and these discussions led to a period now referred to as Weimar Classicism. They also worked together on Xenien, a collection of short satirical poems in which both Schiller and Goethe challenge opponents to their philosophical vision. Wikipedia.

Time filter

Source Type

Vollmer A.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Journal of Geometry and Physics | Year: 2017

We discuss the existence of Killing tensors for certain (physically motivated) stationary and axially symmetric vacuum space–times. We show nonexistence of a nontrivial Killing tensor for a Tomimatsu–Sato metric (up to valence 7), for a C-metric (up to valence 9) and for a Zipoy–Voorhees metric (up to valence 11). The results are obtained by mathematically completely rigorous, nontrivial computer algebra computations with a huge number of equations involved in the problem. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Wang J.,Nanjing University of Science and Technology | Jager T.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Communications in Mathematical Physics | Year: 2017

We study the phenomenon of mode-locking in the context of quasiperiodically forced non-linear circle maps. As a main result, we show that under certain (Formula presented.)-open condition on the geometry of twist parameter families of such systems, the closure of the union of mode-locking plateaus has positive measure. In particular, this implies the existence of infinitely many mode-locking plateaus (open Arnold tongues). The proof builds on multiscale analysis and parameter exclusion methods in the spirit of Benedicks and Carleson, which were previously developed for quasiperiodic (Formula presented.)-cocycles by Young and Bjerklöv. The methods apply to a variety of examples, including a forced version of the classical Arnold circle map. © 2017 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Pint A.,University of Cologne | Frenzel P.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Journal of Micropalaeontology | Year: 2017

The ostracod Cyprideis torosa (Jones) tolerates a wide range of salinity from fresh to brackish water-transition to hyperhaline values. The species often dominates ostracod assemblages in oligohaline and hyperhaline waters. For a more precise determination of controlling ecological factors, mainly the salinity, the accompanying ostracod fauna needs to be investigated. In oligohaline inland water bodies of humid climates, C. torosa is associated with tolerant non-marine ostracods. In coastal lagoons the mostly very low-diversity ostracod assemblages are characterized by brackish taxa accompanying C. torosa. In saline lakes of arid climatic zones non-marine and brackish species occur together, but brackish ostracods frequently dominate the assemblages. Monospecific occurrences of C. torosa are realized mainly in hypersaline environments. Examples are given that represent typical ostracod taxa that co-occur with C. torosa. © 2017 The Author(s).

Baumbach P.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2017

OBJECTIVES:: There is growing evidence for increased levels of pain and reduced health-related quality of life in survivors of critical illness. Recent studies showed marked small nerve fiber pathology in critically ill patients, which may contribute to chronic pain states and reduced physical recovery after ICU discharge. Primary objective of this study was the comparison of somatosensory functions between survivors of critical illness 6 months after ICU discharge and controls. In post hoc analyses, we aimed to identify associations between small fiber deficits, pain, health-related quality of life, and clinical data. DESIGN:: Cross-sectional study. SETTING:: Study in critical illness survivors. PATIENTS:: Critical illness survivors (n = 84) and controls (n = 44). INTERVENTIONS:: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:: Somatosensory functions were assessed with validated quantitative sensory testing. Pain and pain-related disability were assessed with the chronic pain grade questionnaire. Health-related quality of life was assessed by means of the Short Form-36. Compared with controls, former patients showed significantly increased thermal detection thresholds and more abnormal values in thermal testing, indicating reduced small fiber functioning. In addition, compared to patients without significant small fiber deficits (n = 46, 54.8%), patients with significant small fiber deficits (n = 38, 45.2%) reported higher average pain intensity, pain-related disability, and reduced physical health-related quality of life in the SF-36. CONCLUSIONS:: A large portion of former critically ill patients show small fiber deficits which seem to be associated with increased pain and reduced physical health-related quality of life. Screening of somatosensory functions in the (post-) acute setting could possibly help to identify patients at risk of long-term impairments. Copyright © by 2017 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Mori J.F.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
ISME Journal | Year: 2017

Marine and lake snow is a continuous shower of mixed organic and inorganic aggregates falling from the upper water where primary production is substantial. These pelagic aggregates provide a niche for microbes that can exploit these physical structures and resources for growth, thus are local hot spots for microbial activity. However, processes underlying their formation remain unknown. Here, we investigated the role of chemical signaling between two co-occurring bacteria that each make up more than 10% of the community in iron-rich lakes aggregates (iron snow). The filamentous iron-oxidizing Acidithrix strain showed increased rates of Fe(II) oxidation when incubated with cell-free supernatant of the heterotrophic iron-reducing Acidiphilium strain. Amendment of Acidithrix supernatant to motile cells of Acidiphilium triggered formation of cell aggregates displaying similar morphology to those of iron snow. Comparative metabolomics enabled the identification of the aggregation-inducing signal, 2-phenethylamine, which also induced faster growth of Acidiphilium. We propose a model that shows rapid iron snow formation, and ultimately energy transfer from the photic zone to deeper water layers, is controlled via a chemically mediated interplay.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 31 January 2017; doi:10.1038/ismej.2016.186. © 2017 The Author(s)

Casper C.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Rothermund K.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Wentura D.,Saarland University
Social Psychology | Year: 2010

Processes involving an automatic activation of stereotypes in different contexts were investigated using a priming paradigm with the lexical decision task. The names of social categories were combined with background pictures of specific situations to yield a compound prime comprising category and context information. Significant category priming effects for stereotypic attributes (e.g., Bavarians - beer) emerged for fitting contexts (e.g., in combination with a picture of a marquee) but not for nonfitting contexts (e.g., in combination with a picture of a shop). Findings indicate that social stereotypes are organized as specific mental schemas that are triggered by a combination of category and context information. © 2010 Hogrefe Publishing.

Meessen K.M.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Permanent Sovereignty Over Natural Resources | Year: 2015

The Kimberley Process stands for involving business in the promotion of human rights if only in singular circumstances. Financing civil wars with stolen diamonds seems strange. But it did happen in Angola and Sierra Leone a while ago. At that time the world diamond business was still being controlled by just one producer plus trader. In retrospect not so surprisingly, De Beers allowed itself being talked into providing active support to the two governments fighting the respective rebellious groups and to a number of other governments appalled at reports of atrocities occurring on both sides but proving reluctant to commit their own soldiers. As a result business, i.e. De Beers, along with governments, mainly of consumer States, started operating a worldwide certification scheme effectively distinguishing between stolen blood diamonds and their legally marketed clones. The bottom line was that the rebels' financial resources were gradually being dried out while De Beers managed to secure its near monopoly for another decade or so. On other occasions, it may not be that simple to identify equally effective incentives when business is being asked not only to abide by solemn rules of corporate responsibility but to actively promote human rights and good governance. But given the mixed prospects of judicial enforcement, Kimberley should be kept in mind. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.

Forker R.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Meissner M.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Meissner M.,Japan Institute for Molecular Science | Fritz T.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Soft Matter | Year: 2017

Early investigations of epitaxy focused on inorganic adsorbates consisting of atoms or few-atom molecules, where commensurate registries are predominantly encountered. Expanding such studies to larger (organic) molecules has revealed hitherto unknown types of epitaxy with coherence between adlayer and substrate lattices in just one direction. Here we review recent contributions to the fundamental understanding and modeling of epitaxy. By sorting the ideas brought forward in the literature and amending some basic algebraic considerations a universal scheme for the classification of lattice epitaxy is presented. Ultimately, the occurrence of the different types of epitaxy is made plausible by easy-to-grasp energetic arguments. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Balducci A.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Topics in Current Chemistry | Year: 2017

Lithium-ion batteries are among the most widespread energy storage devices in our society. In order to introduce these devices in new key applications such as transportation, however, their safety and their operative temperature range need to be significantly improved. These improvements can be obtained only by developing new electrolytes. Ionic liquids are presently considered among the most attractive electrolytes for the development of advanced and safer lithium-ion batteries. In this manuscript, the use of various types of ionic liquids, e.g. aprotic and protic, in lithium-ion batteries is considered. The advantages and the limits associated to the use of these innovative electrolytes are critically analysed. © 2017, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

Friebe C.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Schubert U.S.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Topics in Current Chemistry | Year: 2017

Batteries that are based on organic radical compounds possess superior charging times and discharging power capability in comparison to established electrochemical energy-storage technologies. They do not rely on metals and, hence, feature a favorable environmental impact. They furthermore offer the possibility of roll-to-roll processing through the use of different printing techniques, which enables the cost-efficient fabrication of mechanically flexible devices. In this review, organic radical batteries are presented with the focus on the hitherto developed materials and the key properties thereof, e.g., voltage, capacity, and cycle life. Furthermore, basic information, such as significant characteristics, housing approaches, and applied additives, are presented and discussed in the context of organic radical batteries. © 2017, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

Rockenfeller R.,University Koblenz | Gunther M.,University of Stuttgart | Gunther M.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering | Year: 2017

The active isometric force–length relation (FLR) of mammalian skeletal muscle is one of the most investigated characteristics throughout biomechanics. Numerous experiments have been conducted that reveal insights on the mechanisms of muscle contraction. However, the entity of molecular processes is yet not fully understood. Modelers thus rely on a rather descriptive characterization of experimental findings. Starting with the well-known, piece-wise linear formulation by A. Gordon, A. Huxley and F. Julian in 1966, a variety of structurally distinguishable FLR models have been developed. Five decades later, the original idea was taken up to derive the first purely physiological FLR formulation, based on sliding filament and cross-bridge theory. This derivation offers us the opportunity to contrast a broad variety of 19 distinct FLR models. By comparing their ability to fit experimental data, we deduce qualitative as well as quantitative acceptance criteria such as symmetry, normalization, complexity, and physiological interpretability. Resultant, different models comprise different advantages. The new piece-wise linear model is the overall most favorable, a further piece-wise exponential model is mathematically more robust, a polynomial model of fourth order has the best optimization properties, and a certain purely exponential model is the computationally cheapest. This work gives a detailed overview, as well as a mathematical/physiological assessment of existing FLR models, and serves as a guideline for modelers to choose a proper formulation based on individual requirements. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Sternbeck A.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
EPJ Web of Conferences | Year: 2017

We review lattice calculations of the elementary Greens functions of QCD with a special emphasis on the Landau gauge. These lattice results have been of interest to continuum approaches to QCD over the past 20 years. They are used as reference for Dyson-Schwinger- and functional renormalization group equation calculations as well as for hadronic bound state equations. The lattice provides low-energy data for propagators and three-point vertices in Landau gauge at zero and finite temperature even including dynamical fermions. We summarize Michael Müller-Preußker's important contributions to this field and put them into the perspective of his other research interests. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

Hinze T.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Hinze T.,Sudan University of Science and Technology
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2017

Biological information processing and maintenance of life mainly utilise dynamical structures at different levels from a nanoscopic up to a macroscopic scale. Providing a high degree of reliability, reproducibility, unambiguousness, and addressability, underlying compositional processes appear as ideal candidates to perform computational tasks in a discretised manner. In this essay, we consider four levels in which dynamical structures enable an efficient handling with information: (1) the molecular level, (2) the level of reaction network modules, (3) the level of membranes, and (4) the level of higher-order organisms and populations. All of them have in common the capability of controlled memory-based state transitions and hence dedicated systems’s configurations encoding behavioural patterns. Due to its discrete algebraic nature, membrane systems represent advantageous frameworks in order to formalise corresponding activities. This in turn paves the way towards efficient tools inspired by nature with manifold smart applications in engineering, computer science, and systems biology. We illustrate membrane system’s abilities, benefits, and progress for coping with dynamical structures from an integrative perspective. © Springer International Publishing AG 2017.

Liehr T.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
European Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2017

Tremendous progress in genetics and genomics led to a wide range of healthcare providers, genetic tests, and more patients who can benefit from these developments. To guarantee and improve the quality of genetic testing, a unified European-based registration for individuals qualified in biomedicine was realized. Therefore a Europe-wide recognition of the profession ‘European registered Clinical Laboratory Geneticist (ErCLG)’ based on a syllabus of core competences was established which allows for harmonization in professional education. The ‘European Board of Medical Genetics division − Clinical Laboratory Geneticist’ provides now since 3 years the possibility to register as an ErCLG. Applicants may be from all European countries and since this year also from outside of Europe. Five subtitles reflect the exact specialty of each ErCLG, who can reregister every 5 years. A previously not possible statistics based on ~300 individuals from 19 countries as holders of an ErCLG title provides interesting insights into the professionals working in human genetics. It could be substantiated that there are around twice as many females than males and that a PhD title was achieved by 80% of registered ErCLGs. Also most ErCLGs are still trained as generalists (66%), followed by such ErCLGs with focus on molecular genetics (23%); the remaining are concentrated either on clinical (6%), tumor (4%) or biochemical genetics (1%). In conclusion, besides MDs and genetic counselors/nurses an EU-wide recognition system for Clinical Laboratory Geneticist has been established, which strengthens the status of specialists working in human genetic diagnostics in Europe and worldwide.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 8 March 2017; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2017.25. © 2017 The Author(s)

Koppe K.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Rothermund K.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry | Year: 2017

Background and objectives Previous studies have demonstrated that clinging to unattainable goals is linked to the onset of depression. The present study investigated whether symptoms of a clinical depression are adaptive in that they facilitate disengagement from unattainable goals. Methods A group of depressive inpatients (n = 40) was compared to a non-depressive control group (n = 38) in regard to how much time they spent on unsolvable anagrams, while controlling for group differences in the time spent on solvable anagrams. Results In line with our hypothesis, depressive inpatients spent less time on unsolvable anagrams. There was no group difference in the time needed to solve the solvable anagrams. Limitations Our study tested disengagement from anagram tasks in the lab in a sample of depressive inpatients and thus may not be representative for contexts of disengagement from personal goals outside the lab or for people with milder or briefer forms of depression. Follow-up questions thus concern the development of goal disengagement processes in everyday life during the course of a major depressive episode. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence for the view that clinical depression, although pathological, might also serve an adaptive function. We discuss possible implications of our findings for psychotherapy. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Hertweck C.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Hertweck C.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Trends in Biochemical Sciences | Year: 2015

Bacterial modular type I polyketide synthases (PKSs) represent giant megasynthases that produce a vast number of complex polyketides, many of which are pharmaceutically relevant. This review highlights recent advances in elucidating the mechanism of bacterial type I PKSs and associated enzymes, and outlines the ramifications of this knowledge for synthetic biology approaches to expand structural diversity. New insights into biosynthetic codes and structures of thiotemplate systems pave the way to rational bioengineering strategies. Through advances in genome mining, DNA recombination technologies, and biochemical analyses, the toolbox of non-canonical polyketide-modifying enzymes has been greatly enlarged. In addition to various chain-branching and chain-fusing enzymes, an increasing set of scaffold modifying biocatalysts is now available for synthetically hard-to-emulate reactions. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Zipfel P.F.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Zipfel P.F.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Hallstrom T.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Riesbeck K.,Lund University
Molecular Immunology | Year: 2013

Complement is a central homeotic system of mammals and represents the first defense line of innate immunity. The human complement system is aimed to maintain homeostasis by recognizing and removing damaged or modified self material, as well as infectious foreign microbes. However, pathogenic microbes also control and escape the host complement and immune attack. The increasing resistance of microbial pathogens to either antibiotics or antifungal drugs is a major health problem and is of global interest. Therefore the topic how pathogenic microbes escape human complement and immune control is of high and of central interest. Identifying and defining the action of proteins involved in this intense immune interaction and understanding how these proteins interact is of relevance to design new control strategies. In this review we summarize the complement system of the human host and how this cascade drives effector functions. In addition, we summarize how diverse pathogenic microbes control, modulate and block the complement response of their host. The characterization of pathogen derived virulence factors and complement escape proteins reveals patterns of multiplicity, diversity and redundancy among pathogen encoded proteins. Sequence variability of immune and also complement escape proteins is largely driven by antigenic diversity and adaptive immunity. However common complement escape principles are, emerging in terms of conserved binding repertoire for host regulators and evasion among the large variety of infectious microbes. These conserved and common escape features are relevant and they provide challenging options for new therapeutic approaches. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Winter J.M.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Behnken S.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Hertweck C.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Hertweck C.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Current Opinion in Chemical Biology | Year: 2011

The massive surge in genome sequencing projects has opened our eyes to the overlooked biosynthetic potential and metabolic diversity of microorganisms. While traditional approaches have been successful at identifying many useful therapeutic agents from these organisms, new tactics are needed in order to exploit their true biosynthetic potential. Several genomics-inspired strategies have been successful in unveiling new metabolites that were overlooked under standard fermentation and detection conditions. In addition, genome sequences have given us valuable insight for genetically engineering biosynthesis gene clusters that remain silent or are poorly expressed in the absence of a specific trigger. As more genome sequences are becoming available, we are noticing the emergence of underexplored or neglected organisms as alternative resources for new therapeutic agents. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Losse J.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Zipfel P.F.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Zipfel P.F.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Jozsi M.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology
Journal of Immunology | Year: 2010

The host complement system plays an important role in protection against infections. Several human-pathogenic microbes were shown to acquire host complement regulators, such as factor H (CFH), that downregulate complement activation at the microbial surface and protect the pathogens from the opsonic and lytic effects of complement. Because CFH can also bind to host cells, we addressed the role of CFH and CFH-related proteins as adhesion ligands in host-pathogen interactions. We show that the CFH family proteins CFH, CFH-like protein 1 (CFHL1), CFH-related protein (CFHR) 1, and CFHR4 long isoform bind to human neutrophil granulocytes and to the opportunistic human-pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Two major binding sites, one within the Nterminus and one in the C-terminus of CFH, were found to mediate binding to neutrophils. Complement receptor 3 (CD11b/ CD18; αMβ2 integrin) was identified as the major cellular receptor on neutrophils for CFH, CFHL1, and CFHR1, but not for CFHR4 long isoform. CFH and CFHR1 supported cell migration. Furthermore, CFH, CFHL1, and CFHR1 increased attachment of neutrophils to C. albicans. Adhesion of neutrophils to plasma-opsonized yeasts was reduced when CFH binding was inhibited by specific Abs or when using CFH-depleted plasma. Yeast-bound CFH and CFHR1 enhanced the generation of reactive oxygen species and the release of the antimicrobial protein lactoferrin by human neutrophils, and resulted in a more efficient killing of the pathogen. Thus, CFH and CFHR1, when bound on the surface of C. albicans, enhance antimicrobial activity of human neutrophils. Copyright © 2010 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

Karbstein F.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Karbstein F.,Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

We revisit the photon polarization tensor in a homogeneous external magnetic or electric field. The starting point of our considerations is the momentum space representation of the one-loop photon polarization tensor in the presence of a homogeneous electromagnetic field, known in terms of a double parameter integral. Our focus is on explicit analytical insights for both on- and off-the-light-cone dynamics in a wide range of well-specified physical parameter regimes, ranging from the perturbative to the manifestly nonperturbative strong field regime. The basic ideas underlying well-established approximations to the photon polarization tensor are carefully examined and critically reviewed. In particular, we systematically keep track of all contributions, both the ones to be neglected and those to be taken into account explicitly, to all orders. This allows us to study their ranges of applicability in a much more systematic and rigorous way. We point out the limitations of such approximations and manage to go beyond at several instances. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Berge L.,CEA DAM Ile-de-France | Skupin S.,Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems | Skupin S.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Kohler C.,CEA DAM Ile-de-France | And 3 more authors.
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

Terahertz (THz) radiation produced by the filamentation of two-color pulses over long distances in argon is numerically investigated using a comprehensive model in full space-time-resolved geometry. We show that the dominant physical mechanism for THz generation in the filamentation regime at clamping intensity is based on quasi-dc plasma currents. The calculated THz spectra for different pump pulse energies and pulse durations are in agreement with previously reported experimental observations. For the same pulse parameters, near-infrared pump pulses at 2 μm are shown to generate a more than 1 order of magnitude greater THz yield than pumps centered at 800 nm. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Jaranowski P.,University of Bialystok | Schafer G.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

The article delivers the only still unknown coefficient in the 4th post-Newtonian energy expression for binary point masses on circular orbits as a function of orbital angular frequency. Apart from a single coefficient, which is known solely numerically, all the coefficients are given as exact numbers. The shown Hamiltonian is presented in the center-of-mass frame and out of its 57 coefficients, 51 are given fully explicitly. Those coefficients are six coefficients more than previously achieved [P. Jaranowski and G. Schäfer, Phys. Rev. D 86, 061503(R) (2012)PRVDAQ1550-7998]. The local divergences in the point-mass model are uniquely controlled by the method of dimensional regularization. As an application, the last stable circular orbit is determined as a function of the symmetric-mass-ratio parameter. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Voigt K.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Voigt K.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Kirk P.M.,CABI UK Center
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2011

The goal of modern taxonomy is to understand the relationships of living organisms in terms of evolutionary descent. Thereby, the relationships between living organisms are understood in terms of nested clades-every time a speciation event takes place, two new clades are produced. Life comprises three domains of living organisms, these are the Bacteria, the Archaea and the Eukaryota. Within the eukaryotic domain, the fungi form a monophyletic group of the eukaryotic crown group and are thus high up in the evolutionary hierarchy of life. Fungus-like organisms possess certain morphological features of fungi, such as the hyphal organization of the Oomycota or the spores and reproductive structures inside a fructification of plasmodiophorids (Plasmodiophoromycota) and slime moulds (Mycetozoa). The first group are algae which secondarily lost their plastids during evolution and contain cellulose in their cell walls. Both osmotrophic phyla, the Oomycota and the Plasmidiophoromycota belong to the Chromista and Rhizaria, respectively, whereas the last group, the cellular and plasmodial slime moulds (Mycetozoa) are phagotrophic amoeboid protists belonging to the Amoebozoa. These fungus-like organisms are not considered further in this review. The Fungi sensu stricto comprise a heterogenous, often inconspicuous group of microorganisms which (1) are primarily heterotrophic with an (2) osmotrophic style of nutrition containing (3) chitin and its derivatives in the cell wall. This review discusses species concepts and current strategies in fungal taxonomy, phylogenetic affiliations of miscellaneous fungus-like groups like the microsporidia, perspectives of fungal nomenclature, and their impact on natural product research. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Brakhage A.A.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Brakhage A.A.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Schroeckh V.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology
Fungal Genetics and Biology | Year: 2011

Filamentous fungi produce a multitude of low molecular weight bioactive compounds. The increasing number of fungal genome sequences impressively demonstrated that their biosynthetic potential is far from being exploited. In fungi, the genes required for the biosynthesis of a secondary metabolite are clustered. Many of these bioinformatically newly discovered secondary metabolism gene clusters are silent under standard laboratory conditions. Consequently, no product can be found. This review summarizes the current strategies that have been successfully applied during the last years to activate these silent gene clusters in filamentous fungi, especially in the genus Aspergillus.The techniques take advantage of genome mining, vary from the simple search for compounds with bioinformatically predicted physicochemical properties up to methods that exploit a probable interaction of microorganisms. Until now, the majority of successful approaches have been based on molecular biology like the generation of gene " knock outs" , promoter exchange, overexpression of transcription factors or other pleiotropic regulators. Moreover, strategies based on epigenetics opened a new avenue for the elucidation of the regulation of secondary metabolite formation and will certainly continue to play a significant role for the elucidation of cryptic natural products. The conditions under which a given gene cluster is naturally expressed are largely unknown. One technique is to attempt to simulate the natural habitat by co-cultivation of microorganisms from the same ecosystem. This has already led to the activation of silent gene clusters and the identification of novel compounds in Aspergillus nidulans. These simulation strategies will help discover new natural products in the future, and may also provide fundamental new insights into microbial communication. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Behrens A.,Cancer Research UK Research Institute | Behrens A.,King's College London | Van Deursen J.M.,Rochester College | Rudolph K.L.,Leibniz Institute for Age Research | And 3 more authors.
Nature Cell Biology | Year: 2014

Impairment of stem cell function contributes to the progressive deterioration of tissue maintenance and repair with ageing. Evidence is mounting that age-dependent accumulation of DNA damage in both stem cells and cells that comprise the stem cell microenvironment are partly responsible for stem cell dysfunction with ageing. Here, we review the impact of the various types of DNA damage that accumulate with ageing on stem cell functionality, as well as the development of cancer. We discuss DNA-damage-induced cell intrinsic and extrinsic alterations that influence these processes, and review recent advances in understanding systemic adjustments to DNA damage and how they affect stem cells. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Wagner M.,University of Adelaide | Friedrich T.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
2013 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, CEC 2013 | Year: 2013

The Pareto front of a multi-objective optimization problem is typically very large and can only be approximated. Approximation-Guided Evolution (AGE) is a recently presented evolutionary multi-objective optimization algorithm that aims at minimizing iteratively the approximation factor, which measures how well the current population approximates the Pareto front. It outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms for problems with many objectives. However, AGE's performance is not competitive on problems with very few objectives. We study the reason for this behavior and observe that AGE selects parents uniformly at random, which has a detrimental effect on its performance. We then investigate different algorithm-specific selection strategies for AGE. The main difficulty here is finding a computationally efficient selection scheme which does not harm AGEs linear runtime in the number of objectives. We present several improved selections schemes that are computationally efficient and substantially improve AGE on low-dimensional objective spaces, but have no negative effect in high-dimensional objective spaces. © 2013 IEEE.

Williams-Carrier R.,University of Oregon | Zoschke R.,University of Oregon | Belcher S.,University of Oregon | Pfalz J.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Barkan A.,University of Oregon
Plant Physiology | Year: 2014

Chloroplast transcription in land plants relies on collaboration between a plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP) of cyanobacterial ancestry and a nucleus-encoded RNA polymerase of phage ancestry. PEP associates with additional proteins that are unrelated to bacterial transcription factors, many of which have been shown to be important for PEP activity in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, the biochemical roles of these PEP-associated proteins are not known. We describe phenotypes conditioned by transposon insertions in genes encoding the maize (Zea mays) orthologs of five such proteins: ZmPTAC2, ZmMurE, ZmPTAC10, ZmPTAC12, and ZmPRIN2. These mutants have similar ivory/virescent pigmentation and similar reductions in plastid ribosomes and photosynthetic complexes. RNA gel-blot and microarray hybridizations revealed numerous changes in plastid transcript populations, many of which resemble those reported for the orthologous mutants in Arabidopsis. However, unanticipated reductions in the abundance of numerous transfer RNAs (tRNAs) dominated the microarray data and were validated on RNA gel blots. The magnitude of the deficiencies for several tRNAs was similar to that of the most severely affected messenger RNAs, with the loss of trnL-UAA being particularly severe. These findings suggest that PEP and its associated proteins are critical for the robust transcription of numerous plastid tRNAs and that this function is essential for the prodigious translation of plastid-encoded proteins that is required during the installation of the photosynthetic apparatus. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

Chakraborty P.,Leibniz Institute for Age Research | Grosse F.,Leibniz Institute for Age Research | Grosse F.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
DNA Repair | Year: 2011

Human DHX9 helicase, also known as nuclear DNA helicase II (NDH II) and RNA helicase A (RHA), belongs to the SF2 superfamily of nucleic acid unwinding enzymes. DHX9 melts simple DNA-DNA, RNA-RNA, and DNA-RNA strands with a 3′-5′ polarity; despite this little is known about its substrate specificity. Here, we used partial duplex DNA consisting of M13mp18 DNA and oligonucleotide-based replication and recombination intermediates. We show that DHX9 unwinds DNA- and RNA-containing forks, DNA- and RNA-containing displacement loops (D- and R-loops), and also G-quadruplexes. With these substrates, DHX9 behaved similarly as the RecQ helicase WRN. In contrast to WRN, DHX9 melted RNA-hybrids considerably faster than the corresponding DNA-DNA strands. DHX9 preferably unwound R-loops and DNA-based G-quadruplexes indicating that these structures may be biologically relevant. DHX9 also unwound RNA-based G-quadruplexes that have been reported to occur in human transcripts. It is believed that an improper dissolution of co-transcriptionally formed D-loops, R-loops, and DNA- or RNA-based G-quadruplexes represent potential roadblocks for transcription and thereby enhance transcription associated recombination events. By unwinding these structures, DHX9 may significantly contribute to transcriptional activation and also to the maintenance of genomic stability. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Kusari S.,TU Dortmund | Hertweck C.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Hertweck C.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Spiteller M.,TU Dortmund
Chemistry and Biology | Year: 2012

Endophytes constitute a remarkably multifarious group of microorganisms ubiquitous in plants and maintain an imperceptible association with their hosts for at least a part of their life cycle. Their enormous biological diversity coupled with their capability to biosynthesize bioactive secondary metabolites has provided the impetus for a number of investigations on endophytes. Here, we highlight the possible current and future strategies of understanding the chemical communication of endophytic fungi with other endophytes (fungi and bacteria) and with their host plants, which might not only allow the discovery and sustainable production of desirable natural products but also other mostly overlooked bioactive secondary metabolites. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

Xu Z.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Baunach M.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Ding L.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Hertweck C.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Hertweck C.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2012

Getting indole terpenes into shape: Genetic analysis, pathway dissection, and heterologous reconstitution provide first insights into bacterial indolosesquiterpenoid biosynthesis and unveil the involvement of a new type of terpene cyclase and an indole oxygenase in the formation of indosespene, xiamycin, and sespenine ring systems. Furthermore, heterologous pathway expression led to the discovery of C-C- and C-N-linked xiamycin dimers. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Pollmacher J.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Pollmacher J.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Figge M.T.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Figge M.T.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2015

The ubiquitous airborne fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus is inhaled by humans every day. In the lung, it is able to quickly adapt to the humid environment and, if not removed within a time frame of 4-8 h, the pathogen may cause damage by germination and invasive growth. Applying a to-scale agent-based model of human alveoli to simulate early A. fumigatus infection under physiological conditions, we recently demonstrated that alveolar macrophages require chemotactic cues to accomplish the task of pathogen detection within the aforementioned time frame. The objective of this study is to specify our general prediction on the as yet unidentified chemokine by a quantitative analysis of its expected properties, such as the diffusion coefficient and the rates of secretion and degradation. To this end, the rule-based implementation of chemokine diffusion in the initial agent-based model is revised by numerically solving the spatio-temporal reaction-diffusion equation in the complex structure of the alveolus. In this hybrid agent-based model, alveolar macrophages are represented as migrating agents that are coupled to the interactive layer of diffusing molecule concentrations by the kinetics of chemokine receptor binding, internalization and re-expression. Performing simulations for more than a million virtual infection scenarios, we find that the ratio of secretion rate to the diffusion coefficient is the main indicator for the success of pathogen detection. Moreover, a subdivision of the parameter space into regimes of successful and unsuccessful parameter combination by this ratio is specific for values of the migration speed and the directional persistence time of alveolar macrophages, but depends only weakly on chemokine degradation rates. © 2015 Pollmächer and Figge.

Kiefer T.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Schlegel T.,Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research
Physics of Plasmas | Year: 2012

It is shown that the hydrodynamic model of a one-dimensional collisionless plasma expansion is contained in the kinetic description as a special case. This belongs to a specific choice for the electron distribution function. Moreover, the consequences of the use of the hydrodynamic approach regarding the temporal evolution of the electron phase space density are investigated. It turns out that only the case of a hydrodynamic description with the adiabatic constant κ 3 is physically self-consistent. Numerical simulations confirm this argumentation. The analysis for the case κ 3 is extended to the kinetics of a relativistic electron gas. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

Gruber R.,Leibniz Institute for Age Research | Gruber R.,Cancer Research UK Research Institute | Zhou Z.,Leibniz Institute for Age Research | Sukchev M.,Leibniz Institute for Age Research | And 4 more authors.
Nature Cell Biology | Year: 2011

Primary microcephaly 1 is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the MCPH1 gene, whose product MCPH1 (also known as microcephalin and BRIT1) regulates DNA-damage response. Here we show that Mcph1 disruption in mice results in primary microcephaly, mimicking human MCPH1 symptoms, owing to a premature switching of neuroprogenitors from symmetric to asymmetric division. MCPH1-deficiency abrogates the localization of Chk1 to centrosomes, causing premature Cdk1 activation and early mitotic entry, which uncouples mitosis and the centrosome cycle. This misorients the mitotic spindle alignment and shifts the division plane of neuroprogenitors, to bias neurogenic cell fate. Silencing Cdc25b, a centrosome substrate of Chk1, corrects MCPH1-deficiency-induced spindle misalignment and rescues the premature neurogenic production in Mcph1-knockout neocortex. Thus, MCPH1, through its function in the Chk1-Cdc25-Cdk1 pathway to couple the centrosome cycle with mitosis, is required for precise mitotic spindle orientation and thereby regulates the progenitor division mode to maintain brain size. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Ishida K.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Lincke T.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Hertweck C.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Hertweck C.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2012

Decoded before decay: Cryptic and highly unstable polyketide metabolites, thailandamidesA and B, were isolated from Burkholderia thailandensis, and their absolute configurations fully elucidated using a combination of chemical degradation, bioinformatics, NMR spectroscopy, precursor-directed biosynthesis, and analysis of pathway intermediates (see scheme). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Scherlach K.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Busch B.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Lackner G.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Paszkowski U.,University of Lausanne | And 2 more authors.
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2012

Division of labor: A combination of genetic, microbial, and chemical analyses solved the riddle of the dual epoxidation in the biosynthesis of rhizoxin, the causative agent of rice seedling blight. Bacterial endosymbionts of Rhizopus microsporus mediate the first epoxidation by a dedicated cytochrome P450 monooxygenase. The second oxirane ring is introduced by the fungal host and results in a substantially increased potency of the phytotoxin. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Lackner G.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Moebius N.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Hertweck C.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Hertweck C.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
ISME Journal | Year: 2011

Burkholderia rhizoxinica and Rhizopus microsporus form a unique symbiosis in which intracellular bacteria produce the virulence factor of the phytopathogenic fungus. Notably, the host strictly requires endobacteria to sporulate. In this study, we show that the endofungal bacteria possess a type III secretion system (T3SS), which has a crucial role in the maintenance of the alliance. Mutants defective in type III secretion show reduced intracellular survival and fail to elicit sporulation of the host. Furthermore, genes coding for T3SS components are upregulated during cocultivation of the bacterial symbiont with their host. This is the first report on a T3SS involved in bacterial-fungal symbiosis. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the T3SS represents a prototype of a clade of yet uncharacterized T3SSs within the hrp superfamily of T3SSs from plant pathogenic microorganisms. In a control experiment, we demonstrate that under laboratory conditions, rhizoxin production was not required for establishment of the symbiotic interaction. © 2011 International Society for Microbial Ecology All rights reserved.

Voigt A.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Schofl G.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Saluz H.P.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Saluz H.P.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: Chlamydiaceae are a family of obligate intracellular pathogens causing a wide range of diseases in animals and humans, and facing unique evolutionary constraints not encountered by free-living prokaryotes. To investigate genomic aspects of infection, virulence and host preference we have sequenced Chlamydia psittaci, the pathogenic agent of ornithosis. Results: A comparison of the genome of the avian Chlamydia psittaci isolate 6BC with the genomes of other chlamydial species, C. trachomatis, C. muridarum, C. pneumoniae, C. abortus, C. felis and C. caviae, revealed a high level of sequence conservation and synteny across taxa, with the major exception of the human pathogen C. trachomatis. Important differences manifest in the polymorphic membrane protein family specific for the Chlamydiae and in the highly variable chlamydial plasticity zone. We identified a number of psittaci-specific polymorphic membrane proteins of the G family that may be related to differences in host-range and/or virulence as compared to closely related Chlamydiaceae. We calculated non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rate ratios for pairs of orthologous genes to identify putative targets of adaptive evolution and predicted type III secreted effector proteins. Conclusions: This study is the first detailed analysis of the Chlamydia psittaci genome sequence. It provides insights in the genome architecture of C. psittaci and proposes a number of novel candidate genes mostly of yet unknown function that may be important for pathogen-host interactions. © 2012 Voigt et al.

Behnken S.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Hertweck C.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Hertweck C.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Modular type I polyketide synthases (PKS) produce a vast array of bacterial metabolites with highly diverse biological functions. Notably, all known polyketides were isolated from aerobic bacteria, and yet no example has been reported for strict anaerobes. In this study we explored the diversity and distribution of PKS genes in the genus Clostridium. In addition to comparative genomic analyses combined with predictions of modular type I polyketide synthase (PKS) gene clusters in sequenced genomes of Clostridium spp., a representative selection of other species inhabiting a variety of ecological niches was investigated by PCR screening for PKS genes. Our data reveal that all studied pathogenic Clostridium spp. are devoid of putative PKS genes. In stark contrast, cryptic PKS genes are widespread in genomes of non-pathogenic Clostridium species. According to phylogenetic analyses, the Clostridium PKS genes have unusual and diverse origins. However, reverse transcription quantitative PCR demonstrates that these genes are silent under standard cultivation conditions, explaining why the related metabolites have been overlooked until now. This study presents clostridia as a putative source for novel bioactive polyketides. © 2012 Behnken, Hertweck.

Seider K.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Heyken A.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Luttich A.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Miramon P.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | And 2 more authors.
Current Opinion in Microbiology | Year: 2010

Pathogenic yeasts, either from the environment or the normal flora, have to face phagocytic cells that constitute the first line of defence during infection. In order to evade or counteract attack by phagocytes, pathogenic yeasts have acquired a repertoire of strategies to survive, colonize and infect the host. In this review we focus on the interaction of yeasts, such as Candida, Histoplasma or Cryptococcus species, with macrophages or neutrophils. We discuss strategies used by these fungi to prevent phagocytosis or to counteract phagocytic activities. We go on to describe the strategies that permit intracellular survival within phagocytes and that may eventually lead to damage of and escape from the phagocyte. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Zurch M.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Kern C.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Hansinger P.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Dreischuh A.,Sofia University | And 2 more authors.
Nature Physics | Year: 2012

Light beams carrying a point singularity with a screw-type phase distribution are associated with an optical vortex. The corresponding momentum flow leads to an orbital angular momentum of the photons 1-3. The study of optical vortices has led to applications such as particle micro-manipulation 4,5, imaging 6, interferometry 7, quantum information 8 and high-resolution microscopy and lithography 9. Recent analyses showed that transitions forbidden by selection rules seem to be allowed when using optical vortex beams 10. To exploit these intriguing new applications, it is often necessary to shorten the wavelength by nonlinear frequency conversion. However, during the conversion the optical vortices tend to break up 11-13. Here we show that optical vortices can be generated in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) region using high-harmonic generation 14-15. The singularity impressed on the fundamental beam survives the highly nonlinear process. Vortices in the XUV region have the same phase distribution as the driving field, which is in contradiction to previous findings 16, where multiplication of the momentum by the harmonic order is expected. This approach opens the way for several applications based on vortex beams in the XUV region. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Franke J.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Ishida K.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Ishida-Ito M.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Hertweck C.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Hertweck C.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

The elusive structure of malleobactin, a virulence factor of pathogens belonging to the Burkholderia mallei family, was finally unveiled by genetic and chemical analyses. The novel nitro-substituted siderophore is derived from an unusual, unprotected hydroxylamine, which undergoes spontaneous oxidation, as shown by in vitro assays and detection of analogues featuring hydroxylamino, nitroso, and azoxide groups. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Franke J.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Ishida K.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Hertweck C.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Hertweck C.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2012

Biosynthetic secrets unveiled: Targeted promoter exchange in a cryptic biosynthesis gene cluster conserved among certain pathogenic Burkholderia species yielded a highly unstable, structurally unprecedented polyketide, burkholderic acid (1). Labeling experiments, gene knock-outs, and bioinformatics analyses grant first insights into a fascinating polyketide pathway. BurA is an unusual nonribosomal peptide synthetase/polyketide synthase featuring internal thioesterase domains. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Baunach M.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Ding L.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Bruhn T.,University of Würzburg | Bringmann G.,University of Würzburg | And 2 more authors.
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

Radical diversification: Through the discovery of diverse indolosesquiterpene dimers in a strain heterologously expressing the xiamycin biosynthesis genes, the analysis of mutants, and biotransformation studies, it has been inferred that a single flavoprotein mediates N-C and N-N aryl coupling reactions, as well as the formation of a cyclic ether (oxiamycin). Synthetic emulation of this unusual transformation provides evidence for a radical-based mechanism. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Wessely F.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Wessely F.,University of Nottingham | Bartl M.,TU Ilmenau | Guthke R.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Systems Biology | Year: 2011

While previous studies have shed light on the link between the structure of metabolism and its transcriptional regulation, the extent to which transcriptional regulation controls metabolism has not yet been fully explored. In this work, we address this problem by integrating a large number of experimental data sets with a model of the metabolism of Escherichia coli. Using a combination of computational tools including the concept of elementary flux patterns, methods from network inference and dynamic optimization, we find that transcriptional regulation of pathways reflects the protein investment into these pathways. While pathways that are associated to a high protein cost are controlled by fine-tuned transcriptional programs, pathways that only require a small protein cost are transcriptionally controlled in a few key reactions. As a reason for the occurrence of these different regulatory strategies, we identify an evolutionary trade-off between the conflicting requirements to reduce protein investment and the requirement to be able to respond rapidly to changes in environmental conditions. © 2011 EMBO and Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Damour T.,Institute des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques | Jaranowski P.,University of Bialystok | Schafer G.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2016

The fourth post-Newtonian (4PN) two-body dynamics has been recently tackled by several different approaches: effective field theory, Arnowitt-Deser-Misner Hamiltonian, action-angle-Delaunay averaging, effective-one-body, gravitational self-force, first law of dynamics, and Fokker action. We review the achievements of these approaches and discuss the complementarity of their results. Our main conclusions are: (i) the results of the first complete derivation of the 4PN dynamics [T. Damour, P. Jaranowski, and G. Schäfer, Phys. Rev. D 89, 064058 (2014)] have been, piecewise, fully confirmed by several subsequent works; (ii) the results of the Delaunay-averaging technique [T. Damour, P. Jaranowski, and G. Schäfer, Phys. Rev. D 91, 084024 (2015)] have been confirmed by several independent works; and (iii) several claims in a recent harmonic-coordinates Fokker-action computation [L. Bernard et al., arXiv:1512.02876v2] are incorrect, but can be corrected by the addition of a couple of ambiguity parameters linked to subtleties in the regularization of infrared and ultraviolet divergences. © 2016 American Physical Society.

Brand P.,Leibniz Institute for Age Research | Lenser T.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Hemmerich P.,Leibniz Institute for Age Research
PMC Biophysics | Year: 2010

The mammalian cell nucleus contains a variety of organelles or nuclear bodies which contribute to key nuclear functions. Promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML NBs) are involved in the regulation of apoptosis, antiviral responses, the DNA damage response and chromatin structure, but their precise biochemical function in these nuclear pathways is unknown. One strategy to tackle this problem is to assess the biophysical properties of the component parts of these macromolecular assemblies in living cells. In this study we determined PML NB assembly dynamics by live cell imaging, combined with mathematical modeling. For the first time, dynamics of PML body formation were measured in cells lacking endogenous PML. We show that all six human nuclear PML isoforms are able to form nuclear bodies in PML negative cells. All isoforms exhibit individual exchange rates at NBs in PML positive cells but PML I, II, III and IV are static at nuclear bodies in PML negative cells, suggesting that these isoforms require additional protein partners for efficient exchange. PML V turns over at PML Nbs very slowly supporting the idea of a structural function for this isoform. We also demonstrate that SUMOylation of PML at Lysine positions K160 and/or K490 are required for nuclear body formation in vivo.We propose a model in which the isoform specific residence times of PML provide both, structural stability to function as a scaffold and flexibility to attract specific nuclear proteins for efficient biochemical reactions at the surface of nuclear bodies. © 2010 Brand et al.

Behnken S.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Hertweck C.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Hertweck C.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2012

Anaerobic bacteria are the oldest terrestrial creatures. They occur ubiquitously in soil and in the intestine of higher organisms and play a major role in human health, ecology, and industry. However, until lately no antibiotic or any other secondary metabolite has been known from anaerobes. Mining the genome sequences of Clostridium spp. has revealed a high prevalence of putative biosynthesis genes (PKS and NRPS), and only recently the first antibiotic from the anaerobic world, closthioamide, has been isolated from the cellulose degrading bacterium Clostridium cellulolyticum. The successful genetic induction of antibiotic biosynthesis in an anaerobe encourages further investigations of obligate anaerobes to tap their hidden biosynthetic potential. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Kohlfurst C.,University of Graz | Kohlfurst C.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Gies H.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Gies H.,Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research | Alkofer R.,University of Graz
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014

Electron-positron pair production in oscillating electric fields is investigated in the nonperturbative threshold regime. Accurate numerical solutions of quantum kinetic theory for corresponding observables are presented and analyzed in terms of a proposed model for an effective mass of electrons and positrons acquired within the given strong electric field. Although this effective mass cannot provide an exact description of the collective interaction of a charged particle with the strong field, physical observables are identified which carry direct and sensitive signatures of the effective mass. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Reissig A.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Copetti R.,San Antonio Abate Hospital | Kroegel C.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2011

Objective: Chest sonography has gained clinical significance in the diagnosis of various pulmonary, pleural, cardiac, and mediastinal emergency conditions. Therefore, the current role of emergency ultrasound are assessed. Data Source: A systematic literature search of MEDLINE database was performed to identify all studies dealing with transthoracic sonography/chest ultrasound in combination with pulmonary embolism, pneumothorax, pneumonia, pleural effusion, pulmonary edema, and lung contusion. The relevant sonographic studies between 1988 and 2010 were evaluated. Conclusions: The noninvasive ultrasound-based diagnosis is relatively portable permitting the technique to be performed at any time, in any place, and on any patient, an ideal method for emergency conditions. Sonography allows immediate diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, pneumothorax, pneumonia, pleural effusion as well as rib fracture, and it provides a basis for further diagnostic- and treatment-related decisions. The key sonographic features associated with these most common emergency chest diseases are illustrated herein. Copyright © 2011 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Baumgartner K.,University of California at Davis | Coetzee M.P.A.,University of Pretoria | Hoffmeister D.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Molecular Plant Pathology | Year: 2011

Armillaria root disease affects fruit and nut crops, timber trees and ornamentals in boreal, temperate and tropical regions of the world. The causal pathogens are members of the genus Armillaria (Basidiomycota, Physalacriaceae). This review summarizes the state of knowledge and highlights recent advances in Armillaria research. Taxonomy: Armillaria includes more than 40 morphological species. However, the identification and delineation of species on the basis of morphological characters are problematic, resulting in many species being undetected. Implementation of the biological species' concept and DNA sequence comparisons in the contemporary taxonomy of Armillaria have led to the discovery of a number of new species that are not linked to described morphological species. Host range: Armillaria exhibits a range of symbioses with both plants and fungi. As plant pathogens, Armillaria species have broad host ranges, infecting mostly woody species. Armillaria can also colonize orchids Galeola and Gastrodia but, in this case, the fungus is the host and the plant is the parasite. Similar to its contrasting relationships with plants, Armillaria acts as either host or parasite in its interactions with other fungi. Disease control: Recent research on post-infection controls has revealed promising alternatives to the former pre-plant eradication attempts with soil fumigants, which are now being regulated more heavily or banned outright because of their negative effects on the environment. New study tools for genetic manipulation of the pathogen and characterization of the molecular basis of the host response will greatly advance the development of resistant rootstocks in a new stage of research. The depth of the research, regardless of whether traditional or genomic approaches are used, will depend on a clear understanding of where the different propagules of Armillaria attack a root system, which of the pathogen's diverse biolymer-degrading enzymes and secondary metabolites facilitate infection, and how the course of infection differs between resistant and susceptible hosts. © 2011 BSPP and Blackwell Publishing Ltd. No Claim to Original US Government Works.

Karbstein F.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Karbstein F.,Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2014

We provide a fully analytical determination of the perturbative quark-antiquark static energy in position space as defined by a restricted Fourier transformation from momentum to position space. Such a determination is complicated by the fact that the static energy genuinely decomposes into a strictly perturbative part (made up of contributions ns , with n 2 N) which is conventionally evaluated in momentum space, and a so-called ultrasoft part (including terms n+m s lnm with n 3 and m 2 N) which, conversely, is naturally evaluated in position space. Our approach facilitates the explicit determination of the static energy in position space at the accuracy with which the perturbative potential in momentum space is known, i.e., presently up to order 4 s. © The Authors.

Hertweck C.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Hertweck C.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2011

Two become one: Pyrrolysine, a critical component of several methyltransferases in archaebacteria, is the latest addition to the inventory of genetically encoded amino acids. Studies at the genetic, biochemical, and chemical levels have now revealed that this rare amino acid is assembled from two lysine units via an unusual ε-dipeptide, and is then charged by a designated translational machinery. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Bruhn C.,Leibniz Institute for Age Research | Zhou Z.-W.,Leibniz Institute for Age Research | Ai H.,Leibniz Institute for Age Research | Wang Z.-Q.,Leibniz Institute for Age Research | Wang Z.-Q.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Cell Reports | Year: 2014

The MRN complex (Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1) is important in double-strand break (DSB) recognition, end resection, replication fork stabilization, and ATM and ATR activation. Complete deletion of MRN is incompatiblewith cell and organism life, presumably dueto replication-born DSBs; however, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. We devised anoninvasive high-content assay, termed high-content microscopy- assisted cell-cycle phenotyping (hiMAC), to investigate the fate of cells lacking Nbs1. Surprisingly, deletion of Nbs1 does not kill cells during replication. The primary lesions in Nbs1-deleted cells are replication intermediates that result from defective resolution rather than fork destabilization. These lesions are converted to DSBs in the subsequent G2 phase, which subsequently activate Chk1, delay G2 progression, and lead to chromosome instability. Nbs1-deleted cells establish a DSB equilibrium that permits cell cycling but activates p53, causing G1 and G2 arrest, and cell death. Thus, we identify a physiological role of Nbs1 in the resolution of stalled replication forks. © 2014 The Authors.

Sugimoto Y.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Ding L.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Ishida K.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Hertweck C.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Hertweck C.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2014

The unusual nitro-substituted polyketides aureothin, neoaureothin (spectinabilin), and luteoreticulin, which are produced by diverse Streptomyces species, point to a joint evolution. Through rational genetic recombination and domain exchanges we have successfully reprogrammed the modular (type I) aur polyketide synthase (PKS) into a synthase that generates luteoreticulin. This is the first rational transformation of a modular PKS to produce a complex polyketide that was initially isolated from a different bacterium. A unique aspect of this synthetic biology approach is that we exclusively used genes from a single biosynthesis gene cluster to design the artificial pathway, an avenue that likely emulates natural evolutionary processes. Furthermore, an unexpected, context-dependent switch in the regiospecificity of a pyrone methyl transferase was observed. We also describe an unprecedented scenario where an AT domain iteratively loads an extender unit onto the cognate ACP and the downstream ACP. This aberrant function is a novel case of non-colinear behavior of PKS domains. Transformers: Through genetic reprogramming, the aureothin pathway was gradually morphed into an assembly line for luteoreticulin. The first rational conversion of a complex polyketide into another natural product emulates a probable evolutionary scenario. This study also reveals the unprecedented iterative use of an acyl transferase domain and a context-dependent switch in the regioselectivity of a pyrone methyltransferase. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Damour T.,Institute des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques | Jaranowski P.,University of Bialystok | Schafer G.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015

The conservative dynamics of gravitationally interacting two-point-mass systems has been recently determined at the fourth post-Newtonian (4PN) approximation [T. Damour, P. Jaranowski, and G. Schäfer, Phys. Rev. D 89, 064058 (2014)], and found to be nonlocal in time. We show how to transcribe this dynamics within the effective one-body (EOB) formalism. To achieve this EOB transcription, we develop a new strategy involving the (infinite-)order-reduction of a nonlocal dynamics to an ordinary action-angle Hamiltonian. Our final, equivalent EOB dynamics comprises two (local) radial potentials, A(r) and D¯(r), and a nongeodesic mass-shell contribution Q(r,pr) given by an infinite series of even powers of the radial momentum pr. Using an effective action technique, we complete our 4PN-level results by deriving two different, higher-order conservative contributions linked to tail-transported hereditary effects: the 5PN-level EOB logarithmic terms, as well as the 5.5PN-level, half-integral terms. We compare our improved analytical knowledge to previous, numerical gravitational-self-force computation of precession effects. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Gow N.A.R.,University of Aberdeen | Hube B.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Hube B.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Hube B.,Center for Sepsis Control and Care
Current Opinion in Microbiology | Year: 2012

An imbalance of the normal microbial flora, breakage of epithelial barriers or dysfunction of the immune system favour the transition of the human pathogenic yeast Candida albicans from a commensal to a pathogen. C. albicans has evolved to be adapted as a commensal on mucosal surfaces. As a commensal it has also acquired attributes, which are necessary to avoid or overcome the host defence mechanisms. The human host has also co-evolved to recognize and eliminate potential fungal invaders. Many of the fungal genes that have been the focus of this co-evolutionary process encode cell wall components. In this review, we will discuss the transition from commensalism to pathogenesis, the key players of the fungal cell surface that are important for this transition, the role of the morphology and the mechanisms of host recognition and response. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Baunach M.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Franke J.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Hertweck C.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Hertweck C.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2015

(Chemical Equation Presented) Terpene and terpenoid cyclizations are counted among the most complex chemical reactions occurring in nature and contribute crucially to the tremendous structural diversity of this largest family of natural products. Many studies were conducted at the chemical, genetic, and biochemical levels to gain mechanistic insights into these intriguing reactions that are catalyzed by terpene and terpenoid cyclases. A myriad of these enzymes have been characterized. Classical textbook knowledge divides terpene/terpenoid cyclases into two major classes according to their structure and reaction mechanism. However, recent discoveries of novel types of terpenoid cyclases illustrate that nature's enzymatic repertoire is far more diverse than initially thought. This Review outlines novel terpenoid cyclases that are out of the ordinary. © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

Hertweck C.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Hertweck C.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2015

An end to suffering: Parasitic infections with protozoa and worms cause unimaginable misery, in particular in the tropics. Fortunately, natural products, such as the antimalarial artemisinin (1) and the anthelmintic avermectin (2) were discovered and developed into therapeutics. These major achievements now culminated in the 2015 Nobel Prize for Medicine. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Pfalz J.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Pfannschmidt T.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Pfannschmidt T.,CEA Grenoble
Trends in Plant Science | Year: 2013

The plastid transcription machinery can be biochemically purified at different organisational levels as soluble RNA polymerase, transcriptionally active chromosome, or nucleoid. Recent proteomic studies have uncovered several novel proteins in these structures and functional genomic studies have indicated that a lack of many of these proteins results in chlorotic phenotypes of varying degree. The most severe cases exhibit complete albino phenotypes, which led to the conclusion that the proteins that were lacking had important regulatory roles in plastid gene expression and chloroplast development. In this opinion article, we propose an alternative model in which the structural establishment of a transcriptional subdomain within the nucleoid represents an early developmental bottleneck that leads to abortion of proper chloroplast biogenesis if disturbed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Schmidt G.W.,University of Adelaide | Schmidt G.W.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Delaney S.K.,University of Adelaide | Delaney S.K.,University of New South Wales
Molecular Genetics and Genomics | Year: 2010

Real-time RT-PCR is a powerful technique for the measurement of gene expression, but its accuracy depends on the stability of the internal reference gene(s) used for data normalization. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) is an important model in studies of plant gene expression, but stable reference genes have not been well-studied in the tobacco system. We address this problem by analysing the expression stability of eight potential tobacco reference genes. Primers targeting each gene (18S rRNA, EF-1α, Ntubc2, α- and β-tubulin, PP2A, L25 and actin) were developed and optimized. The expression of each gene was then measured by real-time PCR in a diverse set of 22 tobacco cDNA samples derived from developmentally distinct tissues and from plants exposed to several abiotic stresses. L25 and EF-1α demonstrated the highest expression stability, followed by Ntubc2. Measurement of L25 and EF-1α was sufficient for accurate normalization in either the developmental or stress-treated samples, but Ntubc2 was also required when considering the entire sample set. Analysis of a tobacco circadian gene (NTCP-23) verified these reference genes in an additional context, and all techniques were optimized to enable a high-throughput approach. These results provide a foundation for the more accurate and widespread use of real-time RT-PCR in tobacco. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Jauregui C.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Limpert J.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Limpert J.,Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research | Limpert J.,Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Optics and Precision Engineering | And 3 more authors.
Nature Photonics | Year: 2013

Fibre lasers are now associated with high average powers and very high beam qualities. Both these characteristics are required by many industrial, defence and scientific applications, which explains why fibre lasers have become one of the most popular laser technologies. However, this success, which is largely founded on the outstanding characteristics of fibres as an active medium, has only been achieved through researchers around the world striving to overcome many of the limitations imposed by the fibre architecture. This Review focuses on these limitations, both past and current, and the creative solutions that have been proposed for overcoming them. These solutions have enabled fibre lasers to generate the highest diffraction-limited average power achieved to date by solid-state lasers. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Pidot S.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Ishida K.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Cyrulies M.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Hertweck C.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Hertweck C.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2014

Genome mining of the strictly anaerobic bacterium Clostridium beijerinckii, an industrial producer of solvents, revealed the presence of several cryptic gene clusters for secondary metabolite biosynthesis. To unearth its metabolic potential, a C. beijerinckii strain was cultured under various conditions, which led to the discovery of a deep purple pigment. This novel metabolite, named clostrubin (1), was isolated and its structure was fully elucidated. The pentacyclic polyphenol features a benzo[a]tetraphene ring topology that is unprecedented for natural products. Stable-isotope labeling experiments showed that 1 is an aromatic polyketide that folds in a noncanonical manner to form the unusual perifused ring system. In addition to being the first reported polyketide from an anaerobic bacterium, 1 is a potent antibiotic with pronounced activity against various pathogenic bacteria, such as MRSA, VRE, and mycobacteria, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 0.12-0.97 μM. Hold your breath: Genomics-based metabolic profiling of Clostridium beijerinckii led to the discovery of clostrubin, the first polyketide isolated from an obligate anaerobe. The unusual polyphenolic compound demonstrates pronounced antibiotic activity against a variety of bacterial pathogens. Isotope labeling revealed that the novel ring topology results from noncanonical chain folding that deviates from the pathways used by aerobic microorganisms. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Xu Z.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Ding L.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Hertweck C.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Hertweck C.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2011

Sharing a branch: The first biosynthesis of an unprecedented branched PKS extender unit from valine/isobutyrate was unveiled, involving a designated ketosynthase III and a crotonyl reductase/carboxylase (CCR). Isobutylmalonyl-CoA (ibMCoA) is not only employed in divergolide biosynthesis but is also incorporated into novel, antibacterial germicidins (see scheme). Such natural biocombinatorics are unparalleled in polyketide biosynthesis. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Braun J.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Haas L.M.,University of Heidelberg | Haas L.M.,Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research | Marhauser F.,University of Heidelberg | And 3 more authors.
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

We study the phase diagram of two-flavor QCD at imaginary chemical potentials in the chiral limit. To this end we compute order parameters for chiral symmetry breaking and quark confinement. The interrelation of quark confinement and chiral symmetry breaking is analyzed with a new order parameter for the confinement phase transition. We show that it is directly related to both the quark density as well as the Polyakov loop expectation value. Our analytical and numerical results suggest a close relation between the chiral and the confinement phase transition. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Letzel A.-C.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Pidot S.J.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Hertweck C.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Hertweck C.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Natural Product Reports | Year: 2013

Covering: up to September 2012. A total of 211 complete and published genomes from anaerobic bacteria are analysed for the presence of secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters, in particular those tentatively coding for polyketide synthases (PKS) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS). We investigate the distribution of these gene clusters according to bacterial phylogeny and, if known, correlate these to the type of metabolic pathways they encode. The potential of anaerobes as secondary metabolite producers is highlighted. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Gies H.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Gies H.,Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research | Torgrimsson G.,Chalmers University of Technology
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2016

We investigate Schwinger pair production in spatially inhomogeneous electric backgrounds. A critical point for the onset of pair production can be approached by fields that marginally provide sufficient electrostatic energy for an off-shell long-range electron-positron fluctuation to become a real pair. Close to this critical point, we observe features of universality which are analogous to continuous phase transitions in critical phenomena with the pair-production rate serving as an order parameter: electric backgrounds can be subdivided into universality classes and the onset of pair production exhibits characteristic scaling laws. An appropriate design of the electric background field can interpolate between power-law scaling, essential Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless-type scaling, and a power-law scaling with log corrections. The corresponding critical exponents only depend on the large-scale features of the electric background, whereas the microscopic details of the background play the role of irrelevant perturbations not affecting criticality. © 2016 American Physical Society.

Boettger D.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Hertweck C.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Hertweck C.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
ChemBioChem | Year: 2013

Fungal polyketide synthase-nonribosomal peptide synthetase (PKS-NRPS) hybrids manufacture a wide range of structurally diverse secondary metabolites that play an eminent role in the environment, as molecular tools and leads for therapeutic development. To date, a dozen PKS-NRPS megasynthetases can be linked to the corresponding secondary metabolites, which stand out because of their structural complexity. The diversity of their structures, biological activities, and biosynthetic routes are particularly intriguing considering the iterative use of the catalytic domains of the biosynthetic enzymes-implying an enigmatic biosynthetic code. This review provides an overview of the characterized fungal PKS-NRPS hybrids, their manifold functionalities, and the diversity of the resulting secondary metabolites, as well as molecular engineering attempts that highly improved the understanding of their cryptic programming. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Vladislavleva E.,Cologne University of Applied Sciences | Friedrich T.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Neumann F.,University of Adelaide | Wagner M.,University of Adelaide
Renewable Energy | Year: 2013

Wind energy plays an increasing role in the supply of energy world wide. The energy output of a wind farm is highly dependent on the weather conditions present at its site. If the output can be predicted more accurately, energy suppliers can coordinate the collaborative production of different energy sources more efficiently to avoid costly overproduction. In this paper, we take a computer science perspective on energy prediction based on weather data and analyze the important parameters as well as their correlation on the energy output. To deal with the interaction of the different parameters, we use symbolic regression based on the genetic programming tool DataModeler. Our studies are carried out on publicly available weather and energy data for a wind farm in Australia. We report on the correlation of the different variables for the energy output. The model obtained for energy prediction gives a very reliable prediction of the energy output for newly supplied weather data. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Jahn N.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Preis H.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Wiedemann C.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Wiedemann C.,Leibniz Institute for Age Research | Brantl S.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Molecular Microbiology | Year: 2012

Here, we describe bsrG/SR4, a novel type I toxin-antitoxin system from the SPβ prophage region of the Bacillus subtilis chromosome. The 294-nucleotide bsrG RNA encodes a 38-amino-acid toxin, whereas SR4 is a 180-nucleotide antisense RNA that acts as the antitoxin. Both genes overlap by 123 nucleotides. BsrG expression increases at the onset of stationary phase. The sr4 promoter is 6- to 10-fold stronger than the bsrG promoter. Deletion of sr4 stabilizes bsrG mRNA and causes cell lysis on agar plates, which is due to the BsrG peptide and not the bsrG mRNA. SR4 overexpression could compensate cell lysis caused by overexpression of bsrG. SR4 interacts with the 3′ UTR of bsrG RNA, thereby promoting its degradation. RNase III cleaves the bsrG RNA/SR4 duplex at position 185 of bsrG RNA, but is not essential for the function of the toxin-antitoxin system. Endoribonuclease Y and 3′-5′ exoribonuclease R participate in the degradation of both bsrG RNA and SR4, whereas PnpA processes three SR4 precursors to the mature RNA. A heat shock at 48°C results in faster degradation and, therefore, significantly decreased amounts of bsrG RNA. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Zipfel P.F.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Zipfel P.F.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology | Year: 2010

Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common form of blindness in the western world and genetic variations of several complement genes, including the complement regulator Factor H, the central complement component C3, Factor B, C2, and also Factor I confer a risk for the disease. However deletion of a chromosomal segment in the Factor H gene cluster on human chromosome 1, which results in the deficiency of the terminal pathway regulator CFHR1, and of the putative complement regulator CFHR3 has a protective effect for development of AMD. The Factor H gene encodes two proteins Factor H and FHL1 which are derived from alternatively processed transcripts. In particular a sequence variation at position 402 of both Factor H and FHL1 is associated with a risk for AMD. A tyrosine residue at position 402 represents the protective and a histidine residue the risk variant. AMD is considered a chronic inflammatory disease, which can be caused by defective and inappropriate regulation of the continuously activated alternative complement pathway. This activation generates complement effector products and inflammatory mediators that stimulate further inflammatory reactions. Defective regulation can lead to formation of immune deposits, drusen and ultimately translate into damage of retinal pigment epithelial cells, rupture of the interface between these epithelial cells and the Bruch's membrane and vision loss. Here we describe the role of complement in the retina and summarize the current concept how defective or inappropriate local complement control contributes to inflammation and the pathophysiology of AMD. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010.

Wyrowski F.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Kuhn M.,LightTrans GmbH
Journal of Modern Optics | Year: 2011

Field tracing is the generalization of ray tracing and enables electromagnetic system modeling. Harmonic fields are traced through the optical system instead of ray bundles. This allows the smooth combination of different modeling techniques in different subdomains of the system, e.g. to use the rigorous spectrum-of-plane-wave operator for homogeneous media, geometrical optics to trace through a lens and finite element methods to include the effect of some scatterer. All modeling techniques have to be formulated for vectorial harmonic fields. The paper introduces the basic concepts of field tracing and derives the corresponding operator equations. Propagation in homogeneous media is of special concern in field tracing to interconnect the modeling in different subdomains of the system. A new concept for a smart propagation algorithm is presented. Because of the success of geometrical optics in ray tracing, it is reasonable to consider its application in field tracing. In this paper we discuss generalizations of geometrical optics that have been enforced by field tracing. Although the basic field tracing equations are formulated for vectorial harmonic fields, general fields can be treated by suitable decompositions into sets of harmonic modes. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

Powolny-Budnicka I.,Leibniz Institute for Age Research | Riemann M.,Leibniz Institute for Age Research | Tanzer S.,Leibniz Institute for Age Research | Hehlgans T.,University of Regensburg | And 2 more authors.
Immunity | Year: 2011

The NF-κB transcription factor regulates numerous immune responses but its contribution to interleukin-17 (IL-17) production by T cells is largely unknown. Here, we report that IL-17, but not interferon-γ (IFN-γ), production by γδ T cells required the NF-κB family members RelA and RelB as well as the lymphotoxin-β-receptor (LTβR). In contrast, LTβR-NF-κB signaling was not involved in the differentiation of conventional αβ Th17 cells. Impaired IL-17 production in RelA- or RelB-deficient T cells resulted in a diminished innate immune response to Escherichia coli infection. RelA controlled the expression of LT ligands in accessory thymocytes whereas RelB, acting downstream of LTβR, was required for the expression of RORγt and RORα4 transcription factors and the differentiation of thymic precursors into γδT17 cells. Thus, RelA and RelB within different thymocyte subpopulations cooperate in the regulation of IL-17 production by γδ T cells and contribute to the host's ability to fight bacterial infections. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Damour T.,Institute des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques | Jaranowski P.,University of Bialystok | Schafer G.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2014

We complete the analytical determination, at the 4th post-Newtonian (4PN) approximation, of the conservative dynamics of gravitationally interacting two-point-mass systems. This completion is obtained by resolving the infra-red ambiguity which had blocked a previous 4PN calculation [P. Jaranowski and G. Schäfer, Phys. Rev. D 87, 081503(R) (2013)] by taking into account the 4PN breakdown of the usual near-zone expansion due to infinite-range tail-transported temporal correlations found long ago [L. Blanchet and T. Damour, Phys. Rev. D 37, 1410 (1988)]. This leads to a Poincaré-invariant 4PN-accurate effective action for two masses, which mixes instantaneous interaction terms (described by a usual Hamiltonian) with a (time-symmetric) nonlocal-in-time interaction. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Warsitzka M.,German Research Center for Geosciences | Kley J.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Kukowski N.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Tectonophysics | Year: 2013

We applied scaled physical analogue experiments to investigate the early development of salt diapirs induced by differential sedimentary loading in an intra-continental basin realm (e.g. the North German Basin). During the experiments, deformation in a salt-analogue viscous layer was initiated by variations in the thickness of an overlying brittle material and subsequent accumulation of the brittle material further sustained deformation. A 2D optical image correlation system was used to monitor the strain evolution in the salt analogue material. Our models indicate that the formation of salt pillow structures can be achieved by minimum variations in the overburden loading. The increase of differential loading by adding synkinematic layers in the subsided areas causes not only an active piercing of the viscous layer through the brittle overburden but also an additional uplift in the adjacent areas. These elevations, named "secondary structures", act as origins for a successive generation of diapirs. Consequently, an initial perturbation of the salt-sediment-interface can lead to a lateral propagation temporally shifted diapirs. The linkage between primary and secondary structures is reflected in the synkinematic overburden layers such as overlapping peripheral sinks in the transition zone between two diapirs. These sinks, in turn, are a frequently observable phenomenon around salt structures of the North German basin indicating that "secondary diapirism" is an underestimated process - besides regional tectonic stresses - influencing the evolution of salt structures. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Chakraborty P.,Leibniz Institute for Age Research | Grosse F.,Leibniz Institute for Age Research | Grosse F.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2010

Mutations in the Werner gene promote the segmental progeroid Werner syndrome (WS) with increased genomic instability and cancer. The Werner gene encodes a DNA helicase (WRN) that can engage in direct protein-protein interactions with DHX9, also known as RNA helicase A or nuclear DNA helicase II, which represents an essential enzyme involved in transcription and DNA repair. By using several synthetic nucleic acid substrates we demonstrate that WRN preferably unwinds RNA-containing Okazaki fragment-like substrates suggesting a role in lagging strand maturation of DNA replication. In contrast, DHX9 preferably unwinds RNA-RNA and RNA-DNA substrates, but fails to unwind Okazaki fragment-like hybrids. We further show that the preferential unwinding of RNA-containing substrates by WRN is stimulated by DHX9 in vitro, both on Okazaki fragment-like hybrids and on RNA-containing 'chicken-foot' structures. Collectively, our results suggest that WRN and DHX9 may also cooperate in vivo, e.g. at ongoing and stalled replication forks. In the latter case, the cooperation between both helicases may serve to form and to dissolve Holliday junction-like intermediates of regressed replication forks. © The Author(s) 2010. Published by Oxford University Press.

Jaranowski P.,University of Bialystok | Schafer G.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

The article presents the conservative dynamics of gravitationally interacting two-point-mass systems up to the eight order in the inverse power of the velocity of light, i.e., fourth post-Newtonian (4PN) order and up to quadratic order in Newton's gravitational constant. Additionally, all logarithmic terms at the 4PN order are given as well as terms describing the test-mass limit. With the aid of the Poincaré algebra, additional terms are obtained. The dynamics is presented in the form of an autonomous Hamiltonian derived within the formalism of Arnowitt, Deser, and Misner. Out of the 57 different terms of the 4PN Hamiltonian in the center-of-mass frame, the coefficients of 45 of them are derived. Reduction of the obtained results to circular orbits is performed resulting in the 4PN-accurate formula for energy expressed in terms of angular frequency in which two coefficients are obtained for the first time. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Karbstein F.,Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research | Karbstein F.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Shaisultanov R.,Nazarbayev University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015

We study the effect of stimulated photon emission from the vacuum in strong space-time-dependent electromagnetic fields. We emphasize the viewpoint that the vacuum subjected to macroscopic electromagnetic fields with at least one nonzero electromagnetic field invariant, as, e.g., attainable by superimposing two laser beams, can represent a source term for outgoing photons. We believe that this view is particularly intuitive and allows for a straightforward and intuitive study of optical signatures of quantum vacuum nonlinearity in realistic experiments involving the collision of high-intensity laser pulses, and exemplify this view for the vacuum subjected to a strong standing electromagnetic wave as generated in the focal spot of two counterpropagating, linearly polarized, high-intensity laser pulses. Focusing on a comparably simple electromagnetic field profile, which should nevertheless capture the essential features of the electromagnetic fields generated in the focal spots of real high-intensity laser beams, we provide estimates for emission characteristics and the numbers of emitted photons attainable with present and near future high-intensity laser facilities. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Jaranowski P.,University of Bialystok | Schafer G.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015

The paper gives full details of the computation within the canonical formalism of Arnowitt, Deser, and Misner of the local-in-time part of the fourth post-Newtonian, i.e. of power eight in one over speed of light, conservative Hamiltonian of spinless compact binary systems. The Hamiltonian depends only on the bodies' positions and momenta. Dirac delta distributions are taken as source functions. Their full control is furnished by dimensional continuation, by means of which the occurring ultraviolet (UV) divergences are uniquely regularized. The applied near-zone expansion of the time-symmetric Green function leads to infrared (IR) divergences. Their analytic regularization results in one single ambiguity parameter. Unique fixation of it was successfully performed in T. Damour, P. Jaranowski, and G. Schäfer, Phys. Rev. D 89, 064058 (2014) through far-zone matching. Technically as well as conceptually (backscatter binding energy), the level of the Lamb shift in quantum electrodynamics is reached. In a first run a computation of all terms is performed in three-dimensional space using analytic Riesz-Hadamard regularization techniques. Then divergences are treated locally (i.e., around particles' positions for UV and in the vicinity of spatial infinity for IR divergences) by means of combined dimensional and analytic regularization. Various evolved analytic expressions are presented for the first time. The breakdown of the Leibniz rule for distributional derivatives is addressed as well as the in general nondistributive law when regularizing value of products of functions evaluated at their singular point. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Karbstein F.,Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research | Karbstein F.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Shaisultanov R.,Nazarbayev University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015

Starting from the Heisenberg-Euler effective Lagrangian, we determine the photon current and photon polarization tensor in inhomogeneous, slowly varying electromagnetic fields. To this end, we consider background field configurations varying in both space and time, paying special attention to the tensor structure. As a main result, we obtain compact analytical expressions for the photon polarization tensor in realistic Gaussian laser pulses, as generated in the focal spots of high-intensity lasers. These expressions are of utmost importance for the investigation of quantum vacuum nonlinearities in realistic high-intensity laser experiments. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Brose U.,German Center for Integrative Biodiversity Research iDiv Halle Jena Leipzig | Brose U.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Hillebrand H.,Carl von Ossietzky University
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2016

The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF) and its consequence for ecosystem services has predominantly been studied by controlled, short-term and small-scale experiments under standardized environmental conditions and constant community compositions. However, changes in biodiversity occur in real-world ecosystems with varying environments and a dynamic community composition. In this theme issue, we present novel research on BEF in such dynamic communities. The contributions are organized in three sections on BEF relationships in (i) multi-trophic diversity, (ii) non-equilibrium biodiversity under disturbance and varying environmental conditions, and (iii) large spatial and long temporal scales. The first section shows that multi-trophic BEF relationships often appear idiosyncratic, while accounting for species traits enables a predictive understanding. Future BEF research on complex communities needs to include ecological theory that is based on first principles of species-averaged body masses, stoichiometry and effects of environmental conditions such as temperature. The second section illustrates that disturbance and varying environments have direct as well as indirect (via changes in species richness, community composition and species’ traits) effects on BEF relationships. Fluctuations in biodiversity (species richness, community composition and also trait dominance within species) can severely modify BEF relationships. The third section demonstrates that BEF at larger spatial scales is driven by different variables. While species richness per se and community biomass are most important, species identity effects and community composition are less important than at small scales. Across long temporal scales, mass extinctions represent severe changes in biodiversity with mixed effects on ecosystem functions. Together, the contributions of this theme issue identify new research frontiers and answer some open questions on BEF relationships in dynamic communities of real-world landscapes. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

Fritsch M.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Noseleit F.,University of Groningen
Papers in Regional Science | Year: 2013

We investigate the effect of local market conditions on the indirect effects of new business formation measured as their impact on employment in incumbents. Based on organizational ecology theory, we derive and test hypotheses about the magnitude of these indirect effects. The indirect effects are larger in highly populated regions, in regions with a high share of small firms, and in regions where there is high similarity between the industry structure of entries and that of the incumbents. The results show that indirect effects of new businesses emerge through competition with incumbents and underline the importance of regional conditions. We draw conclusions for policy and make suggestions for further research. © 2013 The Author(s). Papers in Regional Science © 2013 RSAI.

Musyanovych A.,Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research | Musyanovych A.,Carl Zeiss GmbH | Hecht R.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Schlenk F.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | And 4 more authors.
Nature Nanotechnology | Year: 2013

In biological fluids, proteins bind to the surface of nanoparticles to form a coating known as the protein corona, which can critically affect the interaction of the nanoparticles with living systems. As physiological systems are highly dynamic, it is important to obtain a time-resolved knowledge of protein-corona formation, development and biological relevancy. Here we show that label-free snapshot proteomics can be used to obtain quantitative time-resolved profiles of human plasma coronas formed on silica and polystyrene nanoparticles of various size and surface functionalization. Complex time- and nanoparticle-specific coronas, which comprise almost 300 different proteins, were found to form rapidly (<0.5 minutes) and, over time, to change significantly in terms of the amount of bound protein, but not in composition. Rapid corona formation is found to affect haemolysis, thrombocyte activation, nanoparticle uptake and endothelial cell death at an early exposure time. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-EID | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2015-EID | Award Amount: 3.86M | Year: 2016

The target of this project is to prepare and train future engineers for the design challenges and opportunities provided by modern optics technology. Such challenges include lossless photon management, modelling at the system, components and feature level, and the link between design and technology. Today all optical designs are often perceived following different approaches, namely geometrical optics, physical optics and nano-photonics. Traditionally these approaches are linked to the different lengths-scale that are important to the system. Starting from the entire system that is macroscopic and uses geometrical optics, over the miniaturized unit that is based on micro-optics and needs physical optics design, down to the active nano-photonics entity that allows steering light truly at the nano-scale but which requires to be designed with rigorous methods that provide full wave solutions to the governing Maxwells equations. A design for manufacture of next generation optical applications necessarily requires to bridge the gap between the different length scales and to consider the design at a holistic level. At the core are optical simulation models developed and used in the academic research and the one used for optical designs in industry. Up to now, only the academic partners apply an integral approach to include micro- and nano-photonics in their simulations. Together with the industrial partners projects will be launched to promote the academic developments in optical design and simulation over different length scales towards the industry. The industry will use the know-how to consolidate their expertise, expand their businesses, and occupy new fields of activities. For each research subject, may it be nano-photonics, micro-optics or system engineering, a channel can be provided to access particular knowledge and/or stimulate collaborations.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP-2008-3.2-1 | Award Amount: 16.82M | Year: 2009

The ultimate ambition of COPIRIDE is to develop a new modular production and factory concept for the chemical industry using adaptable plants with flexible output. This concept will be superior, intellectual property (IP) protected, and enable a much wider spread of know-how and education of this skill-intensive technology. Key functional enabling units are new production-scale, mass-manufactured microstructured reactors as well as other integrated process intensification (PI) reactors realising integrated processes. This will lead to a substantial reduction in costs, resources & energy and notably improves the eco-efficiency. To ensure the competitiveness of European (EU) manufacturing businesses, PI technology / know-how is transferred from leaders to countries (and respective medium & small industries) with no exposure in PI so far, but with a track record in sustainability, and to the explorative markets food and biofuels. A deeply rooted base will be created for IP rights (Copyright, = COPIRIDE) by generic modular reactor & plant design and new generic processes via Novel Process Windows, facilitating patent filing. Due to the entire modular plant concept comprising all utilities far beyond the reaction & processual parts - a holistic PI concept is provided, covering the whole development cycle with, e.g., safety & process control & plant approval. Features, inter alia, are fast plant start-up and shut-down for multipurpose functionality (flexibility in products), sustainable & safe production, and fast transfer from lab to production & business (time-to-market). Industrial demonstration activities up to production scale with five field trials present a good cross-section of reactions relevant to the EU chemical industry. The economic impact in COPIRIDE is 10 Mio /a (cautiously optimistic) to 30 Mio /a (optimistic) by direct exploitation. Indirect exploitation might sum up to 800 Mio /a (very optimistic) by other companies via technology transfer.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2009.8.0 | Award Amount: 3.16M | Year: 2010

High dimensional geometric data are ubiquitous in science and engineering, and thus processing and analyzing them is a core task in these disciplines. The Computational Geometric Learning project (CG Learning) aims at extending the success story of geometric algorithms with guarantees, as achieved in the CGAL library and the related EU funded research projects, to spaces of high dimensions. This is not a straightforward task. For many problems, no efficient algorithms exist that compute the exact solution in high dimensions. This behavior is commonly called the curse of dimensionality. We plan to address the curse of dimensionality by focusing on inherent structure in the data like sparsity or low intrinsic dimension, and by resorting to fast approximation algorithms. The following two kinds of approximation guarantee are particularly desirable: first, the solution approximates an objective better if more time and memory resources are employed (algorithmic guarantee), and second, the approximation gets better when the data become more dense and/or more accurate (learning theoretic guarantee). To lay the foundation of a new field---computational geometric learning---we will follow an approach integrating both theoretical and practical developments, the latter in the form of the construction of a high quality software library and application software.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: SiS.2007-;SiS-2007- | Award Amount: 875.08K | Year: 2008

The key concept of this project is inquiry-based teaching of secondary school science. Research and development done in Europe in the area of inquiry-based science teaching (IBST) is abundant, however, the knowledge is spread and indistinct, and thereby not utilised to its full potential by teachers and educators throughout Europe. The project aims to gather, exchange, develop and disseminate ideas of good practices in IBST. The overall aim of Mind the Gap is to stimulate a more engaging and interesting science teaching based on principles of IBST so that more young people in general, and girls in particular, wish to pursue educations and careers in science and technology. We argue that if the science teaching shall succeed in meeting young people in their interests and concerns, we will need to examine and connect The gap between theory and practice in inquiry based science The gap between teaching and learning The gap between research, policy and practice The gap between educational policies and in-service training The gap between instructional designs and preferable tools The gap between cognitive demands and available tools The gap between the culture of science and marginalized groups (including girls) The Mind the Gap project and network will focus on such gaps and aim to bridge them across different European contexts (Norway, Denmark, Germany, Hungary, United Kingdom, Spain, and France). The project design involves six work packages (WPs), including one management WP, each lead from different Europeans countries with relevant expertise. One of the WPs provides an overall background for IBST, three WPs go more in-depth into three specific themes (scientific literacy, ICT, and communication and argumentation). And the last WP will try out models for disseminating knowledge and ideas for best practice of IBST through teacher professional development (including SINUS) in different countries and contexts.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2010-1.1.17 | Award Amount: 9.41M | Year: 2010

EXPEER will bring together, major observational, experimental, analytical and modelling facilities in ecosystem science in Europe. By uniting these highly instrumented ecosystem research facilities under the same umbrella and with a common vision, EXPEER will form a key contribution to structuring and improving the European Research Area (ERA) within terrestrial ecosystem research. EXPEER builds on an ambitious plant for networking research groups and facilities. The joint research activities will provide a common framework and roadmap for improving the quality, interaction and individual as well as joint performance of these infrastructures in a durable and sustainable manner. EXPEER will provide a framework for increased use and exploitation of the unique facilities through a strong and coordinated programme for Transnational Access to the infrastructures. Extensive outreach and collaboration with related networks, infrastructures as well as potential funding bodies will ensure that EXPEER will contribute with its key experiences to the shaping and designing of future research networks and infrastructures, and that it has full support from all stakeholders in reaching its long-term objectives. The establishment of the EXPEER Integrated Infrastructure will enable integrated studies of the impacts of climate change, land use change and loss of biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems through two major steps: 1. Bringing together the EXPEER Infrastructures to enable collaboration and integration of observational, experimental and modelling approaches in ecosystem research (in line with the concept developed in ANAEE); 2. Structuring existing network of ecosystem observational, monitoring and experimental sites across Europe (LTER-Europe). Through its integrated partnership, uniting both the experimental, observational, analytical and modelling research communities, EXPEER has the multidisciplinary expertise and critical mass to integrate and structure the European long-term ecosystem research facilities providing improved services and benefits to the whole research community as well as the society in general.

Lee M.,Hospital Drive | Teoh W.,Hospital Drive | Phang B.,Hospital Drive | Tong W.,Peking Union Medical College | And 4 more authors.
Cancer Cell | Year: 2012

The specific roles of mutant p53's dominant-negative (DN) or gain-of-function (GOF) properties in regulating acute response and long-term tumorigenesis is unclear. Using "knockin" mouse strains expressing varying R246S mutant levels, we show that the DN effect on transactivation is universally observed after acute p53 activation, whereas the effect on cellular outcome is cell-type specific. Reducing mutant p53 levels abrogated the DN effect. Mutant p53's DN effect protected against radiation-induced death but did not accentuate tumorigenesis. Furthermore, the R246S mutant did not promote tumorigenesis compared to p53-/- mice in various models, even when MDM2 is absent, unlike the R172H mutant. Together, these data demonstrate that mutant p53's DN property only affects acute responses, whereas GOF is not universal, being mutation-type specific. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Wilson D.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Hube B.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Hube B.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Eukaryotic Cell | Year: 2010

Common iatrogenic procedures can result in translocation of the human pathogenic fungus Candida albicans from mucosal surfaces to the bloodstream. Subsequent disseminated candidiasis and infection of deep-seated organs may occur if the fungus is not eliminated by blood cells. In these cases, fungal cells adhere to the endothelial cells of blood vessels, penetrate through endothelial layers, and invade deeper tissue. In this scenario, endothelial adhesion events must occur during circulation under conditions of physiological blood pressure. To investigate the fungal and host factors which contribute to this essential step of disseminated candidiasis, we have developed an in vitro circulatory C. albicans-endothelium interaction model. We demonstrate that both C. albicans yeast and hyphae can adhere under flow at a pressure similar to capillary blood pressure. Serum factors significantly enhanced the adhesion potential of viable but not killed C. albicans cells to endothelial cells. During circulation, C. albicans cells produced hyphae and the adhesion potential first increased, then decreased with time. We provide evidence that a specific temporal event in the yeast-to-hyphal transition, regulated by the G 1 cyclin Hgc1, is critical for C. albicans-endothelium adhesion during circulation. © 2010, American Society for Microbiology.

Sundaram S.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Hertweck C.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Current Opinion in Chemical Biology | Year: 2016

Non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) and type I polyketide synthases (PKS) are versatile thiotemplate systems for the programmed assembly of biosynthetic building blocks. Typically, the post-PKS/NRPS enzymes tailor the resulting chains to yield the bioactive natural product scaffolds. However, more and more examples have surfaced showing that important structural modifications take place while the intermediates are still bound to the assembly line. A growing number of enzymatic domains and trans-acting enzymes as well as their recruiting areas in the modules have been identified and characterized. In addition to the widespread on-line alkylations, hydroxylations and heterocyclizations into oxazole/thiazole residues, on-line modifications lead to a variety of ring systems such as cycloethers, lactones, lactams, glutarimides, cyclopropanes, decalins and cyclic biaryls. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: PEOPLE-2007-1-1-ITN | Award Amount: 4.36M | Year: 2008

Naturally occurring polysaccharides constitute the largest segment of all available polymers, and hence exhibit the greatest potential as renewable, sustainable, and eco-friendly replacements for man-made polymers derived from fossil-resources. That this potential remains untapped to a large degree is testament to the inherent challenges in converting polysaccharides from natural sources to forms more suited for human use. One of the major challenges in the conversion of polysaccharides is overcoming the non-covalent interactions that characterize polysaccharide structures and lead to significant restraints on their processability. The non-covalent interactions exert strong influence on polysaccharide conversion by restricting polymer dissolution in solvents, limiting thermal processability of polysaccharides, and dictating the feasibility and extent of polymer functionalization. The objective of the STEP-ITN is to gain fundamental understanding of the non-covalent interactions in polysaccharide structures and utilize the knowledge to develop ways and means of overcoming their influence on polysaccharide conversion processes. This concerted and coherent multi-disciplinary effort spanning diverse areas of specialization and an active participation of the industry sector will generate significant advances in the science and technology of polysaccharide conversion. An intimate involvement in all aspects of the collaboration (research, knowledge transfer, dissemination, coordination) along with an extensive program of training in a wide variety of fields will allow early-stage and early researchers to develop the technical proficiency and complementary skills required to make significant contributions to science and technology in their professional careers.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: SSH-2010-5.1-1 | Award Amount: 9.97M | Year: 2011

MYPLACE explores how young peoples social participation is shaped by the shadows (past, present and future) of totalitarianism and populism in Europe. Conceptually, it goes beyond the comparison of discrete national political cultures or reified classifications of political heritage (postcommunist/liberal democratic); it is premised rather on the pan-European nature of a range of radical and populist political and philosophical traditions and the cyclical rather than novel nature of the popularity they currently enjoy. Empirically, MYPLACE employs a combination of survey, interview and ethnographic research instruments to provide new, pan- European data that not only measure levels of participation but capture the meanings young people attach to it. Analytically, through its specific focus on youth and the historical and cultural contextualization of young peoples social participation, MYPLACE replaces the routine, and often abstract, iteration of the reasons for young peoples disengagement from politics with an empirically rich mapping of young peoples understandings of the civic and political space that they inhabit. In policy terms, MYPLACE identifies the obstacles to, and facilitators of, young peoples reclamation of the European political arena as a place for them.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: KBBE.2010.3.3-01 | Award Amount: 3.73M | Year: 2010

This project aims to develop novel biocatalysts for the production of glycosides (NOVOSIDES). Glycosylated compounds have a wide range of applications, but very few enzymes are able to glycosylate small organic molecules cost-efficiently at the industrial scale. Therefore, glycosylation reactions catalysed by transglycosidases, glycoside phosphorylases and glycoside hydrolases will be explored in more detail. These enzymes catalyze the transfer a glycosyl group from a cheap and readily available donor substrate to a variety of acceptors. To exploit their full potential, the enzymes specificity and stability against high temperatures and the presence of organic co-solvents will be optimised by means of directed evolution. A large and diverse collection of enzymes will first be established by screening in natural environments and by the mining of public (meta)genome databases. The enzyme collection will then be screened for activity on a variety of representative acceptors from different chemical classes. This will allow the identification of the most promising enzymes for optimisation through semi-rational and random mutagenesis. The high-throughput screening of natural and variant enzymes will be performed with newly developed fluorescent probes, that allow fast and accurate measurements of carbohydrate-active enzymes in a direct and non-destructive assay. To achieve these ambitious goals, a complementary consortium of academia and industry has been formed that covers the whole range of required expertises. The economical potential of our technology will be demonstrated by the development and scale-up of selected glycosylation reactions at pilot-plant facilities. The produced glycosides will be actively marketed to potential end-users to promote the valorisation of the projects results and to initiate future collaborations on novel target compounds.

The forecasted increase in the number of older people for this century will be accompanied by an increase of those with disabilities. Disability is usually preceded by a condition named frailty that encompasses changes associated with ageing, life styles and chronic diseases. To detect and intervene on it is of outstanding importance to prevent disability, as recovery from disability is unlikely. Recent documents stress the necessity of testing the clinical utility (in terms of risk prediction, diagnosis validity and prognostic significance) of the existing definition of frailty by using combinations of clinical criteria (current definition) and lab Biomarkers (BMs). We will measure the levels of blood and urine omic-based BMs in old people selected from eight cohorts, which include up to 75,000 participants, using standardized and innovative technology (WP1). This figure will allow us to test the research questions with a high power and validity. Combining these lab BMs with clinical BMs, we will develop predictive, diagnostic and prognostic models (WP2), with its modulation by nutrition and physical activity, in general old population and in old people showing some characteristics that confer a high risk for developing frailty (selected cardiovascular risk factors and diseases) (WP4). After that, a selected set of BMs will be validated prospectively (WP3) and assessed to find the best-fitted models (WP4). These models will guide the development of the ready-to-use kits to be implemented in the clinical settings. These kits will be at the center of dissemination and exploitation activities (WP5, WP6). A well-balanced consortium distributed over the individual tasks in the respective work packages will carry it out, with a strong participation of SMEs. In summary, FRAILOMIC is original, relevant, pertinent, feasible, overcome the usual research bottlenecks on Biomarkers, and fits perfectly with the topics addressed by the HEALTH.2012.2.1.1-2 call in human subjects

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2010-ITN | Award Amount: 3.50M | Year: 2011

GIONET will create a European Centre of Excellence in the training of early stage researchers in the Earth Observation to provide skilled personnel for the emerging GMES land monitoring services during the GMES Initial Operations period (2011-2013) and beyond. The principal aims of this distributed centre will be to: Provide a broad postgraduate training in Earth Observation Science that exposes students to different research disciplines and complementary skills, providing work experiences in the private and academic sectors, and leading to a recognized qualification (Doctorate). Enable access to first class training in both fundamental and applied research skills to early-stage researchers at world-class academic centres and market leaders in the private sector. Develop a collaborative training network, through the placement of students supported by the grant for periods in other European institutions, and by hosting nationally funded students. Provide a flexible training environment with personal development planning, that early stage researchers can adapt to their cultural, disciplinary and gender needs and in respect of their national education systems. Key elements of the research and training programme will include fundamental Earth Observation Science, foundations of GMES pre-operational applications (land cover and change, forestry, urban mapping, biophysical parameters, emergency services). A more adaptable corpus of early-career researchers, capable of fulfilling the needs of the European GMES land monitoring core services, and able to become future leaders in these fields, whether in the research domain or the private sector. Researchers with excellent employability across a range of disciplines and outside academic research environments in organisations such as GMES user and stakeholder organisations, and private sector companies delivering the GMES services.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: INFRA-2007-2.1-01 | Award Amount: 1.17M | Year: 2008

This Design Study aims at implementing a new concept of integrated research infrastructures in Europe for research on agro-ecosystems and natural ecosystems and environment. This infrastructure consists in interfacing three types of platforms: (i)The in situ Long Term Experimental Plateforms which consists in developing experiments for the main type of land use systems (arable crops, grasslands, forest, marchlands, heathlands), where different types of land management are imposed for a long term and where the state variables of the system are monitored for long term in conjunction with the measurement of the environmental fluxes to atmosphere and hydrosphere. (ii)The in vitro ECOTRON equipments where blocks of ecosystems of different size could be introduced within controlled environment. Since feedbacks between the plants and the soil responses take time to establish, experiments often need to last a few years. An alternative use of Ecotrons is to analyse the physiology of blocks of ecosystems which have been subjected in situ for years to various treatments within LTEP platforms. In that case, Ecotrons can be seen as ecological analysers receiving samples for analysis. (iii) The in silico Data base and Modelling platform should complete the system by developing facilities for sharing data bases among European scientific community, and possibilities for coupling experimental with theoretical approaches. This Design Study aims at developing and sharing this ANAEE concept among European research partners in order to (i) specify the needs for such instrument for the scientific stakes on continental biosphere; (ii) convince national strategic research institutions to support such a concept; (iii) inventory the capacities of partners to develop such a network of equipments; and (iv) determine the condition for networking and sharing these infrastructures among different European countries.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: INFRA-2007-3.0-06 | Award Amount: 2.53M | Year: 2008

LASERLAB-EUROPE, an Integrated Infrastructure Initiative (I3) in FP6, combines the majority of the largest national laboratories in the area of laser-based inter-disciplinary research at the European level. Together they represent a comprehensive collection of modern laser technologies and laser research, and pursue applications in sciences and life sciences through in-house research and services to the relevant communities. They are complemented within the Consortium by selected laboratories with special expertise and equipment which are crucial for the further development of the field. LASERLAB-EUROPE combines 17 laser infrastructures from 9 European countries, including new EU member states. The present Continuation Project will be called LASERLAB-EUROPE CONTINUATION (LLEC). It is in its composition and goals largely identical with LASERLAB-EUROPE. The overall concept of LLEC is the continuation of the activities defined under the Integrated Infrastructure Initiative (I3) activity of FP6, using the methods and objectives described below, and aiming at the integration of national laser infrastructures to form a powerful and effective virtual infrastructure of Pan-European dimension. Objectives Networking and Integration: The integration process among the participating European Laser Infrastructures will be strengthened and continued during the continuation period of LLEC, using the functionalities of the present internet platform as well as other means. Networking activities include management, publicity and dissemination of results, equipment and staff development strategies, User relations, and strategic foresight activities. Trans-National Access: The LLEC Consortium will continue to engage in the trans-national Access Programme in a highly co-ordinated fashion, providing essential services to the community. Specifically, it will provide more than 700 days of Access during the project period.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: SIS-2008- | Award Amount: 5.24M | Year: 2009

Helping teachers raise the quality of science teaching and its educational environment has the potential to increase student engagement, attainment, scientific literacy and science career choices. S-TEAM will achieve this by connecting existing science education research and teacher knowledge to teacher education. This task requires the power of coordinated action across a wide range of institutions and national contexts. The 26 partners and 15 nations engaged in S-TEAM have a unique opportunity to systematically integrate their knowledge of teaching, research and teacher education, and to adapt science education to the diverse needs of citizens and the economy in Europe, focusing on inquiry-based methods. These involve problem-solving, hands-on experimentation, authentic, student-led content and critical dialogue, but they require wider development of teacher skills and knowledge. Many teachers are already competent in these methods, and are thus the best source of learning for others. S-TEAM will achieve its aims by disseminating research on, and teachers' experiences of inquiry-based methods to existing and future science teachers. Its actions will involve listening to teachers, working with teacher educators and researchers, and providing support for better science education. This support will include workshops, training packages, video case-studies, teaching materials and publications. S-TEAM will involve not only teachers, but also teacher educators, researchers, students, parents and policymakers in dialogue, to ensure that this dissemination is effective. S-TEAM is sustainable since learning through teacher collaboration and education can be continually regenerated, but also necessary because science teacher education needs to be shared across Europe. By enabling teachers to deliver more efficient and efficacious learning, S-TEAM will improve the attitudes, motivation and learning of young people, including girls, in science education.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH-2007-5.1-01 | Award Amount: 1.93M | Year: 2009

This project will examine the processes which influence democratic ownership and participation in eight European states. It will draw on the disciplines of Politics, Sociology, Social Policy, Psychology and Education to examine macro-level contextual factors (including historical, political, electoral, economic and policy factors), proximal social factors (including familial, educational and media factors) and psychological factors (including motivational, cognitive, attitudinal and identity factors) which facilitate and/or inhibit civic and political engagement and participation. The research will be ground-breaking in incorporating the psychology of the individual citizen within its scope, and it will be distinctive in addressing the psychological processes through which political, societal and social factors have their effects upon citizens civic and political engagement and participation. Young people, women, minorities and migrants will be examined as four specific groups at risk of political disengagement. The research will focus on the differences, as well as the overlap, between civic and political engagement, and on both direct and representative participation. An innovative multi-level process model of civic and political engagement and participation will be constructed, which will explain how and why different forms and interpretations of democratic ownership and participation develop or are hampered amongst citizens living in different European countries and contexts, with particular attention being paid to the relevant phenomena at regional, national and EU levels. Appropriate stakeholders at regional, national and EU levels will be involved in all stages of the work, to ensure that the research addresses issues of direct concern to these stakeholders, and to ensure that the policy implications and recommendations which emerge from the research meet the needs of these stakeholders and are disseminated appropriately to them.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: PEOPLE-2007-1-1-ITN | Award Amount: 4.78M | Year: 2008

Indium nitride is a new narrow gap semiconductor (<0.7 eV), which alloys with GaN (3.5 eV) and AlN (6.2 eV) will allow the spectral range from telecom to hard UV wavelengths to be covered. This narrow band gap makes InN an exciting material from which to develop highest efficiency solar cells. Moreover, due to an electron mobility of around 4000 cm2/Vs and very high saturation velocities, InN is an ideal material for the development of high electron mobility devices capable of operating in the Terahertz range. To ensure the production of reliable commercial devices, rigorous fundamental research is required to understand the layer growth mechanisms and optimize material properties. In RAINBOW, academic and industrial consortium, the theoretical work will encompass modelling of the atomic structure and properties of the material from empirical potentials to ab initio techniques. Experiments will provide correlated structural, electronic, optical and chemical information from the nano to the macroscopic scale. In a closely concerted effort, we will determine the best conditions for the growth of highest quality InN and In rich (In,Ga,Al)N alloys by the main growth techniques (MOVPE, PAMBE,HVPE ). Under the supervision of world leading experts, numerous young researchers will directly benefit from this interdisciplinary and multisectorial research and training effort. The young researchers involved in this programme will also learn to manage research and industrial projects.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2014-ETN | Award Amount: 3.79M | Year: 2015

Algal aquaculture is developing exponentially worldwide, with multiple applications in the food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Current research in algal biotechnology mostly focuses on metabolite discovery, aquaculture yield improvement and engineering bottlenecks. However, agronomical experience shows that controlling the interaction of land crops with mutualistic or pathogenic microbes is most critical to successful production. Likewise, controlling the microbial flora associated with algae (the algal microbiome) is emerging as the biggest biological challenge for their increased usage. Bacteria can control the morphogenesis of algae, while others are indispensable to algal survival. Pathogens are causing devastating diseases, the impact of which worsens with the intensification of aquaculture practices. Thus, the overarching aim of ALFF is to train 15 ESRs (researchers and technologists) within a multinational consortium, whilst bringing a scientific step-change in our understanding of these interactions, leading to the development of superior mass algal cultivation and biocontrol strategies. ALFF tackles: 1) the identification, taxonomy and utilisation of naturally-occurring algal symbionts and pathogens; 2) inter- and intra-species signalling and chemical ecology in aquaculture, natural environment and simplified systems (i.e. axenic cultures \/- symbionts); 3) and harnesses state of the art genomics, molecular, and biochemical techniques to characterise these interactions. A highly interdisciplinary team underpins an ambitious theoretical, field, hands-on training and research program. With the support of high profile institutions, ALFF foresees an exceptionally broad range of dissemination and outreach initiatives to help policy makers and the general public better understand the opportunities and issues relating to the sustainable use of our aquatic freshwater and marine resources, within and beyond the EU.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: NMP.2011.4.0-5 | Award Amount: 565.20K | Year: 2012

The need for a transition towards a CO2 neutral biobased economy or bioeconomy, increasing population and globalisation of economies will have the consequence of a need for enhanced supplies of biobased resources. To this end, polysaccharides will be at the central point of the world of tomorrow for sustainable fuel, food, materials and medicine production. EPNOE (European Polysaccharide Network of Excellence) is the short name for the EC Network of Excellence project called Polysaccharides. Established with the help of the European Commission (EC), the European Polysaccharide Network of Excellence (EPNOE) connects the initial 16 EU academic and research institutions and now 26 companies, all being members of the Durable Integrated Structure called EPNOE Association. Activities include research (e.g. EPNOE research Road Map published end of 2010 in Carbohydrate Polymers journal), education (e.g. student mobility or common undergraduate courses), services (e.g. six main academic-industry services), infrastructure (e.g. EPNOE Tool Box) and communication (e.g. sixteen Newsletters issued to 500 subscribers). EPNOE is dedicated to materials made from or with polysaccharides. The general concept at the origin of this proposal is to participate to the improvement of competitiveness of European industry and generate new knowledge in polysaccharides through the expansion of EPNOE leadership in two new areas (Food and Health) and through increasing EPNOE participation and interactions with industry, with a special focus on SMEs.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-10-2014 | Award Amount: 5.96M | Year: 2015

The aim of the PoC-ID project is to develop new micro- and nanoelectronic-based sensing and integration concepts for advanced miniaturised in vitro diagnostic devices. The project addresses the increasing demand for rapid and ultra-sensitive point-of-care diagnostics to reduce healthcare costs and increase the quality of life with a focus on infectious diseases, one of the worlds leading causes of morbidity and death. Interdisciplinary collaboration using the technology and expertise of the consortium members will be applied to develop and test a breakthrough PoC prototype for the diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus infections and host responses in the paediatric context. PoC-ID will enable new types of point-of-care diagnostics for virtually any type of complex liquid sample. Applications are disease diagnosis, monitoring of therapeutic responses, clinical research of pathogen-host interaction and personalised medicine. The platform technology can easily be adapted to a variety of diagnostic or biosensing purposes, such as in health/environmental monitoring or food quality testing. PoC-ID will combine the detection of both pathogens and host responses leading to more accurate diagnosis as compared to the current standard which is focused on detection of pathogens only. This novel approach will support prevention and control of pathogen spread and enable faster and more personalised patient treatment. Improved performance in terms of robustness, sensitivity and selectivity will be reached by a combination of innovative nanomembrane technology, molecular engineered capture molecules and two novel sensing concepts. Further advances will be realised in terms of usability and speed of data-analysis arising from the integration of sensors, read-out electronics and microfluidics into one user friendly point-of-care (PoC) platform. Costs of the new disposable sensors will be ultra-low at high volumes, thanks to designing into microelectronics production flows.

Zhou Z.,Leibniz Institute for Age Research | Bruhn C.,Leibniz Institute for Age Research | Wang Z.-Q.,Leibniz Institute for Age Research | Wang Z.-Q.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
DNA Repair | Year: 2012

MRN (MRE11/RAD50/NBS) helps to activate ATM in response to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) and also facilitates ATR activation by catalyzing the formation and extension of DNA single strand breaks (SSBs). Mutations of NBS1 and ATR cause human genomic instability syndrome NBS and ATR-Seckel, respectively, both of which feature neurodevelopmental defects. Whether these two DNA damage response components interact to prevent neuropathology is largely unknown. Here we show that a deletion of Nbs1 or Atr in the mouse central nervous system (CNS) results in neurodevelopmental defects characterized by reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis in embryonic brains. In contrast to Nbs1, deletion of Atr alone and both Nbs1 and Atr in the CNS causes early postnatal lethality, indicating a wider function of Atr. Importantly, deletion of Nbs1 and Atr together results in dramatic proliferation defects in neuroprogenitors. Whereas most apoptosis in the Nbs1-deleted cortex is restricted to the highly proliferating progenitors, Atr knockout induces apoptosis in both proliferating and non-proliferating neural cells. Consistently, an inducible deletion of Atr or Nbs1-Atr, but not of Nbs1, triggers a p53-independent cell death pathway in differentiated neurons, albeit elevated DNA damage in Nbs1 null neurons. Altogether, we identify a distinct function of Nbs1 and Atr in neurogenesis, namely a specific function of Nbs1 in proliferating neuroprogenitors and of Atr in both proliferating and non-dividing cells. © 2011 Elsevier B.V..

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2010-ITN | Award Amount: 4.72M | Year: 2010

The interest in bottom-up fabricated semiconductor nanowires (NWs) has been growing steadily in the last years due to their potential as basic building blocks of nanoscale devices and circuits. Investigations performed so far try to exploit three unique properties of NWs: First, they are the smallest dimension structures that allow optical guiding and electrical contacting simultaneously. Second, their large surface to volume ratio enhances their interaction with the environment, turning them into optimal chemical and biological sensors. Finally, their anisotropic geometry makes their optical and electrical properties dramatically dependent on their orientation, allowing their use as polarization-dependent sensors. Most NW applications rely on the ability to grow, characterize (structurally, optically and electronically) and manipulate both individual and collections of NWs. To date it is rather difficult to find a single research group covering all of the above competences, and students (or post-docs) usually focus on a single aspect of NW-based device realization (either growth, characterization, simulation or device assembly). The scope of this project is to create a European Network of experienced teams that will provide early stage researchers with a multidisciplinary framework and a comprehensive training in the field of NW physics and applications. The active involvement of industrial partners will ensure that the acquired competences are driven by industrial needs, such as scalable and low cost NW production. The interaction with associated industrial partners will also add to the employability of the recruited researchers through the exposure to the private sector. The main applications that we intend to address within the project time are the following: (i) nanowires for sensing applications, (ii) nanowires for optoelectronics (iii) nanowires for nanoelectronics and (iv) nanowires for energy harvesting.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2008-1.1.1 | Award Amount: 11.85M | Year: 2009

LASERLAB-EUROPE II is a Consortium of Laser Research Infrastructures from the majority of the European member states, forming a FP7 Integrated Infrastructure Initiative. Given the importance of lasers and their applications in all areas of sciences, life sciences and technologies, the main objectives of the Consortium are: - To form a competitive, inter-disciplinary network of European national laser laboratories; - To strengthen the European leading role in laser research through Joint Research Activities (JRA), pushing the laser concept into new directions and opening up new applications of key importance; - To engage in the Transnational Access Programme in a co-ordinated fashion for the benefit of the European research community. - To increase the European basis in laser research and applications by reaching out to neighboring scientific communities and by assisting the development of Laser Research Infrastructures on both the national and the European level.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: EeB-01-2014 | Award Amount: 8.10M | Year: 2015

An important target of Europe 2020 is climate change and energy sustainability. To reach the ambitious aims, it is necessary to improve the energy performance of buildings in operation. Embodied energy in materials presents a high percentage of the energy spent in the whole life cycle of a building, so new materials are needed. Therefore we will develop within this project a novel material solution for ultra-efficient solar energy harvesting and heat exchange through an active building envelope. We thereby address the two technical applications of windows and facades, into which we will implement LARGE AREA FLUIDIC WINDOWS (LaWin). LaWin represents the vision of large-area microfluidic windows and facade elements which are based on four types of new materials: low-cost thin and strong cover glasses, microstructured rolled glasses of architectural quality, a glass-glass compound comprising microfluidic channels and a heat storage liquid designed for transparency and/or active functionality in facade and window implementation. LaWin devices will be designed to build on existing platforms and geometries used in triple glazing and facade elements to enable rapid market access and acceptance. Expected impacts: - Reduction of embodied energy and CO2 to 0 for window surfaces after four months of using (possible because of using regenerative energy with windows for climatisation of buildings, high insulation) - Reduction of at least 123 000 t CO2 per year for heating (goal: at least 2% of window furnaces in Europe) - Improving thermal insulation figures for window surfaces by at least 20% - Reduction of total costs-Purchase price is higher, but running costs are really low - Demonstration of at least a 10% reduction of the energy spent during the whole life cycle of a building; - strengthen competitiveness for all project partners - Clear and transparent information to facilitate better decision making - High quality and environmentally friendly alternative for the build

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: SGA-RIA | Phase: FETFLAGSHIP | Award Amount: 89.00M | Year: 2016

This project is the second in the series of EC-financed parts of the Graphene Flagship. The Graphene Flagship is a 10 year research and innovation endeavour with a total project cost of 1,000,000,000 euros, funded jointly by the European Commission and member states and associated countries. The first part of the Flagship was a 30-month Collaborative Project, Coordination and Support Action (CP-CSA) under the 7th framework program (2013-2016), while this and the following parts are implemented as Core Projects under the Horizon 2020 framework. The mission of the Graphene Flagship is to take graphene and related layered materials from a state of raw potential to a point where they can revolutionise multiple industries. This will bring a new dimension to future technology a faster, thinner, stronger, flexible, and broadband revolution. Our program will put Europe firmly at the heart of the process, with a manifold return on the EU investment, both in terms of technological innovation and economic growth. To realise this vision, we have brought together a larger European consortium with about 150 partners in 23 countries. The partners represent academia, research institutes and industries, which work closely together in 15 technical work packages and five supporting work packages covering the entire value chain from materials to components and systems. As time progresses, the centre of gravity of the Flagship moves towards applications, which is reflected in the increasing importance of the higher - system - levels of the value chain. In this first core project the main focus is on components and initial system level tasks. The first core project is divided into 4 divisions, which in turn comprise 3 to 5 work packages on related topics. A fifth, external division acts as a link to the parts of the Flagship that are funded by the member states and associated countries, or by other funding sources. This creates a collaborative framework for the entire Flagship.

Ristow M.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Ristow M.,German Institute of Human Nutrition | Schmeisser S.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Free Radical Biology and Medicine | Year: 2011

Various nutritional, behavioral, and pharmacological interventions have been previously shown to extend life span in diverse model organisms, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, mice, and rats, as well as possibly monkeys and humans. This review aims to summarize published evidence that several longevity-promoting interventions may converge by causing an activation of mitochondrial oxygen consumption to promote increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These serve as molecular signals to exert downstream effects to ultimately induce endogenous defense mechanisms culminating in increased stress resistance and longevity, an adaptive response more specifically named mitochondrial hormesis or mitohormesis. Consistently, we here summarize findings that antioxidant supplements that prevent these ROS signals interfere with the health-promoting and life-span-extending capabilities of calorie restriction and physical exercise. Taken together and consistent with ample published evidence, the findings summarized here question Harman's Free Radical Theory of Aging and rather suggest that ROS act as essential signaling molecules to promote metabolic health and longevity. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Huang Y.,Chongqing University | Huang Y.,CAS Institute of Physics | Fang Y.,Chalmers University of Technology | Zhang Z.,Institute of Photonic Technology | And 4 more authors.
Light: Science and Applications | Year: 2014

Due to its amazing ability to manipulate light at the nanoscale, plasmonics has become one of the most interesting topics in the field of light-matter interaction. As a promising application of plasmonics, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been widely used in scientific investigations and material analysis. The large enhanced Raman signals are mainly caused by the extremely enhanced electromagnetic field that results from localized surface plasmon polaritons. Recently, a novel SERS technology called remote SERS has been reported, combining both localized surface plasmon polaritons and propagating surface plasmon polaritons (PSPPs, or called plasmonic waveguide), which may be found in prominent applications in special circumstances compared to traditional local SERS. In this article, we review the mechanism of remote SERS and its development since it was first reported in 2009. Various remote metal systems based on plasmonic waveguides, such as nanoparticle-nanowire systems, single nanowire systems, crossed nanowire systems and nanowire dimer systems, are introduced, and recent novel applications, such as sensors, plasmon-driven surface-catalyzed reactions and Raman optical activity, are also presented. Furthermore, studies of remote SERS in dielectric and organic systems based on dielectric waveguides remind us that this useful technology has additional, tremendous application prospects that have not been realized in metal systems.© 2014 CIOMP. All rights reserved 2047-7538/14.

Van de Schoot R.,University Utrecht | Van de Schoot R.,North West University South Africa | Kaplan D.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Denissen J.,University of Tilburg | And 3 more authors.
Child Development | Year: 2014

Bayesian statistical methods are becoming ever more popular in applied and fundamental research. In this study a gentle introduction to Bayesian analysis is provided. It is shown under what circumstances it is attractive to use Bayesian estimation, and how to interpret properly the results. First, the ingredients underlying Bayesian methods are introduced using a simplified example. Thereafter, the advantages and pitfalls of the specification of prior knowledge are discussed. To illustrate Bayesian methods explained in this study, in a second example a series of studies that examine the theoretical framework of dynamic interactionism are considered. In the Discussion the advantages and disadvantages of using Bayesian statistics are reviewed, and guidelines on how to report on Bayesian statistics are provided. © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

Huber M.Q.,TU Darmstadt | Maas A.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Von Smekal L.,TU Darmstadt
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2012

We investigate the Dyson-Schwinger equations for the gluon and ghost propagators and the ghost-gluon vertex of Landau-gauge gluodynamics in two dimensions. While this simplifies some aspects of the calculations as compared to three and four dimensions, new complications arise due to a mixing of different momentum regimes. As a result, the solutions for the propagators are more sensitive to changes in the three-point functions and the ansätze used for them at the leading order in a vertex expansion. Here, we therefore go beyond this common truncation by including the ghost-gluon vertex self-consistently for the first time, while using a model for the three-gluon vertex which reproduces the known infrared asymptotics and the zeros at intermediate momenta as observed on the lattice. A separate computation of the three-gluon vertex from the results is used to confirm the stability of this behavior a posteriori. We also present further arguments for the absence of the decoupling solution in two dimensions. Finally, we show how in general the infrared exponent κ of the scaling solutions in two, three and four dimensions can be changed by allowing an angle dependence and thus an essential singularity of the ghost-gluon vertex in the infrared. © 2012 SISSA, Trieste, Italy.

Geissler A.,TU Darmstadt | Biesalski M.,TU Darmstadt | Heinze T.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Zhang K.,TU Darmstadt
Journal of Materials Chemistry A | Year: 2014

Nanoparticles (NPs) from derivatives of native polysaccharides have not been as intensively studied yet as those from synthetic polymers. In this report, NPs in aqueous suspensions were fabricated using cellulose stearoyl esters (CSEs) with different molecular weights via nanoprecipitation using dropping and dialysis techniques. The average diameters of NPs depended strongly on the concentrations of CSE solutions, molecular weights of CSE and also the nanoprecipitation technique. Both nanoprecipitation techniques are based on different mechanisms and NPs from dialysis are generally larger than NPs from dropping. The mechanism for dropping nanoprecipitation was further analyzed based on the properties of NPs which contain crystallized stearoyl groups in CSE chains. The average diameters of freshly-prepared CSE nanoparticles decreased with rising temperature, which is accompanied by the release of THF from the interior of NPs. The intensity of the size reduction of up to 35% depended on the one hand on the concentration of CSE solutions, and on the other hand on the molecular weights of CSEs. Finally, it was shown that these NPs can be used for the fabrication of temperature-responsive superhydrophobic surfaces. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Jun J.E.,University of California at San Francisco | Rubio I.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Roose J.P.,University of California at San Francisco
Frontiers in Immunology | Year: 2013

The Ras-MAPK signaling pathway is highly conserved throughout evolution and is activated downstream of a wide range of receptor stimuli. Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RasGEFs) catalyze GTP loading of Ras and play a pivotal role in regulating receptor-ligand induced Ras activity. In T cells, three families of functionally important RasGEFs are expressed: RasGRF, RasGRP, and Son of Sevenless (SOS)-family GEFs. Early on it was recognized that Ras activation is critical for T cell development and that the RasGEFs play an important role herein. More recent work has revealed that nuances in Ras activation appear to significantly impact T cell development and selection. These nuances include distinct biochemical patterns of analog versus digital Ras activation, differences in cellular localization of Ras activation, and intricate interplays between the RasGEFs during distinct T cell developmental stages as revealed by various new mouse models. In many instances, the exact nature of these nuances in Ras activation or how these may result from fine-tuning of the RasGEFs is not understood. One large group of biomolecules critically involved in the control of RasGEFs functions are lipid second messengers. Multiple, yet distinct lipid products are generated following T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation and bind to different domains in the RasGRP and SOS RasGEFs to facilitate the activation of the membrane-anchored Ras GTPases. In this review we highlight how different lipid-based elements are generated by various enzymes downstream of the TCR and other receptors and how these dynamic and interrelated lipid products may fine-tune Ras activation by RasGEFs in developing T cells. © 2013 Jun, Rubio and Roose.

Cox S.,King's College London | Rosten E.,University of Cambridge | Rosten E.,Computer Vision Consulting Ltd. | Monypenny J.,King's College London | And 7 more authors.
Nature Methods | Year: 2012

We describe a localization microscopy analysis method that is able to extract results in live cells using standard fluorescent proteins and xenon arc lamp illumination. Our Bayesian analysis of the blinking and bleaching (3B analysis) method models the entire dataset simultaneously as being generated by a number of fluorophores that may or may not be emitting light at any given time. The resulting technique allows many overlapping fluorophores in each frame and unifies the analysis of the localization from blinking and bleaching events. By modeling the entire dataset, we were able to use each reappearance of a fluorophore to improve the localization accuracy. The high performance of this technique allowed us to reveal the nanoscale dynamics of podosome formation and dissociation throughout an entire cell with a resolution of 50 nm on a 4-s timescale. © 2012 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Kotzampassi K.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Giamarellos-Bourboulis E.J.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Giamarellos-Bourboulis E.J.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents | Year: 2012

According to current definitions, probiotics are live microorganisms that, when ingested in adequate quantities, exert a health benefit to the host. The action of probiotics in the host is exerted by three mechanisms: modulation of the content of gut microbiota; maintenance of the integrity of the gut barrier and prevention of bacterial translocation; and modulation of the local immune response by the gut-associated immune system. Regarding their role for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases, adequate evidence coming from randomised clinical trials (RCTs) is available for antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD), Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), acute gastroenteritis and infectious complications following admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Existing evidence supports their role for decreasing the incidence of AAD and CDI when administered in parallel with antimicrobials. They also shorten the duration of symptoms when administered in paediatric populations with acute gastroenteritis, particularly of rotavirus aetiology. Available evidence is not sufficient to support administration for the management of CDI. Regarding populations of critically ill patients, data from many RCTs suggest a decrease of infectious complications by starting feeding with probiotics following ICU admission, with the exception of patients suffering from severe pancreatitis. However, it should be underscored that all analysed RCTs are characterised by marked heterogeneity regarding the type of administered probiotic species, precluding robust recommendations. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

Sheppard C.J.R.,Italian Institute of Technology | Mehta S.B.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Heintzmann R.,Institute of Photonic Technology | Heintzmann R.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Heintzmann R.,King's College London
Optics Letters | Year: 2013

The effect of detector array size on resolution and signal collection efficiency of image scanning microscopy based on pixel reassignment is studied. It is shown how the method can also be employed if there is a Stokes shift in fluorescence emission wavelength. With no Stokes shift, the width of the point spread function can be sharpened by a factor of 1.53, and its peak intensity increased by a factor of 1.84. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

Riese S.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Seyfarth A.,TU Darmstadt
Bioinspiration and Biomimetics | Year: 2012

The spring-loaded inverted pendulum describes the planar center-of-mass dynamics of legged locomotion. This model features linear springs with constant parameters as legs. In biological systems, however, spring-like properties of limbs can change over time. Therefore, in this study, it is asked how variation of spring parameters during ground contact would affect the dynamics of the spring-mass model. Neglecting damping initially, it is found that decreasing stiffness and increasing rest length of the leg during a stance phase are required for orbitally stable hopping. With damping, stable hopping is found for a larger region of rest-length rates and stiffness rates. Here, also increasing stiffness and decreasing rest length can result in stable hopping. Within the predicted range of leg parameter variations for stable hopping, there is no need for precise parameter tuning. Since hopping gaits form a subset of the running gaits (with vanishing horizontal velocity), these results may help to improve leg design in robots and prostheses. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Huber M.Q.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Huber M.Q.,TU Darmstadt | Braun J.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Computer Physics Communications | Year: 2012

We present the Mathematica application DoFun 1 which allows to derive Dyson-Schwinger equations and renormalization group flow equations for n-point functions in a simple manner. DoFun offers several tools which considerably simplify the derivation of these equations from a given physical action. We discuss the application of DoFun by means of two different types of quantum field theories, namely a bosonic O(N) theory and the Gross-Neveu model. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Gramss G.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Voigt K.-D.,Food GmbH Jena
Plant and Soil | Year: 2013

Aims: Along a gradient of diminishing heavy metal (HM) concentrations formed by local inclusions of uranium mine soils into non-contaminated cropland, duplicate 1-m2 plots of 3 winter wheat cvs. (Akteur E, Brilliant A, and Bussard E) were established at 3 positions within a winter rye (cv. Visello) culture. It was the goal to determine permissible soil HM concentrations tolerated by cereal cvs. with variable excluder properties, and regulatory mechanisms which optimize the concentrations of essential minerals and radionuclide analogues in viable seeds from geologically related soils with diverging HM content. Methods: Total metal concentrations / nitrogen species in soils, shoots, and mature grains were determined by ICP-MS / spectrophotometry, and Kjeldahl analyses. Results: No non-permissible concentrations in grains of the 4 cereal cvs. were caused by elevated but aged total soil resources (mg kg-1 DW) in As (156); Cu (283); Mn (2,130); Pb (150); and in Zn (3,005) in the case of Bussard although CdCuZn elicited phytotoxicity symptoms. Uranium (41) contaminated grains of Akteur and Brilliant but not of Bussard and Visello due to their excluder properties. The concentration in Cd (41) had to be reduced to 20/2 mg kg-1 for the production by excluder cvs. of fodder/food grains. Cultivars excluding both HM and radionuclide analogues such as BaCsSr synchronously were not identified. Whereas plant tissue concentrations in the metalloprotein-associated elements CdCoCuMnNiZn rise and fall generally with Norg, grains of the wheat cvs. differed too little in Norg to designate variations in their metal acquisition rates solely as protein-regulated. Wheat grains confined nevertheless the concentrations in Cu to 11-14 mg kg-1 although the respective soil concentrations varied by factor 19. Grain deposition in CaFeMn(Zn) and in nuclides followed the same rules. Conclusions: It is hypothesized that cereals down-/up-regulate grain:soil transfer rates from soils with excessive/deficient trace metal resources to equip viable seeds with an optimum but not maximum in essential minerals. Positive correlations between metal concentrations in planta to those in soil can thereby be lost. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Lukes-Gerakopoulos G.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Seyrich J.,University of Tübingen | Kunst D.,University of Bremen
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2014

In this paper we report the results of a thorough numerical study of the motion of spinning particles in Kerr spacetime with different prescriptions. We first evaluate the Mathisson-Papapetrou equations with two different spin supplementary conditions, namely, the Tulczyjew and the Newton-Wigner, and make a comparison of these two cases. We then use the Hamiltonian formalism given by Barausse, Racine, and Buonanno [Phys. Rev. D 80, 104025 (2009)] to evolve the orbits and compare them with the corresponding orbits provided by the Mathisson-Papapetrou equations. We include a full description of how to treat the issues arising in the numerical implementation. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Jost A.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Jost A.,Institute of Photonic Technology | Heintzmann R.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Heintzmann R.,Institute of Photonic Technology | Heintzmann R.,King's College London
Annual Review of Materials Research | Year: 2013

The resolution of an optical microscope is fundamentally limited by diffraction. In a conventional wide-field fluorescence microscope, the resolution limit is at best 200 nm. However, modern superresolution methods can bypass this limit. Pointillistic imaging techniques like PALM (photoactivated localization microscopy) and STORM (stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy) do so by precisely localizing each individual molecule in a sample. In contrast, STED uses the stimulated emission process driven to saturation to dramatically reduce the size of the region in the sample that is capable of spontaneously emitting fluorescence. Structured illumination microscopy (SIM) illuminates the sample with a pattern, typically the image of a grating. This computationally removes the out-of-focus blur, a method known as optical sectioning SIM. Furthermore, frequency mixing of the illumination pattern with the sample caused by the moiré effect results in a downmodulation of fine sample detail into the frequency-support region of the detection optical transfer function. High-resolution SIM achieves typically a twofold lateral resolution enhancement. This is further improved by exploiting a nonlinear sample response to the illumination light in SIM. Recent developments of the method allow fast, multicolor, and three-dimensional high-resolution live-cell imaging. © Copyright © 2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Medvedev N.,University of Kaiserslautern | Medvedev N.,German Electron Synchrotron | Zastrau U.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Forster E.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | And 2 more authors.
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

The femtosecond dynamics of the electrons in aluminum after an intense extreme ultraviolet pulse is investigated by Monte Carlo simulations. Transient distributions of the conduction band electrons show an almost thermalized, low-energy part and a high-energy tail. Constructing emission spectra from these data, we find excellent agreement with measurements. The radiative decay mainly reflects the colder part of the distribution, whereas the highly excited electrons dominate the bremsstrahlung spectrum. For the latter, we also find good agreement between predicted and measured energy scales. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Richter M.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Marquetand P.,University of Vienna | Gonzalez-Vazquez J.,Complutense University of Madrid | Sola I.,Complutense University of Madrid | Gonzalez L.,University of Vienna
Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters | Year: 2012

Ab initio molecular dynamics including nonadiabatic and spin-orbit couplings on equal footing is used to unravel the deactivation of cytosine after UV light absorption. Intersystem crossing (ISC) is found to compete directly with internal conversion in tens of femtoseconds, thus making cytosine the organic compound with the fastest triplet population calculated so far. It is found that close degeneracy between singlet and triplet states can more than compensate for very small spin-orbit couplings, leading to efficient ISC. The femtosecond nature of the ISC process highlights its importance in photochemistry and challenges the conventional view that large singlet-triplet couplings are required for an efficient population flow into triplet states. These findings are important to understand DNA photostability and the photochemistry and dynamics of organic molecules in general. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Zaviyalov A.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Grelu P.,University of Burgundy | Lederer F.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Optics Letters | Year: 2012

We theoretically demonstrate and experimentally confirm the major influence of gain dynamics on soliton molecules that self-assemble in mode-locked lasers. Both slow gain recovery and depletion play a pivotal role in the formation of chirped soliton molecules characterized by an increasing separation from leading to trailing pulses. These chirped molecules actually consist of many pulses and may be termed macromolecules. They are experimentally observed in a fiber laser and numerically modeled by an approach that properly includes the slow gain dynamics. Furthermore, it is shown that these processes stabilize soliton trains in fiber lasers by inhibiting internal oscillations. © 2012 Optical Society of America.

Gold R.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Gold R.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Brugmann B.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

We perform a parameter study of nonspinning, equal- and unequal-mass black hole binaries on generic, eccentric orbits in numerical relativity. The linear momentum considered ranges from that of a circular orbit to ten times that value. We discuss the different manifestations of zoom-whirl behavior in the hyperbolic and the elliptic regime. The hyperbolic data set applies to dynamical capture scenarios (e.g., in globular clusters). Evolutions in the elliptic regime correspond to possible end states of supermassive black hole binaries. We spot zoom-whirl behavior for eccentricities as low as e∼0.5, i.e., within the expected range of eccentricities in massive black hole binaries from galaxy mergers and binaries near galactic centers. The resulting gravitational waveforms reveal a rich structure, which will effectively break degeneracies in parameter space, improving parameter estimation. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Ristow M.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Ristow M.,German Institute of Human Nutrition | Zarse K.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Experimental Gerontology | Year: 2010

Recent evidence suggests that calorie restriction and specifically reduced glucose metabolism induces mitochondrial metabolism to extend life span in various model organisms, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans and possibly mice. In conflict with Harman's free radical theory of aging (FRTA), these effects may be due to increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the mitochondria causing an adaptive response that culminates in subsequently increased stress resistance assumed to ultimately cause a long-term reduction of oxidative stress. This type of retrograde response has been named mitochondrial hormesis or mitohormesis, and may in addition be applicable to the health-promoting effects of physical exercise in humans and, hypothetically, impaired insulin/IGF-1-signaling in model organisms. Consistently, abrogation of this mitochondrial ROS signal by antioxidants impairs the lifespan-extending and health-promoting capabilities of glucose restriction and physical exercise, respectively. In summary, the findings discussed in this review indicate that ROS are essential signaling molecules which are required to promote health and longevity. Hence, the concept of mitohormesis provides a common mechanistic denominator for the physiological effects of physical exercise, reduced calorie uptake, glucose restriction, and possibly beyond. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Corral I.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Gonzalez L.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Chemical Physics Letters | Year: 2010

The radiationless decay process connected to the breaking of the O-O bridge in benzene endoperoxide has been investigated using high-level ab initio multiconfigurational MS-CASPT2//CASSCF methods. The homolytic rupture of the O-O bond is controlled by a four-state conical intersection. The nine vectors which define the branching space of this high-order degeneracy point have been extracted from two-state conical intersection calculations between the electronic states involved in the degeneracy. The existence of four-state conical intersections indicates that, in general, endoperoxides can deactivate through very efficient radiationless funnels. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Schermelleh L.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Heintzmann R.,King's College London | Heintzmann R.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Heintzmann R.,Institute of Photonic Technology | Leonhardt H.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich
Journal of Cell Biology | Year: 2010

For centuries, cell biology has been based on light microscopy and at the same time been limited by its optical resolution. However, several new technologies have been developed recently that bypass this limit. These new super-resolution technologies are either based on tailored illumination, nonlinear fluorophore responses, or the precise localization of single molecules. Overall, these new approaches have created unprecedented new possibilities to investigate the structure and function of cells. © 2010 Schermelleh et al.

Williams J.T.,Oregon Health And Science University | Ingram S.L.,Oregon Health And Science University | Henderson G.,University of Bristol | Chavkin C.,University of Washington | And 6 more authors.
Pharmacological Reviews | Year: 2013

Morphine and related m-opioid receptor (MOR) agonists remain among the most effective drugs known for acute relief of severe pain. A major problem in treating painful conditions is that tolerance limits the long-term utility of opioid agonists. Considerable effort has been expended on developing an understanding of the molecular and cellular processes that underlie acute MOR signaling, short-term receptor regulation, and the progression of events that lead to tolerance for different MOR agonists. Although great progress has been made in the past decade, many points of contention and controversy cloud the realization of this progress. This review attempts to clarify some confusion by clearly defining terms, such as desensitization and tolerance, and addressing optimal pharmacological analyses for discerning relative importance of these cellular mechanisms. Cellular and molecular mechanisms regulatingMORfunction by phosphorylation relative to receptor desensitization and endocytosis are comprehensively reviewed, with an emphasis on agonistbiased regulation and areas where knowledge is lacking or controversial. The implications of these mechanisms for understanding the substantial contribution of MOR signaling to opioid tolerance are then considered in detail. While some functional MOR regulatory mechanisms contributing to tolerance are clearly understood, there are large gaps in understanding the molecular processes responsible for loss of MOR function after chronic exposure to opioids. Further elucidation of the cellular mechanisms that are regulated by opioids will be necessary for the successful development of MORbased approaches to new pain therapeutics that limit the development of tolerance. © 2013 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

Ambrose C.S.,MedImmune LLC | Wu X.,MedImmune LLC | Knuf M.,Dr. Horst Schmidt Klinik | Knuf M.,University Mainz | Wutzler P.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Vaccine | Year: 2012

Background: Nine randomized controlled clinical trials, including approximately 26,000 children aged 6 months to 17 years, have evaluated the efficacy of live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) against culture-confirmed influenza illness compared with placebo or trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV). The objective of the current analysis was to integrate available LAIV efficacy data in children aged 2-17 years, the group for whom LAIV is approved for use. Methods: A meta-analysis was conducted using all available randomized controlled trials and a fixed-effects model. Cases caused by drifted influenza B were analyzed as originally classified and with all antigenic variants classified as dissimilar. Results: Five placebo-controlled trials (4 were 2-season trials) and 3 single-season TIV-controlled trials were analyzed. Compared with placebo, year 1 efficacy of 2 doses of LAIV was 83% (95% CI: 78, 87) against antigenically similar strains; efficacy was 87% (95% CI: 78, 93), 86% (95% CI: 79, 91), and 76% (95% CI: 63, 84) for A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and B, respectively. Classifying B variants as dissimilar, efficacy against all similar strains was 87% (95% CI: 83, 91) and 93% (95% CI: 83, 97) against similar B strains. Year 2 efficacy was 87% (95% CI: 82, 91) against similar strains. Compared with TIV, LAIV recipients experienced 44% (95% CI: 28, 56) and 48% (95% CI: 38, 57) fewer cases of influenza illness caused by similar strains and all strains, respectively. LAIV efficacy estimates for children from Europe, the United States, and Middle East were robust and were similar to or higher than those for the overall population. Conclusions: In children aged 2-17 years, LAIV demonstrated high efficacy after 2 doses in year 1 and revaccination in year 2, and greater efficacy compared with TIV. This meta-analysis provides precise estimates of LAIV efficacy among the approved pediatric age group. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Boots A.B.,University of Florida | Sanchez-Ramos L.,University of Florida | Bowers D.M.,University of Florida | Kaunitz A.M.,University of Florida | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2014

Objective To assess the diagnostic accuracy of fetal fibronectin (fFN), fetal breathing movements (FBM), and cervical length (CL) for the short-term prediction of preterm birth in symptomatic patients. Study Design Diagnostic metaanalysis using bivariate methods. Results Pooled sensitivities for fFN, FBM, and CL for delivery within 48 hours of testing were 0.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43-0.78), 0.75 (95% CI, 0.57-0.87) and 0.77 (95% CI, 0.54-0.90), respectively. Pooled specificities for fFN, FBM, and CL for delivery within 48 hours were 0.81 (95% CI, 0.74-0.86), 0.93 (95% CI, 0.75-0.98) and 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84-0.91). Pooled sensitivities for fFN, FBM, and CL for delivery within 7 days were 0.75 (95% CI, 0.69-0.80), 0.67 (95% CI, 0.43-0.84), and 0.74 (95% CI, 0.58-0.85). Pooled specificities for fFN, FBM, and CL for delivery within 7 days were 0.79 (95% CI, 0.76-0.83), 0.98 (95% CI, 0.83-1.00) and 0.89 (95% CI, 0.85-0.92). Based on a pretest probability of 10% for delivery within 48 hours, posttest probabilities (positive and negative) were 27% and 5% for fFN, 54% and 3% for fFN, and 42% and 3% for CL. For a pretest probability of 20% for delivery within 7 days, posttest probabilities (positive and negative) were 48% and 7% for fFN, 89% and 8% for FBM, and 63% and 7% for CL. Conclusion In symptomatic patients, for fFN, absence of FBM, and CL have diagnostic use as predictors of delivery within 48 hours and within 7 days of testing. Absence of FBM appears to be the best test for predicting preterm birth. © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

Fechner A.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Kiehntopf M.,Jena University Hospital | Jahreis G.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2014

Lupin kernel fiber beneficially modifies blood lipids because of its bile acid-binding capacity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventive effects of a lupin kernel fiber preparation on cardiovascular diseases and to clarify possible mechanisms. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled crossover trial, 60 moderately hypercholesterolemic adults (plasma total cholesterol: >5.2 mmol/L) passed 3 intervention periods in different orders with a 2-wk washout phase between each. Participants consumed either a high-fiber diet containing 25-g/d lupin kernel fiber (LF) or citrus fiber (CF), or a low-fiber control diet (CD) for 4 wk each. Anthropometric, plasma, and fecal variables were assessed at baseline and after the interventions. Contrary to the CF period, total (9%) and LDL (12%) cholesterol aswell as triacylglycerols (10%)were lower after the LF period when compared with the CD period [P ≤ 0.02, adjusted for baseline, age, gender, and body mass index (BMI)]. HDL cholesterol remained unchanged. Moreover, the LF period reduced high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (P = 0.02) and systolic blood pressure (P = 0.01) when compared with baseline. Bile acid binding could not be shown because the excretion of total bile acids remained constant after the high-fiber diets. However, the LF period resulted in an enhanced formation of the main short-chain fatty acids in comparison with the CD period. During the CF period, only acetate increased significantly. Both highfiber diets led to higher satiety and modified nutritional behavior, resulting in significantly lower body weight, BMI, and waist circumference compared with the CD period. The blood lipid-lowering effects of LF are apparently not a result of bile acid binding. Rather, we hypothesize for the first time, to our knowledge, that the blood lipid-lowering effects of LFmay bemainly attributed to the formation of short-chain fatty acids, specifically propionate and acetate. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

Friebe C.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Hager M.D.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Winter A.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Schubert U.S.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | And 2 more authors.
Advanced Materials | Year: 2012

Electropolymerization represents a suitable and well-established approach for the assembly of polymer structures, in particular with regard to the formation of thin, insoluble films. Utilization of monomers that are functionalized with metal complex units allows the combination of structural and functional benefits of polymers and metal moieties. Since a broad range of both electropolymerizable monomers and metal complexes are available, various structures and, thus, applications are possible. Recent developments in the field of synthesis and potential applications of metal-functionalized polymers obtained via electropolymerization are presented, highlighting the significant advances in this field of research. Electropolymerization of metal-containing monomers allows the formation of hybrid materials that combine advantageous properties of polymers and metal complex units. Varying monomer assemblies can lead to different types of metallopolymers featuring differing metal-polymer backbone interactions. Recent progress and trends concerning the electrochemical incorporation of metal complexes into polymer structures and their potential application possibilities are presented. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Jin H.,Stanford University | White S.R.,Stanford University | Shida T.,Stanford University | Schulz S.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | And 4 more authors.
Cell | Year: 2010

The BBSome is a complex of Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (BBS) proteins that shares common structural elements with COPI, COPII, and clathrin coats. Here, we show that the BBSome constitutes a coat complex that sorts membrane proteins to primary cilia. The BBSome is the major effector of the Arf-like GTPase Arl6/BBS3, and the BBSome and GTP-bound Arl6 colocalize at ciliary punctae in an interdependent manner. Strikingly, Arl6GTP-mediated recruitment of the BBSome to synthetic liposomes produces distinct patches of polymerized coat apposed onto the lipid bilayer. Finally, the ciliary targeting signal of somatostatin receptor 3 needs to be directly recognized by the BBSome in order to mediate targeting of membrane proteins to cilia. Thus, we propose that trafficking of BBSome cargoes to cilia entails the coupling of BBSome coat polymerization to the recognition of sorting signals by the BBSome. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Avitabile V.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Baccini A.,Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution | Friedl M.A.,Boston University | Schmullius C.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Remote Sensing of Environment | Year: 2012

Aboveground woody biomass for circa-2000 is mapped at national scale in Uganda at 30-m spatial resolution on the basis of Landsat ETM. +. images, a National land cover dataset and field data using an object-oriented approach. A regression tree-based model (Random Forest) produces good results (cross-validated R± 0.81, RMSE 13. T/ha) when trained with a sufficient number of field plots representative of the vegetation variability at national scale. The Random Forest model captures non-linear relationships between satellite data and biomass density, and is able to use categorical data (land cover) in the regression to improve the results. Biomass estimates were strongly correlated (r = 0.90 and r = 0.83) with independent LiDAR measurements. In this study, we demonstrate that in certain contexts Landsat data provide the capability to spatialize field biomass measurements and produce accurate and detailed estimates of biomass distribution at national scale. We also investigate limitations of this approach, which tend to provide conservative biomass estimates. Specific limitations are mainly related to saturation of the optical signal at high biomass density and cloud cover, which hinders the compilation of a radiometrically consistent multi-temporal dataset. As a result, a Landsat mosaic created for Uganda with images acquired in the dry season during 1999-2003 does not contain phenological information useful for discriminating some vegetation types, such as deciduous formations. The addition of land cover data increases the model performance because it provides information on vegetation phenology. We note that Landsat data present higher spatial and thematic resolution compared to land cover and allow detailed and spatially continuous biomass estimates to be mapped. Fusion of satellite and ancillary data may improve biomass predictions but, to avoid error propagation, accurate, detailed and up-to-date land cover or other ancillary data are necessary. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Caldwell J.D.,LECOM Pharmacology | Jirikowski G.F.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Hormone and Metabolic Research | Year: 2013

It has been 7 years (can it really be that long?) since we co-edited a volume (#38) of Hormone and Metabolic Research that focused on evidence that steroid-binding globulins play an active role in the actions of steroids. There has been considerable progress in identifying the location, the physiological actions, and of determining the role of binding globulins in the actions of steroids and identifying a membrane-associated receptor for a binding protein since then and this review will discuss this progress. © 2013 Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SC5-16-2014 | Award Amount: 4.98M | Year: 2015

The objective of the project SWOS is to develop a monitoring and information service focussing on wetland ecosystems. Globally wetlands are the ecosystems with the highest rate of loss. This is alarming, considering their significance as biodiversity hotspots and ecosystems with a central role in the water cycle, including improving water quality and reducing water scarcity, in climate regulation and the economic benefit gained from using their services. A key limitation to their more effective conservation, sustainable management and restoration is the missing knowledge underpinning the application of European policy by Member States. Under the Biodiversity Strategy, Member States have recently committed to the mapping and assessment of ecosystem services (MAES); this provides a key instrument for an improved integration of wetlands in policy. SWOS will take full advantage of the Sentinel satellites and integrate results from the ESA Globwetland projects. Status maps and indicators, as well as near real-time observations will allow the assessment of biodiversity and the monitoring of dynamic changes in an unmatched temporal and spatial resolution. The Service Portal will allow the integration and web-based analysis of new maps and in-situ measurements and provide a unique entry point to locate, access and connect existing information and databases. It follows a GEOSS compatible data-broker approach and adopts international standards. SWOS contributes to establishing a Global Wetland Observing System, as requested by Ramsar, it will facilitate local and EU monitoring tasks and input into international reporting obligations. SWOS will position Europe in a leading role for wetland activities within the GEO ecosystem, biodiversity, water, land cover tasks. The direct involvement of users working at different scales and support of key user organizations ensures the usability and acceptance of the service, the harmonization with related activities and a long-term impact.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: ENV.2008. | Award Amount: 3.14M | Year: 2009

The overall goal of UMBRELLA is to use microorganisms to develop cost-efficient and sustainable measures for soil remediation at heavy metal contaminated sites throughout Europe. This will be facilitated by research in microbiology, plant uptake and (hydro)geochemistry centers on the study of microbial influence on metal biogeochemical cycles and their impact for use in soil and water protection. The technologies developed provide a speed-up of existing bioremediation techniques and will provide a tool-box to end-users with microbes for remediation actions in different European climatic, geological and biological setting which will allow low-cost, sustainable, on-site bioremediation of metal contaminations. At the same time, the introduction of a concerted, internationalized education of interdisciplinary trained PhD students across Europe will ascertain a long-lasting, sustainable education profile with relevance to soil remediation. The involvement of government agencies is focussing on the possibility to provide governments with fused guidelines for soil and water protection in a way that overcomes the practises of separated agencies by focussing on ecotoxicological risks resulting from metal contamination on-site as well as by transport through water paths in ground water and international water ways. Dissemination of results will be ensured by international congresses and publications. The management of an integrative, multi-partner consortium ensures the applicability by combination of eight sites across Europe in one modeling approach which will cover Northern, Southern, Middle and Eastern European sites to guarantee future applicability across Europe.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 4.37M | Year: 2008

The European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility addresses an important need of European science and technology by providing experimental, industrial and other researchers with access to state-of-the-art computer simulation tools for electronic excited states in matter, together with high-quality support from ETSF personnel, mirroring the massive progress in the power and resolution of new European experimental facilities. All domains that need knowledge about electronic excitations, transport and spectroscopy will benefit from the ETSF, such as condensed matter physics and chemistry, biology, materials science and nanoscience, atmospheric science, and astrophysics. The ETSF provides users with computer codes, background knowledge, customised support and development, training, and collaborators to enhance their studies of the electronic and transport properties of complex or nanoscale materials. Its focus is on the rapid transfer of ground-breaking fundamental knowledge of matter, at the quantum-mechanical level, to detailed understanding and future-oriented design of prototypical or technologically relevant systems. The ETSF has been successfully designed and recently brought into operation by the Nanoquanta Network of Excellence with the support of national and local institutions. In the present ETSF-I3 project, the ETSF is partnered by the Barcelona Supercomputing Centre to create a framework for deploying the ETSF infrastructure to a much wider range of users, through user training and projects supported by ETSF scientists. The ETSF-I3 project will monitor the scientific and technological needs of users, and will boost the user-oriented development of ETSF software, algorithms and libraries made available on the most advanced computational platforms. ETSF-I3 will be crucial to keep the ETSF at the forefront of knowledge and establish it as the world-wide reference centre for modelling of electronic excited states.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: INCO.2011-7.5 | Award Amount: 2.12M | Year: 2012

The general objective of the project is to use the Nansen International Environmental and Remote Sensing Centre (NIERSC) established in St. Petersburg, Russia, and funded by Norway and Germany, as the joint research facility to extend, consolidate and strengthen scientific cooperation between researchers from the EU Member States and Associated Countries with those from Russia through the joint studies of climate and environmental changes in the Arctic and Sub-Arctic in the 21st century and their socio-economic impact. NIERSC research facilities, enhanced and expanded in the frame of the project, will be opened to the researchers from other Member States, specifically from Austria, Finland, France, Sweden and UK, additionally to researchers from Germany, Norway and Russia, founders of NIERSC. Increasing and extending scientific cooperation between researchers from the Member States and Associated Countries with Russian researchers will be organized through involvement of additional researchers in the NIERSC ongoing projects and preparation of new future joint scientific projects in the area of environmental and climate research in the Arctic and Sub-Arctic including socio-economic issues via organization of joint scientific workshops and seminars. Since 1992 NIERSC has built a wide network with Russian research institutions, universities and governmental agencies which will serve in the future for further enhancement of European-Russian cooperation in proposed research area far beyond the completion of EuRuCAS. To sustain this cooperation in the future, young generation of researchers will be greatly involved in the project through research periods at NIERSC and organizing Summer School with the focus on environmental and climate research in the Arctic and Sub-Arctic including socio-economic impact. Within EuRuCAS implementation the ways for opening NIERSC institutional arrangements for new members from EU Member States and/or Associated Countries will be defined.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP-2007-2.1-1 | Award Amount: 8.00M | Year: 2008

The projects main R&T objective is to create new, smart and bio-based surface nanostructured polymer composites showing exceptional surface functionality (mechanical, chemical, selective interaction properties). These new materials will be composed of nano-scaled polysaccharides layers with embedded nano-particles, coating different celluloses matrices. The compounding is restricted to the biopolymers surface and outer layers, providing the filler to the area where it is required and avoiding the deterioration of the matrix materials mechanical properties. The project will investigate these new effects - cellulose dissolution, structuration with nano-particles and irreversible coating will develop their understanding and mastering and exploit their applicability. Several routes will be opened to prepare a completely new class of high-value biobased materials with tailored functions and properties applicable in many different fields: Separation technologies: providing selective interaction properties tuneable by environmental properties Technical fibres and foils: Specific surface modifications (strength, abrasion, thermal and chemical stability, hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity ) Improved properties as flame resistance, conductivity, antimicrobial activity, barrier properties Medical and hygienic devices: Formation of depots for humidity, drugs (controlled release), antimicrobial compounds. Sensors, displays, electronic devices: performing structural changes under the influence of an external field. The project will have impact to Nanoscience by the development of knowledge and new strategies to handle nanoparticles and to design multifunctional nanostructured composite materials based on renewable resources. Nanotechnology by the development of technologies to design new materials based on the elaborated scientifice knowledge.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-2.4.1-7 | Award Amount: 3.92M | Year: 2008

The selective delivery of bioactive agents (cytotoxics, radionuclides, cytokines) at the tumor site, while sparing normal tissues, represents one of the most promising avenues for the development of anticancer therapies with unprecedented efficacy and tolerability. Monoclonal antibodies represent the preferred vehicle for the targeted delivery of bioactive agents to cancer sites, as they can display a preferential accumulation in primary and metastatic tumor lesions already few hours after intravenous administration. Certain monoclonal antibody derivatives can remain on the neoplastic mass for several days, thus enabling the slow release of potent cytotoxics or the continuous action of bioactive agents such as cytokines or therapeutic radionuclides. The ADAMANT Project aims at the generation of anticancer agents of superior quality, which rely on the antibody-based delivery of cytotoxics, radionuclides or immunostimulatory cytokines to either vascular tumor antigens or to tumor cell membranes. While clinically-validated antibodies will allow the rapid development of therapeutic strategies based on novel antibody derivatives, innovative perfusion-based chemical proteomic technologies will facilitate the discovery of accessible and abundant tumor-associated antigens, ideally suited for the targeted delivery of bioactive agents to cancer sites. Imaging methodologies will guide us in the selection of antigens, antibodies and therapeutic agents with optimal pharmacokinetis and pharmacodynamics. Finally, therapy studies in tumor-bearing mice, featuring the use of antibody-derivatives in combination with other anti-cancer drugs (cytotoxic, biological, vascular disrupting agents) will provide insights about how to best translate the results of the ADAMANT Project to clinical development. The Project will be truly successful if at least one antibody-based tumor targeting agent enters full-blown industrial development programs by the end of the ADAMANT Project.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: PEOPLE-2007-1-1-ITN | Award Amount: 3.76M | Year: 2008

Experienced Researchers from the Universities of Iasi, Brest, Jena, Manchester, Marrakech and Milano propose an Initial Training Network Marie Curie on the theme Deterministic and Stochastic Controlled Systems and Applications. This project aims to unite the six teams with their complementary competences in - Controlled Systems: Deterministic and Stochastic Control, Game Theory, - Stochastic Equations: Stochastic Differential Equations, Stochastic Partial Differential Equations , Backward Stochastic Differential Equations, and - Levy processes as well as fractal processes, in order to investigate problems arising in the interaction between these competences and allowing to study, in cooperation with our industrial partners (coming from the bank and insurance sector), related problems in - Finance and Insurance, but also in - Natural Sciences, namely, the problem of transport in porous media. The Early-Stage Researchers and the Experienced Researchers recruited by the network will be integrated from the early beginning in research projects between teams with complementary competences which should allow them (as well as the qualified researchers from the different teams) to profit from synergy effects and find quite new answers to the research problems. Besides an individual research training under supervision of qualified researchers and a local training programme the young researcher will also profit from network-wide training offers including namely - annual schools on subjects reflecting the different competences of the network teams, - a first professional experience in research with one of our industrial partners, as well as - workshops and international conferences which will give to the young researchers the possibility to present and discuss their results in research and to find contacts also with researchers outside the network and representatives of all the industrial partners of our network.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA | Phase: ICT-2011.3.5 | Award Amount: 663.87K | Year: 2011

Optical Design and Simulation have a tremendous potential to facilitate disruptive research and product innovation. Since optical systems are key components in a broad range of modern devices, optical design plays an essential role in the technology of the XXI-st century. To support European small and medium enterprises in gaining and keeping a leading position in optics and photonics, we propose the support action called ?SME?s Training and Hands-on Practice in Optical Design and Simulation? (SMETHODS). The European consortium offering SMETHODS consists of 7 partners that are the most prominent academic institutions in optics in their countries. Through fully integrated collaborative training sessions, the consortium will provide professional assistance as well as hands-on training in a variety of design tasks on imaging optics, non-imaging optics, wave optics and diffraction optics. For each of these four training domains, 5-day training sessions will be given by several instructors from the consortium partners and by external speakers from industry. Nowadays there exists a strong demand for this kind of support action. Large companies have the resources to organize the necessary training courses internally, but SME?s lack such abilities. In the absence of systematic trainings such as SMETHODS, SME engineers often have to improve their professional abilities with less efficient autodidactic means. This training, which is unique in Europe, will fill the gap between academic courses given at universities and training activities provided by software producers that are focused on specific design software. In the first phase, SMETHODS will provide support activities to SMEs, researchers and companies during 30 months of EC financial support. During this period SMETHODS will, based on experience gained,consider how SMETHODS can continue to serve and support its users after EC funding has stopped.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IRSES | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2009-IRSES | Award Amount: 75.60K | Year: 2010

The concept is to collect the best researchers on the topic of the interaction of femtosecond laser with glasses for discussion and exchanges. On the other hand, it is to train students and young researchers on one of the most promising new research field which is the 3D local shaping of linear and non linear optical properties in glasses; the knowledge of the expert being shared with the novices. The development of femtosecond laser has prompted the investigation of many nonlinear physical phenomena, such as multiphoton induced reactions, plasma formation and avalanche ionisation in glasses. Todays ultrafast laser systems offer thus a myriad of material interactions such as 3D refractive index change internal patterning, annealing and micromachining but now other properties are aroused like oxydoreduction, chirality, non-reciprocal writing, self-assembled sub-wavelength structures, nanocluster structuration. These interactions exhibit enormous potentialities in the development of a new generation of components for photonics, optical telecommunication and high power laser. No other technique holds such potential for 3D shaping the linear and non-linear optical properties of optical glasses on demand and thus to realize 3D multi-component photonic devices, fabricated in one single step in a variety of transparent materials. All these qualities let us foresee a considerable and innovative development of the femtosecond laser writing technology in glasses. It is obvious that this new technology will be a source of employment in the next 10 years. We can thus predict a need of knowledge exchange and personnel training. Strength of scientific exchanges has thus to be increased in this research area. In the course of this, consistent views can be produced on the fundamental process for fostering new developments. In the same time, we can expect render easier applications already identify but also stimulate the creation of new original devices and new functions.

Maas A.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Von Smekal L.,TU Darmstadt | Wellegehausen B.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Wipf A.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

The fermion-sign problem at finite density is a persisting challenge for Monte Carlo simulations. Theories that do not have a sign problem can provide valuable guidance and insight for physically more relevant ones that do. Replacing the gauge group SU(3) of QCD by the exceptional group G2, for example, leads to such a theory. It has mesons as well as bosonic and fermionic baryons, and shares many features with QCD. This makes the G 2 gauge theory ideally suited to study general properties of dense, strongly interacting matter, including baryonic and nuclear Fermi pressure effects. Here we present the first-ever results from lattice simulations of G2 QCD with dynamical fermions, providing a first explorative look at the phase diagram of this QCD-like theory at finite temperature and baryon chemical potential. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Jager M.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Jager M.,Jena Center for Soft Matter | Schubert S.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Schubert S.,Jena Center for Soft Matter | And 7 more authors.
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2012

Poly(ethylene imine)s (PEIs) are widely used in different applications, but most extensively investigated as non-viral vector systems. The high ability of cationic PEIs to complex and condense negatively charged DNA and RNA combined with their inherent proton sponge behavior accounts for the excellent efficiency in gene delivery. Further chemical modifications of the polymer expand the application potential, primarily aiming at increased transfection efficiency, cell selectivity and reduced cytotoxicity. Improvements in the synthesis of tailor-made PEIs in combination with new in-depth analytical techniques offer the possibility to produce highly purified polymers with defined structures. The contemporary strategies towards linear and branched poly(ethylene imine)s with modified surface characteristics, PEI-based copolymers as well as conjugates with bioactive molecules will be discussed. In this regard, the versatile branched PEIs have been successfully modified in a statistical manner, whereas the linear counterparts open avenues to design and synthesize well-defined architectures, in order to exploit their high potential in gene delivery. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Wagner C.,Jülich Research Center | Forker R.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Fritz T.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters | Year: 2012

The material properties of organic thin films depend strongly on their order. The different types of epitaxy may complicate the exploration of the large variety of ordered systems and its exploitation in potential electronic devices. In this Letter, we develop a coherent description of the driving force that creates epitaxial systems. We focus on flat-lying organic adsorbates and explain the energy gain in commensurate, point-on-line, and line-on-line epitaxy. We use potential energy maps to visualize our concept and to derive a relation that allows anticipating epitaxial growth from low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) data. A unified description facilitates the identification and interpretation of experimentally observed adsorbate structures, whereas the rationalized expectation from LEED means a considerable speed gain if suitable candidates for organic-organic epitaxy are searched for in a combinatory approach. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Nedic O.,University of Belgrade | Rattan S.I.S.,University of Aarhus | Grune T.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Trougakos I.P.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
Free Radical Research | Year: 2013

Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are a heterogeneous group of compounds formed by the Maillard chemical process of non-enzymatic glycation of free amino groups of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. This chemical modification of biomolecules is triggered by endogeneous hyperglycaemic or oxidative stress-related processes. Additionally, AGEs can derive from exogenous, mostly diet-related, sources. Considering that AGE accumulation in tissues correlates with ageing and is a hallmark in several age-related diseases it is not surprising that the role of AGEs in ageing and pathology has become increasingly evident. The receptor for AGEs (RAGE) is a single transmembrane protein being expressed in a wide variety of human cells. RAGE binds a broad repertoire of extracellular ligands and mediates responses to stress conditions by activating multiple signal transduction pathways being mostly responsible for acute and/or chronic inflammation. RAGE activation has been implicated in ageing as well as in a number of age-related diseases, including atherosclerosis, neurodegeneration, arthritis, stoke, diabetes and cancer. Here we present a synopsis of findings that relate to AGEs-reported implication in cell signalling pathways and ageing, as well as in pathology. Potential implications and opportunities for translational research and the development of new therapies are also discussed. © 2013 Informa UK, Ltd.

Weirich M.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Fuchs S.,Center for General Linguistics
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research | Year: 2013

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to further explore the understanding of speaker-specific realizations of the /s/-/∫ / contrast in German in relation to individual differences in palate shape. Method: Two articulatory experiments were carried out with German native speakers. In the first experiment, 4monozygotic and 2 dizygotic twin pairs were recorded by means of electromagnetic articulography. In the second experiment, 12 unrelated speakers were recorded by means of electropalatography. Interspeaker variability in the articulatory distance between the sibilants was measured and was correlated with several parameters of the palate shape. Results: The results were twofold: (a) Similar palatal morphologies as found in monozygotic twins yield similar articulatory realizations of the /s/-/∫ / contrast regarding vertical and horizontal distance of the target tongue tip positions, and (b) the realization of the contrast was influenced by palatal steepness, especially the inclination angle of the alveolo-palatal region. Speakers with flat inclination angles mainly retracted their tongue to realize the contrast, whereas speakers with steep inclination angles also elevated their tongue. Conclusion: The articulatory realization of the sibilant contrast is influenced not only by speaker-specific auditory acuity, as previously observed, but also by palatal shape morphology, which affects the somatosensory feedback speakers receive. © American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.

Hasan S.B.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Lederer F.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Rockstuhl C.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Materials Today | Year: 2014

Contrary to traditional optical elements, plasmonic antennas made from nanostructured metals permit the localization of electromagnetic fields on length scales much smaller than the wavelength of light. This results in huge amplitudes for the electromagnetic field close to the antenna being conducive for the observation of nonlinear effects already at moderate pump powers. Thus, these antennas exhibit a promising potential to achieve optical frequency conversion and all-optical control of light at the nano-scale. This opens unprecedented opportunities for ultrafast nonlinear spectroscopy, sensing devices, on-chip optical frequency conversion, nonlinear optical metamaterials, and novel photon sources. Here, we review some of the recent advances in exploiting the potential of plasmonic antennas to realize robust nonlinear applications. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Heinemann S.H.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Hoshi T.,University of Pennsylvania | Westerhausen M.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Schiller A.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Chemical Communications | Year: 2014

Carbon monoxide (CO) is increasingly recognized as a cell-signalling molecule akin to nitric oxide (NO). CO has attracted particular attention as a potential therapeutic agent because of its reported anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory and cell-protective effects. We discuss recent progress in identifying new effector systems and elucidating the mechanisms of action of CO on, e.g., ion channels, as well as the design of novel methods to monitor CO in cellular environments. We also report on recent developments in the area of CO-releasing molecules (CORMs) and materials for controlled CO application. Novel triggers for CO release, metal carbonyls and degradation mechanisms of CORMs are highlighted. In addition, potential formulations of CORMs for targeted CO release are discussed. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

Granacher U.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Gollhofer A.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2012

The risk of sustaining falls and sports-related injuries is particularly high in children. Deficits in balance and muscle strength represent 2 important intrinsic fall and injury-risk factors. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between variables of static and dynamic postural control and isometric and dynamic muscle strength and to find out whether there is an association between measures of postural control and muscle strength in prepubertal children. Thirty children participated in this study (age 6.7 6 0.5 years; body mass index 16.0 6 1.8 kg·m -2). Biomechanic tests included the measurements of maximal isometric torque and rate of force development (RFD) of the plantar flexors on an isokinetic device, jumping power and height (countermovement jump [CMJ]) on a force plate, and the assessment of static and dynamic posture during bipedal stance on a balance platform. The significance level was set at p < 0.05. No significant associations were observed between variables of static and dynamic postural control. Significant positive correlations were detected between the RFD of the plantar flexors and CMJ height (r = 0.425, p < 0.01). No statistically significant associations were found between measures of postural control and muscle strength. The nonsignificant correlations between static and dynamic postural control and muscle strength imply that primarily dynamic measures of postural control should be incorporated in fall and injury-risk assessment and that postural control and muscle strength appear to be independent of each other and may have to be trained in a complementary manner for fall and injury-preventive purposes. © 2012 National Strength and Conditioning Association.

Vogel A.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Eisenhauer N.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Weigelt A.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Weigelt A.,University of Leipzig | Scherer-Lorenzen M.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg
Global Change Biology | Year: 2013

Human activities are decreasing biodiversity and changing the climate worldwide. Both global change drivers have been shown to affect ecosystem functioning, but they may also act in concert in a non-additive way. We studied early-stage litter mass loss rates and soil microbial properties (basal respiration and microbial biomass) during the summer season in response to plant species richness and summer drought in a large grassland biodiversity experiment, the Jena Experiment, Germany. In line with our expectations, decreasing plant diversity and summer drought decreased litter mass loss rates and soil microbial properties. In contrast to our hypotheses, however, this was only true for mass loss of standard litter (wheat straw) used in all plots, and not for plant community-specific litter mass loss. We found no interactive effects between global change drivers, that is, drought reduced litter mass loss rates and soil microbial properties irrespective of plant diversity. High mass loss rates of plant community-specific litter and low responsiveness to drought relative to the standard litter indicate that soil microbial communities were adapted to decomposing community-specific plant litter material including lower susceptibility to dry conditions during summer months. Moreover, higher microbial enzymatic diversity at high plant diversity may have caused elevated mass loss of standard litter. Our results indicate that plant diversity loss and summer drought independently impede soil processes. However, soil decomposer communities may be highly adapted to decomposing plant community-specific litter material, even in situations of environmental stress. Results of standard litter mass loss moreover suggest that decomposer communities under diverse plant communities are able to cope with a greater variety of plant inputs possibly making them less responsive to biotic changes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Muhlhausen A.,University of Osnabrück | Lenser T.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Mummenhoff K.,University of Osnabrück | Theissen G.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Plant Journal | Year: 2013

In the Brassicaceae, indehiscent fruits evolved from dehiscent fruits several times independently. Here we use closely related wild species of the genus Lepidium as a model system to analyse the underlying developmental genetic mechanisms in a candidate gene approach. ALCATRAZ (ALC), INDEHISCENT (IND), SHATTERPROOF1 (SHP1) and SHATTERPROOF2 (SHP2) are known fruit developmental genes of Arabidopsis thaliana that are expressed in the fruit valve margin governing dehiscence zone formation. Comparative expression analysis by quantitative RT-PCR, Northern blot and in situ hybridization show that their orthologues from Lepidium campestre (dehiscent fruits) are similarly expressed at valve margins. In sharp contrast, expression of the respective orthologues is abolished in the corresponding tissue of indehiscent Lepidium appelianum fruits, indicating that changes in the genetic pathway identified in A. thaliana caused the transition from dehiscent to indehiscent fruits in the investigated species. As parallel mutations in different genes are quite unlikely, we conclude that the changes in gene expression patterns are probably caused by changes in upstream regulators of ALC, IND and SHP1/2, possible candidates from A. thaliana being FRUITFULL (FUL), REPLUMLESS (RPL) and APETALA2 (AP2). However, neither expression analyses nor functional tests in transgenic plants provided any evidence that the FUL or RPL orthologues of Lepidium were involved in evolution of fruit indehiscence in Lepidium. In contrast, stronger expression of AP2 in indehiscent compared to dehiscent fruits identifies AP2 as a candidate gene that deserves further investigation. © 2012 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Pfannschmidt T.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Yang C.,CAS Institute of Botany
Protoplasma | Year: 2012

Plants convert light energy from the sun into chemical energy by photosynthesis. Since they are sessile, they have to deal with a wide range of conditions in their immediate environment. Many abiotic and biotic parameters exhibit considerable fluctuations which can have detrimental effects especially on the efficiency of photosynthetic light harvesting. During evolution, plants, therefore, evolved a number of acclimation processes which help them to adapt photosynthesis to such environmental changes. This includes protective mechanisms such as excess energy dissipation and processes supporting energy redistribution, e. g. state transitions or photosystem stoichiometry adjustment. Intriguingly, all these responses are triggered by photosynthesis itself via the interplay of its light reaction and the Calvin-Benson cycle with the residing environmental condition. Thus, besides its primary function in harnessing and converting light energy, photosynthesis acts as a sensing system for environmental changes that controls molecular acclimation responses which adapt the photosynthetic function to the environmental change. Important signalling parameters directly or indirectly affected by the environment are the pH gradient across the thylakoid membrane and the redox states of components of the photosynthetic electron transport chain and/or electron end acceptors coupled to it. Recent advances demonstrate that these signals control post-translational modifications of the photosynthetic protein complexes and also affect plastid and nuclear gene expression machineries as well as metabolic pathways providing a regulatory framework for an integrated response of the plant to the environment at all cellular levels. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Tessmer M.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Steinhoff J.,University of Lisbon | Schafer G.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

This paper will deal with an explicit determination of the time evolution of the spin orientation axes and the evolution of the orbital phase in the case of circular orbits under next-to-leading-order spin-orbit interactions. We modify the method of Schneider and Cui proposed to iteratively remove oscillatory terms in the equations of motion for different masses that were not present in the case of equal masses. Our smallness parameter is chosen to be the difference of the symmetric mass ratio to the value 1/4. Before the first Lie transformation, the set of conserved quantities consists of the total angular momentum J and the amplitudes of the orbital angular momentum and of the spins, L, S1, and S2. In contrast, SS1+S2| is not conserved, and we wish to shift its nonconservation to higher orders of the smallness parameter. We perform the iterations explicitly to first order, while performing higher orders would mean no structural difference or harder mathematical difficulties. To apply this method, we develop a canonical system of spin variables reduced by the conservation law of total angular momentum, which is imposed on the phase space as a constraint. The result is an asymptotic series in Ïμ that may be truncated appropriately by considering the physical properties of the regarded system. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Witschas B.,German Aerospace Center | Witschas B.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Applied Optics | Year: 2011

Atmospheric lidar techniques for the measurement of wind, temperature, and optical properties of aerosols as well as nonintrusive measurement techniques for temperature, density, and bulk velocity in gas flows rely on the exact knowledge of the spectral line shape of the scattered laser light on molecules. A mathematically complex, numerical model (Tenti S6 model) is currently the best model for describing these spectra. In this paper an easy processable, alternative analytical model for describing spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin spectra in air at atmospheric conditions is introduced. The deviations between the analytical and Tenti S6 models are shown to be smaller than 0.85%. © 2011 Optical Society of America.

Ludwig S.,University of Munster | Zell R.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Schwemmle M.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Herold S.,Universities Giessen & Marburg Lung Center
International journal of medical microbiology : IJMM | Year: 2014

Influenza virus is a paradigm for a pathogen that frequently crosses the species barrier from animals to humans, causing severe disease in the human population. This ranges from frequent epidemics to occasional pandemic outbreaks with millions of death. All previous pandemics in humans were caused by animal viruses or virus reassortants carrying animal virus genes, underlining that the fight against influenza requires a One Health approach integrating human and veterinary medicine. Furthermore, the fundamental question of what enables a flu pathogen to jump from animals to humans can only be tackled in a transdisciplinary approach between virologists, immunologists and cell biologists. To address this need the German FluResearchNet was established as a first nationwide influenza research network that virtually integrates all national expertise in the field of influenza to unravel viral and host determinants of pathogenicity and species transmission and to explore novel avenues of antiviral intervention. Here we focus on the various novel anti-flu approaches that were developed as part of the FluResearchNet activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

Hoye T.T.,University of Aarhus | Hammel J.U.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Climate Research | Year: 2010

Climate change is advancing the onset of the growing season, and this is happening at a particularly fast rate in the Arctic. Although this has recently been shown to affect the sexual size dimorphism (SSD) of a wolf spider species through time, it remains to be shown whether spatial variation in the physical environment is similarly affecting SSD. We studied altitudinal variation in adult body size of male and female wolf spiders on Disko Island, West Greenland. Two species exhibited female-biased SSD (measured by carapace width) at sea level but not at higher altitudes. Males and females of a third species were of equal size at both altitudes, and the 2 remaining species found on Disko Island were only present at 1 low altitude site each. Altitudinal variation in SSD is probably a result of sex differences in body size response to shorter growing seasons with altitude. Our results suggest that climate change may result in increased SSD. Constraints on body size may increase with altitude, and expanding growing seasons due to climate change may predominantly affect SSD at higher altitudes. Such intra-specific effects of climate may be widespread and suggest that further research in this topic is needed. © Inter-Research 2010.

Donahue J.,University of California at Berkeley | Hoffman J.,University of California at Berkeley | Rodner E.,University of California at Berkeley | Rodner E.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition | Year: 2013

Most successful object classification and detection methods rely on classifiers trained on large labeled datasets. However, for domains where labels are limited, simply borrowing labeled data from existing datasets can hurt performance, a phenomenon known as 'dataset bias.' We propose a general framework for adapting classifiers from 'borrowed' data to the target domain using a combination of available labeled and unlabeled examples. Specifically, we show that imposing smoothness constraints on the classifier scores over the unlabeled data can lead to improved adaptation results. Such constraints are often available in the form of instance correspondences, e.g. when the same object or individual is observed simultaneously from multiple views, or tracked between video frames. In these cases, the object labels are unknown but can be constrained to be the same or similar. We propose techniques that build on existing domain adaptation methods by explicitly modeling these relationships, and demonstrate empirically that they improve recognition accuracy in two scenarios, multicategory image classification and object detection in video. © 2013 IEEE.

Das P.,DWI Leibniz Institute for Interactive Materials | Malho J.-M.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland | Rahimi K.,DWI Leibniz Institute for Interactive Materials | Schacher F.H.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | And 3 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2015

Nacre-mimetics hold great promise as mechanical high-performance and functional materials. Here we demonstrate large progress of mechanical and functional properties of self-assembled polymer/nanoclay nacre-mimetics by using synthetic nanoclays with aspect ratios covering three orders in magnitude (25-3,500). We establish comprehensive relationships among structure formation, nanostructuration, deformation mechanisms and mechanical properties as a function of nanoclay aspect ratio, and by tuning the viscoelastic properties of the soft phase via hydration. Highly ordered, large-scale nacre-mimetics are obtained even for low aspect ratio nanoplatelets and show pronounced inelastic deformation with very high toughness, while those formed by ultralarge nanoplatelets exhibit superb stiffness and strength, previously only reachable for highly crosslinked materials. Regarding functionalities, we report formerly impossible glass-like transparency, and excellent gas barrier considerably exceeding earlier nacre-mimetics based on natural nanoclay. Our study enables rational design of future high-performance nacre-mimetic materials and opens avenues for ecofriendly, transparent, self-standing and strong advanced barrier materials. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Reissmann S.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Reissmann S.,Jena Bioscience GmbH
Journal of Peptide Science | Year: 2014

The penetration of polar or badly soluble compounds through a cell membrane into live cells requires mechanical support or chemical helpers. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are very promising chemical helpers. Because of their low cytotoxicity and final degradation to amino acids, they are particularly favored in in vivo studies and for clinical applications. Clearly, the future of CPP research is bright; however, the required optimization studies for each drug require considerable individualized attention. Thus, CPPs are not the philosopher's stone. As of today, a large number of such transporter peptides with very different sequences have been identified. These have different uptake mechanisms and can transport different cargos. Intracellular concentrations of cargos can reach a low micromole range and are able to influence intracellular reactions. Internalized ribonucleic acids such as small interfering RNA (siRNA) and mimics of RNA such as peptide nucleic acids, morpholino nucleic acids, and triesters of oligonucleotides can influence transcription and translation. Despite the highly efficient internalization of antibodies, enzymes, and other protein factors, as well as siRNA and RNA mimics, the uptake and stabile insertion of DNA into the genome of the host cells remain substantially challenging. This review describes a wide array of differing CPPs, cargos, cell lines, and tissues. The application of CPPs is compared with electroporation, magnetofection, lipofection, viral vectors, dendrimers, and nanoparticles, including commercially available products. The limitations of CPPs include low cell and tissue selectivity of the first generation and the necessity for formation of fusion proteins, conjugates, or noncovalent complexes to different cargos and of cargo release from intracellular vesicles. Furthermore, the noncovalent complexes require a strong molar excess of CPPs, and extensive experimentation is required to determine the most optimal CPP for any given cargo and cell type. Yet to predict which CPP is optimal for any given target remains a complex question. More recently, there have been promising developments: the enhancement of cell specificity using activatable CPPs, specific transport into cell organelles by insertion of corresponding localization sequences, and the transport of drugs through blood-brain barriers, through the conjunctiva of eyes, skin, and into nerve cells. Proteins, siRNA, and mimics of oligonucleotides can be efficiently transported into cells and have been tested for treatment of certain diseases. The recent state of the art in CPP research is discussed together with the overall scope, limitations, and some recommendations for future research directions. Copyright © 2014 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Sahoo N.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Hoshi T.,University of Pennsylvania | Heinemann S.H.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Antioxidants and Redox Signaling | Year: 2014

Significance: Voltage-gated K+ channels are a large family of K+-selective ion channel protein complexes that open on membrane depolarization. These K+ channels are expressed in diverse tissues and their function is vital for numerous physiological processes, in particular of neurons and muscle cells. Potentially reversible oxidative regulation of voltage-gated K+ channels by reactive species such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) represents a contributing mechanism of normal cellular plasticity and may play important roles in diverse pathologies including neurodegenerative diseases. Recent Advances: Studies using various protocols of oxidative modification, site-directed mutagenesis, and structural and kinetic modeling provide a broader phenomenology and emerging mechanistic insights. Critical Issues: Physicochemical mechanisms of the functional consequences of oxidative modifications of voltage-gated K+ channels are only beginning to be revealed. In vivo documentation of oxidative modifications of specific amino-acid residues of various voltage-gated K+ channel proteins, including the target specificity issue, is largely absent. Future Directions: High-resolution chemical and proteomic analysis of ion channel proteins with respect to oxidative modification combined with ongoing studies on channel structure and function will provide a better understanding of how the function of voltage-gated K+ channels is tuned by ROS and the corresponding reducing enzymes to meet cellular needs. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2014.

Vogel A.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Scherer-Lorenzen M.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Weigelt A.,University of Leipzig
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

The degree to which biodiversity may promote the stability of grasslands in the light of climatic variability, such as prolonged summer drought, has attracted considerable interest. Studies so far yielded inconsistent results and in addition, the effect of different grassland management practices on their response to drought remains an open question. We experimentally combined the manipulation of prolonged summer drought (sheltered vs. unsheltered sites), plant species loss (6 levels of 60 down to 1 species) and management intensity (4 levels varying in mowing frequency and amount of fertilizer application). Stability was measured as resistance and resilience of aboveground biomass production in grasslands against decreased summer precipitation, where resistance is the difference between drought treatments directly after drought induction and resilience is the difference between drought treatments in spring of the following year. We hypothesized that (i) management intensification amplifies biomass decrease under drought, (ii) resistance decreases with increasing species richness and with management intensification and (iii) resilience increases with increasing species richness and with management intensification. We found that resistance and resilience of grasslands to summer drought are highly dependent on management intensity and partly on species richness. Frequent mowing reduced the resistance of grasslands against drought and increasing species richness decreased resistance in one of our two study years. Resilience was positively related to species richness only under the highest management treatment. We conclude that low mowing frequency is more important for high resistance against drought than species richness. Nevertheless, species richness increased aboveground productivity in all management treatments both under drought and ambient conditions and should therefore be maintained under future climates. © 2012 Vogel et al.

Furche F.,University of California at Irvine | Ahlrichs R.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Hattig C.,Ruhr University Bochum | Klopper W.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Computational Molecular Science | Year: 2014

Turbomole is a highly optimized software package for large-scale quantum chemical simulations of molecules, clusters, and periodic solids. Turbomole uses Gaussian basis sets and specializes on predictive electronic structure methods with excellent cost to performance characteristics, such as (time-dependent) density functional theory (TDDFT), second-order Møller-Plesset theory, and explicitly correlated coupled cluster (CC) methods. These methods are combined with ultraefficient and numerically stable algorithms such as integral-direct and Laplace transform methods, resolution-of-the-identity, pair natural orbitals, fast multipole, and low-order scaling techniques. Apart from energies and structures, a variety of optical, electric, and magnetic properties are accessible from analytical energy derivatives for electronic ground and excited states. Recent additions include post-Kohn-Sham calculations within the random phase approximation, periodic calculations, spin-orbit couplings, explicitly correlated CC singles doubles and perturbative triples methods, CC singles doubles excitation energies, and nonadiabatic molecular dynamics simulations using TDDFT. A dedicated graphical user interface and a user support network are also available. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Grosskreutz J.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Van Den Bosch L.,Catholic University of Leuven | Van Den Bosch L.,Vesalius Research Center | Keller B.U.,University of Gottingen
Cell Calcium | Year: 2010

In the fatal neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), motor neurons degenerate with signs of organelle fragmentation, free radical damage, mitochondrial Ca2+ overload, impaired axonal transport and accumulation of proteins in intracellular inclusion bodies. Subgroups of motor neurons of the brainstem and the spinal cord expressing low amounts of Ca2+ buffering proteins are particularly vulnerable. In ALS, chronic excitotoxicity mediated by Ca2+-permeable AMPA type glutamate receptors seems to initiate a self-perpetuating process of intracellular Ca2+ dysregulation with consecutive endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ depletion and mitochondrial Ca2+ overload. The only known effective treatment, riluzole, seems to reduce glutamatergic input. This review introduces the hypothesis of a "toxic shift of Ca2+" within the endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria Ca2+ cycle (ERMCC) as a key mechanism in motor neuron degeneration, and discusses molecular targets which may be of interest for future ERMCC modulating neuroprotective therapies. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Raudaskoski M.,University of Turku | Kothe E.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Eukaryotic Cell | Year: 2010

The genome sequences of the basidiomycete Agaricomycetes species Coprinopsis cinerea, Laccaria bicolor, Schizophyllum commune, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and Postia placenta, as well as of Cryptococcus neoformans and Ustilago maydis, are now publicly available. Out of these fungi, C. cinerea, S. commune, and U. maydis, together with the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have been investigated for years genetically and molecularly for signaling in sexual reproduction. The comparison of the structure and organization of mating type genes in fungal genomes reveals an amazing conservation of genes regulating the sexual reproduction throughout the fungal kingdom. In agaricomycetes, two mating type loci, A, coding for homeodomain type transcription factors, and B, encoding a pheromone/receptor system, regulate the four typical mating inter-actions of tetrapolar species. Evidence for both A and B mating type genes can also be identified in basidio-mycetes with bipolar systems, where only two mating interactions are seen. In some of these fungi, the B locus has lost its self/nonself discrimination ability and thus its specificity while retaining the other regulatory functions in development. In silico analyses now also permit the identification of putative components of the pheromone-dependent signaling pathways. Induction of these signaling cascades leads to development of dikaryotic mycelia, fruiting body formation, and meiotic spore production. In pheromone-dependent signaling, the role of heterotrimeric G proteins, components of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, and cyclic AMP-dependent pathways can now be defined. Additionally, the pheromone-dependent signaling through monomeric, small GTPases potentially involved in creating the polarized cytoskeleton for reciprocal nuclear exchange and migration during mating is predicted. © 2010, American Society for Microbiology.

Singh R.,Oklahoma State University | Singh R.,Los Alamos National Laboratory | Rockstuhl C.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Zhang W.,Oklahoma State University
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2010

We investigate the response of a terahertz metamaterial depending on the unit cell density. The fundamental inductive capacitive (LC) resonance has its highest quality (Q) factor for a critical period Pc=λ/n, with λ being the LC resonance wavelength and n being the refractive index of the substrate. This occurs due to simultaneous excitation of the lowest order lattice mode that strongly favors radiative coupling in the metamaterial plane. Increasing or decreasing the period from Pc reduces the Q factor. Our results suggest that an optimal package density exists in metamaterials to induce the strongest dispersion. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

Galaviz P.,Monash University | Galaviz P.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2011

We study the stability and chaos of three compact objects using post-Newtonian (PN) equations of motion derived from the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner- Hamiltonian formulation. We include terms up to 2.5 PN order in the orbital part and the leading order in spin corrections. We performed numerical simulations of a hierarchical configuration of three compact bodies in which a binary system is perturbed by a third, lighter body initially positioned far away from the binary. The relative importance of the different PN orders is examined. The basin boundary method and the computation of Lyapunov exponent were employed to analyze the stability and chaotic properties of the system. The 1 PN terms produced a small but noticeable change in the stability regions of the parameters considered. The inclusion of spin or gravitational radiation does not produce a significant change with respect to the inclusion of the 1 PN terms. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Galaviz P.,Monash University | Galaviz P.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Brugmann B.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2011

We study the gravitational wave emission of three compact objects using post-Newtonian (PN) equations of motion derived from the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner- Hamiltonian formulation, where we include (for the first time in this context) terms up to 2.5 PN order. We perform numerical simulations of a hierarchical configuration of three compact bodies in which a binary system is perturbed by a third, lighter body initially far away from the binary. The relative importance of the different PN orders is examined. We compute the waveform in the linear regime considering mass quadrupole, current quadrupole and mass octupole contributions. Performing a spherical harmonic decomposition of the waveforms we find that from the l=3 modes it is possible to extract information about the third body, in particular, the period, eccentricity of its orbit, and the inclination angle between the inner and outer binary orbits. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Raudaskoski M.,University of Turku | Kothe E.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Mycorrhiza | Year: 2015

The availability of genome sequences from both arbuscular and ectomycorrhizal fungi and their hosts has, together with elegant biochemical and molecular biological analyses, provided new information on signal exchange between the partners in mycorrhizal associations. The progress in understanding cellular processes has been more rapid in arbuscular than ectomycorrhizal symbiosis due to its similarities of early processes with Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. In ectomycorrhiza, the role of auxin and ethylene produced by both fungus and host plant is becoming understood at the molecular level, although the actual ligands and receptors leading to ectomycorrhizal symbiosis have not yet been discovered. For both systems, the functions of small effector proteins secreted from the respective fungus and taken up into the plant cell may be pivotal in understanding the attenuation of host defense. We review the subject by comparing cross-talk between fungal and plant partners during formation and establishment of arbuscular and ectomycorrhizal symbioses. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Gies H.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Gneiting C.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Sondenheimer R.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2014

We study the functional renormalization group flow of a Higgs-Yukawa toy model mimicking the top-Higgs sector of the standard model. This approach allows for treating arbitrary bare couplings. For the class of standard bare potentials of 4 type at a given ultraviolet cutoff, we show that a finite infrared Higgs mass range emerges naturally from the renormalization group flow itself. Higgs masses outside the resulting bounds cannot be connected to any conceivable set of bare parameters in this standard model 4 class. By contrast, more general bare potentials allow us to diminish the lower bound considerably. We identify a simple renormalization group mechanism for this depletion of the lower bound. If this depletion is also active in the full standard model, Higgs masses smaller than the conventional infrared window do not necessarily require new physics at low scales or give rise to instability problems. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Ruelens P.,Catholic University of Leuven | De Maagd R.A.,Business Unit Bioscience | Proost S.,University of Potsdam | Proost S.,Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology | And 3 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2013

MADS-domain transcription factors have been shown to act as key repressors or activators of the transition to flowering and as master regulators of reproductive organ identities. Despite their important roles in plant development, the origin of several MADS-box subfamilies has remained enigmatic so far. Here we demonstrate, through a combination of genome synteny and phylogenetic reconstructions, the origin of three major, apparently angiosperm-specific MADS-box gene clades: FLOWERING LOCUS C-(FLC-), SQUAMOSA-(SQUA-) and SEPALLATA-(SEP-)-like genes. We find that these lineages derive from a single ancestral tandem duplication in a common ancestor of extant seed plants. Contrary to common belief, we show that FLC-like genes are present in cereals where they can also act as floral repressors responsive to prolonged cold or vernalization. This opens a new perspective on the translation of findings from Arabidopsis to cereal crops, in which vernalization was originally described. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Wood B.R.,Monash University | Asghari-Khiavi M.,Monash University | Asghari-Khiavi M.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Bailo E.,Leibniz Institute for Analytical Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Nano Letters | Year: 2012

Hemoglobin nanocrystals were analyzed with tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS), surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) and conventional resonance Raman scattering (RRS) using 532 nm excitation. The extremely high spatial resolution of TERS enables selective enhancement of heme, protein, and amino acid bands from the crystal surface not observed in the SERRS or RRS spectra. Two bands appearing at 1378 and 1355 cm -1 assigned to the ferric and ferrous oxidation state marker bands, respectively, were observed in both TERS and SERRS spectra but not in the RRS spectrum of the bulk sample. The results indicate that nanoscale oxidation changes are occurring at the hemoglobin crystal surface. These changes could be explained by oxygen exchange at the crystal surface and demonstrate the potential of the TERS technique to obtain structural information not possible with conventional Raman microscopy. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Wechsung F.,Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research | Wechsung M.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
International Journal of Climatology | Year: 2015

The supposed statistical regional climate model STARS, which is based on a resampling approach, was evaluated. Results from a theoretical analysis, its recent application for Germany, and a model intercomparison experiment for Germany were used. The study shows that the conditioning of the resampling process by a prescribed temperature trend as realized in STARS leads to changes in its covariables such as precipitation and global radiation that are dominated by the (immediate) interannual correlations between temperature and those variables, and not by the correlation between their temporal trends. Only in the latter case, the climatic past would be extrapolated into a scenario future. Instead, the typical linkages between warmer summers, higher global radiation and lower precipitation in historical climate trigger corresponding changes in the resamples if conditioned for warmer summers. For the winter months, the association of past warmer winters with higher precipitation establishes a preference of the corresponding resamples for future wetter winters. Owing to the dominance of summer over winter correlations at the sub-annual resampling levels, the resampled German climate becomes dryer and associated with brighter skies and higher global radiation levels. According to its concept, STARS-based climate projections turn short-term interannual variability between temperature and covariables into long-term climate trends. However, these projections are conceptually invalid, empirically often disconnected from past climate trends, implausible taken the extent of possible future changes projected by global circulation models (GCM), and diverge from GCM projections with an identical sample basis. Therefore, recent conclusions for adaptation drawn from the STARS-based warming scenarios might be misleading and should be reconsidered as vulnerable illustrations for a selected climate change. © 2015 Royal Meteorological Society.

Alexander T.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Wilz G.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Rehabilitation Psychology | Year: 2010

Objectives: This prospective longitudinal study investigated gender differences in caregiving spouses' adjustment to the challenges of a poststroke life situation based on the caregiving stress model of Yee and Schulz (2000), which we modified. Method: The sample consisted of 97 stroke-survivor and spouse dyads who were questioned 3 months after stroke and again 1 year later. The Beck Anxiety Inventory (Beck & Steer, 1997), the Beck Depression Inventory (Beck, Steer, & Garbin, 1988), and the Giessen Complaints List (Brähler & Scheer, 1995) were used to capture mental health and physical complaints in stroke survivors' spouses. Covariance analytical methods (analysis of covariance; ANCOVA) were conducted on data from both measuring times to test gender-related interaction effects. Results: Generally, women caregivers reported more anxiety and depressive symptoms than did their men counterparts. However, 15 months after stroke onset, in cases where individuals with stroke had substantial cognitive and mental impairments, the opposite appeared to be true. The results supported the modified caregiving stress model. Women spousal caregivers seem to adjust better to cognitive and emotional changes in their partners than did caregiving husbands. Conclusions: The rehabilitation of stroke survivors may be more successful if gender differences in caregivers' adaptation to their partners' mental changes are taken into consideration in intervention programs for families of stroke survivors. Men spousal caregivers may need counseling aimed at supporting their adjustment to stroke-related cognitive and emotional changes in their wives. © 2010 American Psychological Association.

Granacher U.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Muehlbauer T.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Zahner L.,University of Basel | Gollhofer A.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Kressig R.W.,University of Basel
Sports Medicine | Year: 2011

Demographic change in industrialized countries produced an increase in the proportion of elderly people in our society, resulting in specific healthcare challenges. One such challenge is how to effectively deal with the increased risk of sustaining a fall and fall-related injuries in old age. Deficits in postural control and muscle strength represent important intrinsic fall risk factors. Thus, adequate training regimens need to be designed and applied that have the potential to reduce the rate of falling in older adults by countering these factors. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to compare traditional and recent approaches in the promotion of balance and strength in older adults. Traditionally, balance and resistance training programmes proved to be effective in improving balance and strength, and in reducing the number of falls. Yet, it was argued that these training protocols are not specific enough to induce adaptations in neuromuscular capacities that are specifically needed in actual balance-threatening situations (e.g. abilities to recover balance and to produce force explosively). Recent studies indicated that perturbation-based or multitask balance training and powerhigh-velocity resistance training have the potential to improve these specific capacities because they comply with the principle of training specificity. In fact, there is evidence that these specifically tailored training programmes are more effective in improving balance recovery mechanisms and muscle power than traditional training protocols. A few pilot studies have even shown that these recently designed training protocols have an impact on the reduction of fall incidence rate in older adults. Further research is needed to confirm these results and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms responsible for the adaptive processes. © 2011 Adis Data Information BV. All rights reserved.

Segura-Ruiz J.,European Synchrotron Radiation Facility | Martinez-Criado G.,European Synchrotron Radiation Facility | Chu M.H.,European Synchrotron Radiation Facility | Geburt S.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Ronning C.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Nano Letters | Year: 2011

We report on the local structure of single Co-implanted ZnO nanowires studied using a hard X-ray nanoprobe. X-ray fluorescence maps show uniform Zn and Co distributions along the wire within the length scale of the beam size. The X-ray fluorescence data allow the estimation of the Co content within the nanowire. Polarization dependent X-ray absorption near edge structure shows no structural disorder induced neither in the radial nor axial directions of the implanted nanowires after subsequent annealing. Co 2+ ions occupy Zn sites into the wurtzite ZnO lattice. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure data reveal high structural order in the host lattice without distortion in their interatomic distances, confirming the recovery of the radiation damaged ZnO structure through thermal annealing. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2015-ETN | Award Amount: 3.46M | Year: 2016

Deictic communication is fundamental to understanding communication in both typical and atypical populations, and forms the key connection between language and objects/locations in the world. It is therefore critical to understanding human-human interaction, and human-system interaction in a range of technology applications from mobile phones to cognitive robotics and to the enhancement of clinical and educational interventions with typical and atypical populations. This ETN will train the next generation of scientists in the full range of multidisciplinary and cross-sectorial methods necessary to make significant progress in understanding deictic communication, with direct synergies between basic research and application. Training is structured around two interdisciplinary research themes Understanding Deictic Communication and Deictic Communication in Application both involving extensive and systematic co-supervision and collaboration across sites with key interplay between academic and nonacademic beneficiaries and partners. In turn we expect that a range of applications will be enhanced with increased usability, with associated societal and economic benefit. The training of the cohort of ESR fellows is based on innovative PhD training approaches, providing not only training in interdisciplinary methods, but also employing peer-assisted methods and the latest in educational innovation. This will produce a cohort of highly skilled researchers who will be highly employable given the potential contribution they will make to future research and innovation in the public and private sectors.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: EURO-2-2014 | Award Amount: 2.54M | Year: 2015

In this project we will analyse the broader contexts of smart, inclusive and sustainable growth in Europe to support implementation of the Commissions Europe 2020 growth strategy and to restore Europes ability to innovate, grow and create jobs over the coming decades. In this proposal we argue that entrepreneurship must play a central role in that effort. Entrepreneurship tends to make people think of the US and its model of high growth and high-tech start-ups in Silicon Valley. We are keenly aware, however, that a European growth agenda requires a focus on European entrepreneurship. US recipes and models will not fit the European context and do not deliver the results Europe wants. Our projects objective is therefore to thoroughly analyse European institutional arrangements and their current (in)ability to mobilise Europes human, financial and knowledge resources for entrepreneurial activity. This will help us formulate an effective reform strategy to reinvigorate European economies. The current diversity of institutional arrangements in Europe has long and common historical roots that must first be recognised and understood. Based on common global trends in technology and competition, we then establish the urgency and desirability for making the transition to a more entrepreneurial economy throughout Europe. Once this has been established, our project will develop and provide the tools for policy makers to assess the quality of national and regional entrepreneurial ecosystems and to identify the main strengths and weaknesses with regard to making the transition. Based on this assessment we will formulate specific proposals to enhance the allocation of talent, finance and knowledge to new value creation and we will conclude our project with a legal analysis to see where competencies currently lie and what action could be taken.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: NMP-2008-2.2-2 | Award Amount: 4.52M | Year: 2009

Three-dimensional large area metamaterials, especially Negative Index Materials (NIMs) promise to enable numerous novel and breakthrough applications like perfect lenses and cloaking devices, not only but especially if they exhibit the desired properties in the visible frequency range. For the European Photonics industry it is of paramount importance enabling fabricating such materials as soon as possible, to maintain its important position in the areas of optical components and systems as well as production technologies. Till now such materials have not been produced, yet - neither in 3D nor on large areas, let alone both combined. The aim of NIM_NIL is the development of a production process for 3D NIMs in the visible regime combining UV-based Nanoimprint Lithography (UV-NIL) on wafer scale using the new material graphene and innovative geometrical designs. This project will go beyond state-of-the-art in three important topics regarding NIMs: the design, the fabrication using Nanoimprintlithography (NIL) and the optical characterization by ellipsometry. New designs and the new material Graphene will be investigated to extend the existing frequency limit of 900 nm into the visible regime. The fabrication method of choice is UV-NIL since it allows cost efficient large area nanostructuring, which is indispensible if materials like NIMs should be produced on large scale. The negative refraction will be measured using ellipsometry which is a fast and non-destructive method to control the fabrication process. At the end of the project a micro-optical prism made from NIM will be fabricated to directly verify and demonstrate the negative refractive index. Each aspect of innovation within NIM_NIL design, fabrication and characterisation of NIMs is represented by experts in this field resulting in a multidisciplinary highly motivated consortium containing participants from basic research as well as industrial endusers from whole Europe.

Moser H.O.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Rockstuhl C.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Laser and Photonics Reviews | Year: 2012

Metamaterials are engineered composite materials offering unprecedented control of wave propagation. Despite their complexity, effective properties can frequently be extracted by conceptualizing them as homogeneous and isotropic media with dispersive electric permittivity and magnetic permeability. For an ideal isotropic medium, strong dispersion in these properties causes wave and field vectors to form a left-handed (E,H,k)-frame involving backward waves, and offering control of quantities like the refractive index which may become negative. Experimental evidence exists from microwaves to the visible. Applications include sub-wavelength-resolution imaging, invisibility cloaking, plasmonics-based lasers, metananocircuits, and omnidirectional absorbers. As the engineered sub-structures must be smaller than their design wavelength, micro/nanomanufacturing is exploited from primary pattern generation over lithography to templating and molecular beam epitaxy. 3D metamaterials have been made by stacking of layers, multilayer structuring, and 3D primary pattern generation. Theory shows that full properties may build up over one or a very few layers. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2013.9.3 | Award Amount: 2.04M | Year: 2014

Biological evolution has produced an extraordinary diversity of organisms, even the simplest of which is highly adapted, with multiple complex structures. Evolutionary computation has found that many innovative solutions to optimisation and design problems can be achieved by artificial evolution via random variation and selection.Despite the centrality of evolution to biology and the usefulness of evolutionary algorithms in optimisation, the dynamics of evolution are not well understood. Consequently, population genetics theory can only make quantitative predictions about short-term, simple biological evolution, and the design and parameter tuning of evolutionary algorithms is mostly done ad-hoc in a laborious and cost-intensive process.Both fields have studied the speed of adaptation independently, and with orthogonal approaches. Our project brings together an interdisciplinary consortium of ambitious researchers from the theory of evolutionary computation and theoretical population genetics to synergise these complementary approaches and to create the foundation of a unified quantitative theory describing the speed of adaptation in both biological and artificial evolution.The transformative impact of this unified theory will lie in enabling long-term predictions about the efficiency of evolution in settings that are highly relevant for both fields and related sciences. Our approach will reveal how this efficiency is fundamentally determined by evolutionary and environmental parameters. Tuning these parameters will allow researchers from biology and computation to increase the efficiency of evolutionary processes, revolutionising applications ranging from evolutionary algorithms to experimental evolution and synthetic biology.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: EO-1-2014 | Award Amount: 3.32M | Year: 2015

The alarming rate of biodiversity loss and ecosystem transitions make it clear that new strategies are required to sustain functioning of the coupled ecological-societal system. Existing space data archives and data streams from the ESA Sentinels, offer unprecedented opportunities to provide rapid, high quality indicators necessary for informed management of key ecosystem services. Yet, it remains largely unclear how space and ground-based observations can be optimally integrated to generate products required by end user communities (Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, 2014). By fusing extensive expertise on optical and radar remote sensing, ground data on ecosystem state and function, big data scientists, and active participation of user groups, BACI will advance this integration. BACI will translate space data to new variables (not directly observable from space) that encode ecosystem functional properties and status metrics. This will empower concepts of essential biodiversity variables. Advanced machine learning methods will be employed to reveal new and fundamental relationships between space observations and ecosystem status. BACI will incorporate a wide range of original data and downstream data products specifically targeting needs for early-warning systems, including a novel Biosphere-Atmosphere Change Index. We will prioritize selected key European and African regions now undergoing massive societal-ecological transformations, offering perspective towards operational assessments. A formal attribution framework will disentangle climate-induced ecosystem changes and socioeconomic/ecological transformation processes. Overall, BACI will advance usage of European space data to monitor relevant vegetation traits, status, and ecosystem functioning. By capitalizing on existing datasets, we will prototype new algorithms to rapidly implement these metrics and thus space-to-ground integration of the new ESA Sentinels.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: ENV.2008. | Award Amount: 1.18M | Year: 2009

Over the past years, the EU has funded several projects that undertook research on specific integrated water resources management (IWRM) issues in case studies carried out on twinned river basins from Europe and from developing countries. The aim of Twin2Go now is to review, assess, synthesize and consolidate the outcomes of these projects in order to make them transferable and applicable to other basins, and to disseminate the project results effectively to relevant authorities, stakeholders and end-users. This will contribute to the overall goal to underpin the implementation of IWRM in line with the targets of the EU Water Initiative. In order to achieve this aim, Twin2Go will elaborate a methodology that allows comparative analysis and synthesis of the outcomes of the diverse projects. The consolidated outcomes will feed into best practice guidelines for the adoption and implementation of sustainable water resources management plans. To ensure up-take of the research results in water resources management practice and political decision making, all synthesis activities will involve stakeholders from the projects and basins and synthesis results will be effectively disseminated to all relevant levels of target groups including high level decision makers in water policy. In its effort, Twin2Go will focus its activities on the thematic priority adaptive water governance in the context of climate change and cluster past and ongoing twinning projects along their target regions (Latin America, Africa, NIS, South and South East Asia). Through its co-ordinating activities, Twin2Go will bring together participants and lead partners from past and ongoing projects as well as international water networks. This will allow increasing the output and benefit of ongoing research by consolidating results, exploiting synergies and thus build up the critical mass that will promote uptake of research results and reaching audiences at a higher level of decision making.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2014-ETN | Award Amount: 3.89M | Year: 2015

BIG4 is a global network to amalgamate the cutting edge methods of genomics, phylogenetics, informatics, taxonomy, semantic biodiversity publishing and citizen science, into highly competitive cross-disciplinary training programme for 15 ESRs with a stronghold in biosystematics. These 15 future leaders will extend the exploration of the four biggest groups of living organisms in a more forward looking way than has been attempted before. The urgent focus on the big four insect groups, i.e. Coleoptera (beetles), Hymenoptera (wasps, ants and bees), Diptera (flies and mosquitoes), and Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) is justified by the super abundance of this form of Life, and by the growing need by science and society to make better use of the enormous potential hidden in their biological diversity. BIG4 aims [1] to gain a robust systematic knowledge that explains the evolutionary origin, diversification, past and present distributions of living organisms, [2] to model their future dispersal and [3] to predict the traits of species that are yet unknown. Additionally, BIG4 strives for [4] implementing organismal features into engineering, medicine, agricultural or environmental solutions, the insect flight mechanics and more effective pollination to mention just a few. Such knowledge is in a particularly high demand in respect of the four biggest insects groups comprising the most important model organisms, the most dangerous pests or disease vectors, the most abundant invasive species and the most fragile entire species communities undergoing extinction due to habitat destruction. By integrating academia with the business and public sectors, BIG4 will greatly increase services and beneficial products provided by the biosystematics as a science. BIG4 will place insect mega-diversity as a powerful service for economic and societal needs such as environmental monitoring, biological control, biomedicine, or ecological farming.

Weitenberg J.,RWTH Aachen | Russbuldt P.,Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology | Eidam T.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Pupeza I.,Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics
Optics Express | Year: 2011

We demonstrate a high-finesse femtosecond enhancement cavity with an on-axis obstacle. By inserting a wire with a width of 5% of the fun-damental mode diameter, the finesse of F = 3400 is only slightly reduced to F = 3000. The low loss is due to the degeneracy of transverse modes, which allows for exciting a circulating field distribution avoiding the obstacle. We call this condition quasi-imaging. The concept could be used for output coupling of intracavity-generated higher-order harmonics through an on-axis opening in one of the cavity mirrors. © 2011 Optical Society of America.

Martin D.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Galisteo R.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Molinolo A.A.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Wetzker R.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | And 2 more authors.
Cancer Cell | Year: 2011

Angioproliferative tumors induced by the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) have been successfully treated with rapamycin, which provided direct evidence of the clinical activity of mTOR inhibitors in human malignancies. However, prolonged mTOR inhibition may raise concerns in immunocompromised patients, including AIDS-Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Here, we explored whether KSHV oncogenes deploy cell type-specific signaling pathways activating mTOR, which could be exploited to halt KS development while minimizing immune suppressive effects. We found that PI3Kγ, a PI3K isoform exhibiting restricted tissue distribution, is strictly required for signaling from the KSHV-encoded vGPCR oncogene to Akt/mTOR. Indeed, by using an endothelial-specific gene delivery system modeling KS development, we provide genetic and pharmacological evidence that PI3Kγ may represent a suitable molecular target for therapeutic intervention in KS. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Gies H.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Gies H.,University of Heidelberg
Lecture Notes in Physics | Year: 2012

This lecture course is intended to fill the gap between graduate courses on quantum field theory and specialized reviews or forefront-research articles on functional renormalization group approaches to quantum field theory and gauge theories. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Zandler H.,University of Bayreuth | Brenning A.,University of Waterloo | Brenning A.,University of Heidelberg | Brenning A.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Samimi C.,University of Bayreuth
Remote Sensing of Environment | Year: 2015

Remote sensing based biomass estimation in arid environments is essential for monitoring degradation and carbon dynamics. However, due to the low vegetation cover in these regions, satellite-based research is challenging. Numerous potentially useful remotely-sensed predictor variables have been proposed, and several statistical and machine-learning techniques are available for empirical spatial modeling, but their predictive performance is yet unknown in this context. We therefore modeled total biomass in the Eastern Pamirs of Tajikistan, a region with extremely low vegetation cover, with a large set of satellite based predictors derived from two commonly used sensors (Landsat OLI, RapidEye), and assessed their utility in this environment using several suitable modeling approaches (stepwise, lasso, partial least squares and ridge regression, random forest). The best performing model (lasso regression) resulted in a RMSE of 992kgha-1 in spatial cross-validation, indicating that biomass quantification in this arid setting is feasible but subject to large uncertainties. Furthermore, pronounced over-fitting in some commonly used models (e.g. stepwise regression, random forest) underlined the importance of adequate variable selection and shrinkage techniques in spatial modeling of high dimensional data. The applied sensors showed very similar performance and a combination of both only slightly improved results of better performing models. A permutation-based assessment of variable importance showed that some of the most frequently used vegetation indices are not suitable for dwarf shrub biomass prediction in this environment. We suggest that predictor variables based on several bands accounting for vegetation as well as background information are required in this arid setting. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Johnson-McDaniel N.K.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Johnson-McDaniel N.K.,Tata Institute of Fundamental Research | Shah A.G.,University of Southampton | Whiting B.F.,University of Florida
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015

It is now possible to compute linear in mass-ratio terms in the post-Newtonian (PN) expansion for compact binaries to very high orders using linear black hole perturbation theory applied to various invariants. For instance, a computation of the redshift invariant of a point particle in a circular orbit about a black hole in linear perturbation theory gives the linear-in-mass-ratio portion of the binding energy of a circular binary with an arbitrary mass ratio. This binding energy, in turn, encodes the system's conservative dynamics. We give a method for extracting the analytic forms of these post-Newtonian coefficients from high-accuracy numerical data using experimental mathematics techniques, notably an integer relation algorithm. Such methods should be particularly important when the calculations progress to the considerably more difficult case of perturbations of the Kerr metric. As an example, we apply this method to the redshift invariant in the Schwarzschild metric. Here, we obtain analytic coefficients to 12.5PN order and higher-order terms in mixed analytic-numerical form to 21.5PN, including analytic forms for the complete 13.5PN coefficient and all the logarithmic terms at 13PN. We have computed the individual modes to over 5000 digits, of which we use at most 1240 in the present calculation. At these high orders, an individual coefficient can have over 30 terms, including a wide variety of transcendental numbers, when written out in full. We are still able to obtain analytic forms for such coefficients from the numerical data through a careful study of the structure of the expansion. The structure we find also allows us to predict certain "leading logarithm"-type contributions to all orders. The additional terms in the expansion we obtain improve the accuracy of the PN series for the redshift observable, even in the very strong-field regime inside the innermost stable circular orbit, particularly when combined with exponential resummation. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Cunningham A.,University of Heidelberg | Muhlig S.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Rockstuhl C.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Burgi T.,University of Heidelberg
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2011

Using bottom-up and self-assembly processes, large scale layered arrays of strongly coupled gold nanoparticles with controllable dimensions were fabricated. By carefully adjusting the distance between adjacent gold nanoparticle arrays, it is possible to control the coupling of the localized surface plasmon polariton resonance as sustained by individual gold nanoparticles. A greater interaction is observed at smaller separations, leading to a well pronounced shift in the spectral position of resonances that can be adjusted with high precision. Simulations showed good agreement with experimental observations in an in-depth investigation of such structures, suggesting minimal separations of only one nanometer are achieved. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Guillemot S.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Sikora F.,University Paris Est Creteil
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2010

The problems studied in this article originate from the Graph Motif problem introduced by Lacroix et al. [17] in the context of biological networks. The problem is to decide if a vertex-colored graph has a connected subgraph whose colors equal a given multiset of colors M. Using an algebraic framework recently introduced by Koutis et al. [15,16], we obtain new FPT algorithms for Graph Motif and variants, with improved running times. We also obtain results on the counting versions of this problem, showing that the counting problem is FPT if M is a set, but becomes # W [1]-hard if M is a multiset with two colors. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Gies H.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Scherer M.M.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Scherer M.M.,University of Heidelberg
European Physical Journal C | Year: 2010

We study the triviality and hierarchy problem of a Z2-invariant Yukawa system with massless fermions and a real scalar field, serving as a toy model for the standard-model Higgs sector. Using the functional RG, we look for UV stable fixed points which could render the system asymptotically safe. Whether a balancing of fermionic and bosonic contributions in the RG flow induces such a fixed point depends on the algebraic structure and the degrees of freedom of the system. Within the region of parameter space which can be controlled by a nonperturbative next-to-leading order derivative expansion of the effective action, we find no non-Gaußian fixed point in the case of one or more fermion flavors. The fermion-boson balancing can still be demonstrated within a model system with a small fractional flavor number in the symmetry-broken regime. The UV behavior of this small-Nf system is controlled by a conformal Higgs expectation value. The system has only two physical parameters, implying that the Higgs mass can be predicted. It also naturally explains the heavy mass of the top quark, since there are no RG trajectories connecting the UV fixed point with light top masses. © Springer-Verlag / Società Italiana di Fisica 2010.

Guillemot S.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Guillemot S.,Iowa State University | Sikora F.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Sikora F.,University Paris Est Creteil
Algorithmica | Year: 2013

The problems studied in this article originate from the GRAPH MOTIF problem introduced by Lacroix et al. (IEEE/ACM Trans. Comput. Biol. Bioinform. 3(4):360-368, 2006) in the context of biological networks. The problem is to decide if a vertex-colored graph has a connected subgraph whose colors equal a given multiset of colors M. It is a graph pattern-matching problem variant, where the structure of the occurrence of the pattern is not of interest but the only requirement is the connectedness. Using an algebraic framework recently introduced by Koutis (Proceedings of the 35th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages and Programming (ICALP), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 5125, pp. 575-586, 2008) and Koutis and Williams (Proceedings of the 36th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages and Programming (ICALP), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 5555, pp. 653-664, 2009), we obtain new FPT algorithms for GRAPH MOTIF and variants, with improved running times. We also obtain results on the counting versions of this problem, proving that the counting problem is FPT if M is a set, but becomes #W[1]-hard if M is a multiset with two colors. Finally, we present an experimental evaluation of this approach on real datasets, showing that its performance compares favorably with existing software. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.

Kandler C.,Bielefeld University | Kornadt A.E.,Bielefeld University | Hagemeyer B.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Neyer F.J.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology | Year: 2015

Despite abundant evidence that personality development continues in adulthood, little is known about the patterns and sources of personality development in old age. We thus investigated mean-level trends and individual differences in change as well as the genetic and environmental sources of rank-order continuity and change in several personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness, perceived control, and affect intensity) and well-being. In addition, we analyzed the interrelation between perceived control and change in other personality traits as well as between change in personality traits and change in well-being. We analyzed data from older adult twins, aged 64-85 years at Time 1 (N = 410; 135 males and 275 females; 134 monozygotic and 63 dizygotic twin pairs), collected at 2 different time points about 5 years apart. On average, neuroticism increased, whereas extraversion, conscientiousness, and perceived control significantly decreased over time. Change in perceived control was associated with change in neuroticism and conscientiousness, pointing to particular adaptation mechanisms specific to old age. Whereas individual differences in personality traits were fairly stable due to both genetic and environmental sources, individual differences in change were primarily due to environmental sources (beyond random error) indicating plasticity in old age. Even though the average level of well-being did not significantly change over time, individual well-being tended to decrease with strongly increasing levels of neuroticism as well as decreasing extraversion, conscientiousness, and perceived control, indicating that personality traits predict well-being but not vice versa. We discuss implications for theory on personality development across the lifespan. © 2014 American Psychological Association.

Forseth R.R.,Cornell University | Amaike S.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Schwenk D.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Affeldt K.J.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | And 3 more authors.
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

Biosynthetic crosstalk: Most gene clusters in fungi are orphans with no known associated metabolites. NMR-based comparative metabolomics was used to identify the products of two highly homologous orphan clusters in Aspergillus flavus. The two clusters encode partially redundant biosynthetic pathways that produce overlapping sets of novel fungal alkaloids, feature NRPS-like genes with unusual functions, and regulate fungal development. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Ammon M.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Ammon M.,University of California at Los Angeles | Castro A.,Harvard University | Iqbal N.,University of California at Santa Barbara
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2013

Holographic entanglement entropy provides a direct connection between clas- sical geometry and quantum entanglement; however the usual prescription does not apply to theories of higher spin gravity, where standard notions of geometry are no longer gauge invariant. We present a proposal for the holographic computation of entanglement en- tropy in field theories dual to higher spin theories of gravity in AdS3. These theories have a Chern-Simons description, and our proposal involves a Wilson line in an infinite- dimensional representation of the bulk gauge group. In the case of spin-2 gravity such Wilson lines are the natural coupling of a heavy point particle to gravity and so are equiva- lent to the usual prescription of Ryu and Takayanagi. For higher spin gravity they provide a natural generalization of these ideas. We work out spin-3 gravity in detail, showing that our proposal recovers many expected results and computes thermal entropies of black holes with higher spin charge, finding agreement with previous expressions in the literature. We encounter some peculiarities in the case of non-unitary RG ow backgrounds and outline future generalizations. © SISSA 2013.

Ruppin E.,Tel Aviv University | Papin J.A.,University of Virginia | de Figueiredo L.F.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Schuster S.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Current Opinion in Biotechnology | Year: 2010

With the advent of modern omics technologies, it has become feasible to reconstruct (quasi-) whole-cell metabolic networks and characterize them in more and more detail. Computer simulations of the dynamic behavior of such networks are difficult due to a lack of kinetic data and to computational limitations. In contrast, network analysis based on appropriate constraints such as the steady-state condition (constraint-based analysis) is feasible and allows one to derive conclusions about the system's metabolic capabilities. Here, we review methods for the reconstruction of metabolic networks, modeling techniques such as flux balance analysis and elementary flux modes and current progress in their development and applications. Game-theoretical methods for studying metabolic networks are discussed as well. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Gopakumar A.,Tata Institute of Fundamental Research | Schafer G.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2011

We present a semi-analytic prescription to obtain gravitational wave (GW) phasing for spinning compact binaries in inspiraling eccentric orbits, while restricting the spin effects to the leading order spin-orbit coupling. We demonstrate that only the radial part of the orbital dynamics is amenable for a Keplerian-type solution that is compatible with the standard post-Newtonian (PN) accurate quasi-Keplerian parametrization for nonspinning compact binaries. We also derive PN-accurate equations governing the evolution of the Eulerian angles that are crucial to obtain temporally evolving GW polarization states and compute the associated fully 1PN accurate amplitude corrected GW polarization states. We show that it is not possible to obtain a Keplerian-type parametric solution for the angular part of the above dynamics in a noninertial frame that follows the precessing orbital plane. Further, we point out certain undesirable features present in their approach for doing GW phasing, like the use of precessing polarization vectors to construct the polarization states. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Turchanin A.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Golzhauser A.,Bielefeld University
Advanced Materials | Year: 2016

Carbon nanomembranes (CNMs) are synthetic 2D carbon sheets with tailored physical or chemical properties. These depend on the structure, molecular composition, and surroundings on either side. Due to their molecular thickness, they can be regarded as “interfaces without bulk” separating regions of different gaseous, liquid, or solid components and controlling the materials exchange between them. Here, a universal scheme for the fabrication of 1 nm-thick, mechanically stable, functional CNMs is presented. CNMs can be further modified, for example perforated by ion bombardment or chemically functionalized by the binding of other molecules onto the surfaces. The underlying physical and chemical mechanisms are described, and examples are presented for the engineering of complex surface architectures, e.g., nanopatterns of proteins, fluorescent dyes, or polymer brushes. A simple transfer procedure allows CNMs to be placed on various support structures, which makes them available for diverse applications: supports for electron and X-ray microscopy, nanolithography, nanosieves, Janus nanomembranes, polymer carpets, complex layered structures, functionalization of graphene, novel nanoelectronic and nanomechanical devices. To close, the potential of CNMs in filtration and sensorics is discussed. Based on tests for the separation of gas molecules, it is argued that ballistic membranes may play a prominent role in future efforts of materials separation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

Neumann M.F.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Schweinberger S.R.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Burton A.M.,University of Aberdeen
Cognition | Year: 2013

When viewers are shown sets of similar objects (for example circles), they may extract summary information (e.g., average size) while retaining almost no information about the individual items. A similar observation can be made when using sets of unfamiliar faces: Viewers tend to merge identity or expression information from the set exemplars into a single abstract representation, the set average. Here, across four experiments, sets of well-known, famous faces were presented. In response to a subsequent probe, viewers recognized the individual faces very accurately. However, they also reported having seen a merged 'average' of these faces. These findings suggest abstraction of set characteristics even in circumstances which favor individuation of the items. Moreover, the present data suggest that, although seemingly incompatible, exemplar and average representations co-exist for sets consisting of famous faces. This result suggests that representations are simultaneously formed at multiple levels of abstraction. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Weber A.,University of Heidelberg | Gies H.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2010

We investigate the nontrivial interplay between geometry and temperature in the Casimir effect for the sphere-plate and cylinder-plate configurations. At low temperature, the thermal contribution to the Casimir force is dominated by this interplay, implying that standard approximation techniques such as the proximity force approximation (PFA) are inapplicable even in the limit of small surface separation. Thermal fluctuations on scales of the thermal wavelength lead to a delocalization of the thermal force density at low temperatures. As a consequence, the temperature dependence strongly differs from naive expectations. Most prominently, thermal forces can develop nonmonotonic behavior below a critical temperature. We perform a comprehensive study of such geothermal phenomena in these Casimir geometries, using analytical and numerical worldline techniques for Dirichlet scalar fluctuations. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Weber A.,University of Heidelberg | Gies H.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

The geometry dependence of Casimir forces is significantly more pronounced in the presence of thermal fluctuations due to a generic geometry-temperature interplay. We show that the thermal force for standard sphere-plate or cylinder-plate geometries develops a nonmonotonic behavior already in the simple case of a fluctuating Dirichlet scalar. In particular, the attractive thermal force can increase for increasing distances below a critical temperature. This anomalous behavior is triggered by a reweighting of relevant fluctuations on the scale of the thermal wavelength. The essence of the phenomenon becomes transparent within the worldline picture of the Casimir effect. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Floerchinger S.,University of Heidelberg | Scherer M.M.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Wetterich C.,University of Heidelberg
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2010

We investigate the phase diagram of two-component fermions in the BCS-BEC (Bose-Einstein condensate) crossover. Using functional renormalization-group equations we calculate the effect of quantum fluctuations on the fermionic self-energy parametrized by a wave-function renormalization, an effective Fermi radius, and the gap. This allows us to follow the modifications of the Fermi surface and the dispersion relation for fermionic excitations throughout the whole crossover region. We also determine the critical temperature of the second-order phase transition to superfluidity. Our results are in agreement with BCS theory including Gorkov's correction for a small negative scattering length a and with an interacting Bose gas for a small positive a. At the unitarity point the result for the gap at zero temperature agrees well with quantum Monte Carlo simulations, while the critical temperature differs. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Pick D.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Leiterer M.,Agricultural Institute for Investigation and Research of Thuringia | Einax J.W.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Microchemical Journal | Year: 2010

An analytical method is described for the routine quantification of five elements (As, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Se) in plants and animal feedstuffs using dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-DRC-MS) after microwave digestion. Methane (for Cr, Fe, Ni, and Se) and oxygen (for As) were used as reaction gases to reduce polyatomic interferences. Optimization of the gas flow rate and the quadrupole dynamic bandpass tuning parameter (RPq) was carried out for the method. Detection limits (LOD) were in the range of 0.03-0.65 μg L- 1 and were significantly lower compared to the standard mode without DRC. The trueness of the method was tested using three reference materials from Round robin tests. Results were well in accordance with the certified values. Furthermore, DRC data were examined by analyzing the same samples using sector field ICP-MS (SF-ICP-MS) and an ICP-MS equipped with collision cell technology (ICP-CCT-MS). The data obtained were in the confidence range of the reference material, too. The investigated method was applied for the analysis of grass and corn silage samples. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Vicencio R.A.,University of Chile | Cantillano C.,University of Chile | Morales-Inostroza L.,University of Chile | Real B.,University of Chile | And 5 more authors.
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2015

We present the first experimental demonstration of a new type of localized state in the continuum, namely, compacton-like linear states in flat-band lattices. To this end, we employ photonic Lieb lattices, which exhibit three tight-binding bands, with one being perfectly flat. Discrete predictions are confirmed by realistic continuous numerical simulations as well as by direct experiments. Our results could be of great importance for fundamental physics as well as for various applications where light needs to be conducted in a diffractionless and localized manner over long distances. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP-2009-3.2-1 | Award Amount: 10.03M | Year: 2010

POLYCAT provides an integrated, coherent and holistic approach utilizing novel polymer based nanoparticulate catalysts in pharmaceutical, crop protection and vitamin syntheses in conjunction with the enabling functions of micro process technology and green solvents such as water or ethyl lactate. This provides a discipline bridging approach between fine chemistry, catalysis and engineering. This will lead to the replacement of a number of chemical or microbiological reaction steps in fine chemical syntheses by catalytic ones using more active, selective and stable nanoparticulate catalysts. In addition, POLYCAT will lead to the development of novel chiral modifiers immobilized on the polymeric supports. Micro process technology provides testing under almost ideal processing conditions, with much improved heat management, with improved costing, at high data validity, at high process confidence, and with high certainty for scale-out. The industrial applicability is demonstrated by scale-out of the industrial demonstration reactions to the pilot scale. A multi-purpose, container-type plant infrastructure will integrate individual reaction and separation modules in block format, standardised basic logistics, process control, safety installations, and on-line analytics. As guidance before (ex-ante) and during the whole development, holistic life cycle (LCA) and cost analyses will pave directions towards competitiveness and sustainability. The POLYCAT technologies have potential to reduce the environmental impact by 20% up to orders of magnitude: e.g. reduction of green house gas emissions, acids (SO2-Eq.), nutrients (NOx-Eq.), toxic substances (1,4-DCB Eq.) and finite abiotic resources (antimony eq.). With (enantio)selectivity increases up to 25%, solvent reductions of 30-100%, and products cost decreases of about 10%, a midterm impact of 30-110 Mio Euro and longterm impact of 100-560 Mio Euro result.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2009.3.3 | Award Amount: 5.42M | Year: 2010

The LOTUS proposal addresses the urgent need for a technology to produce the highly conductive patterns required for high throughput large volume manufacturing of flexible large area electronics. While all printed electronics need electric wiring LOTUS specifically targets the applications the most advanced towards commercialization: flexible thin-film photovoltaics, RFIDs, and OLEDs for lighting.The general objective is to provide a simple, low cost, energy efficient, environmentally friendly and R2R compatible platform to produce highly conductive structures with high resolution. The interplay between materials researchers, technology developers and end users allows to generate solutions quickly and effectively with minimum investment and time and to achieve maximum output with minimum risk. This will also accelerate the transfer to mass production. The strategy is based on an integrated approach to address both the common needs and the specific requirements of the most representative applications.The platform developed will reinforce the leading position of the European Industry in flexible OLEDs, PVs, and RFIDs. Moreover, it will be beneficial to any flexible electronics including thin-film transistors, power converters, flexible batteries, printed sensors for biomedical use (point-of-care) and food protection/freshness applications. These devices presently at various stages of development also need an electric wiring. Thus LOTUS will contribute to wealth creation and making new technology available to address societal needs. The technologies and materials generated will enable the European Community to be competitive with Asian and North American products (there are presently no conductive inks and sintering tools manufacturers in Europe). LOTUS project will create synergies and cooperation between research groups, equipment manufacturers and end users bringing them to the position of global frontrunners in their respective technology areas.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: NMP-2008-2.2-2;NMP-2008-2.1-2 | Award Amount: 4.61M | Year: 2009

The NANOGOLD project aims at the fabrication and application of bulk electro-magnetic metamaterials. A promising new concept for the exploration of metamaterials is the use of periodic structures with periods considerably shorter than the wavelength of the operating electromagnetic radiation This concept allows to control the refractive properties. Making use of a bottom up approach in materials design, we will apply self-organization of organic-inorganic composite materials containing resonant entities. To tune electromagnetic properties, resonance and interference at different length scales will be implemented. In such a way we will obtain bulk optical metamaterials operating in spectral domains appropriate for photonics that can be used in applications. Our groundbreaking solution to form such artificial matter is interdisciplinary and combines inorganic chemistry, organic macromolecular synthesis, physics of electromagnetic resonances and liquid crystal technology. We start with resonant entities (metallic nanoparticles) and organize them via self-organization on the molecular scale. Systematic modular variation of the chemical entities gives access to libraries of materials which will be used to arrive at systems with desired properties. Simulation of optical properties and molecular ordering will guide the design of compounds and materials. Organization at molecular level leads to homogenous materials with optical, electronic or magnetic properties at elevated frequencies, in the visible and near infrared spectral range. The controlled utilization of the polymer physics of micro-segration, will allow for additional structuration at the nano-scale giving design freedoms to tune material properties optimally. NANOGOLD furthermore will make use of innovative fabrication techniques and processing known from liquid crystal displays by exploring new physical effects, which will result in novel devices.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IRSES | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2011-IRSES | Award Amount: 256.20K | Year: 2012

A new way to investigate the Universe will be possible when the new generation of gravitational wave telescopes becomes operative. First, the advanced detectors, then the 3rd generation observatories will allow to detect the gravitational wave signal emitted in catastrophic event in the Universe. The Large-scale Cryogenic Gravitational wave Telescope (LCGT, now named KAGRA) in Japan and the Einstein gravitational-wave Telescope in Europe will adopt new technologies (in cryogenics, mechanics and optics) that necessitate an intense R&D activity and a fully collaborative exchange of know-how between Europe and Japan. The aim of the ELiTES project is to furnish the initial kick-off to this exchange programme.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: NFRP-12-2015 | Award Amount: 3.05M | Year: 2015

HoNESt (History of Nuclear Energy and Society) involves an interdisciplinary team with many experienced researchers and 24 high profile research institutions. HoNESts goal is to conduct a three-year interdisciplinary analysis of the experience of nuclear developments and its relationship to contemporary society with the aim of improving the understanding of the dynamics over the last 60 years. HoNESts results will assist the current debate on future energy sources and the transition to affordable, secure, and clean energy production. Civil societys interaction with nuclear developments changes over time, and it is locally, nationally and transnationally specific. HoNESt will embrace the complexity of political, technological and economic challenges; safety; risk perception and communication, public engagement, media framing, social movements, etc. Research on these interactions has thus far been mostly fragmented. We will develop a pioneering integrated interdisciplinary approach, which is conceptually informed by Large Technological Systems (LTS) and Integrated Socio-technical System (IST), based on a close and innovative collaboration of historians and social scientists in this field. HoNESt will first collect extensive historical data from over 20 countries. These data will be jointly analyzed by historians and social scientists, through the lens of an innovative integrated approach, in order to improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying decision making and associated citizen engagement with nuclear power. Through an innovative application of backcasting techniques, HoNESt will bring novel content to the debate on nuclear sustainable engagement futures. Looking backwards to the present, HoNESt will strategize and plan how these suitable engagement futures could be achieved. HoNESt will engage key stakeholders from industry, policy makers and civil society in a structured dialogue to insert the results into the public debate on nuclear energy.

Dreisow F.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Longhi S.,CNR Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnologies | Nolte S.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Tunnermann A.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Szameit A.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

In the Dirac-sea picture, the physics of pair production and instability of the quantum electrodynamics vacuum in presence of an oscillating electric field resembles the phenomenon of interband transition of light waves in photonic superlattices induced by a geometric curvature. We realize a binary wave guide superlattice with a curved optical axis mimicking dynamical pair production induced by two counterpropagating ultrastrong laser pulses. Our optical analogue enables visualization of formation of electron-positron pair in physical space as splitting of a wave packet, originally representing an electron in the Dirac sea. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: WATER-1a-2014 | Award Amount: 2.89M | Year: 2015

The main objective of the presented innovation action is the first application and near-market replication of a novel water nanogeotechnology for the immobilization of toxic metals in groundwater aquifers, drinking water wells, and river bank filtration sites. The basic concept of our technology is the creation of an adsorptive in situ barrier for the immobilization of toxic metal contaminations. This barrier is made of iron oxide nanoparticles, which are injected into sediments as colloidal suspension, forming stable deposits there. Over the last 6 years, we have developed a novel technology for the injection of iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) into groundwater contaminant plumes. The feasibility of this approach has been successfully tested in lab experiments and a scientific field application. Specifically, our approach addresses arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, and zinc, all of which are known major groundwater contaminants. Now, we want to bring this novel, green and near-market water eco-innovation into the European markets, and beyond. The very core of this effort is the performance of two industrial-scale applications of our technology at two different types of contaminated sites. This first application of our technological approach under field conditions is the major objective of REGROUND. By developing our technology into a market-ready application, REGROUND will globally transform the efforts to mitigate the risks posed by toxic metal contaminations to humans and ecosystems. The REGROUND technology, due to its low costs and wide applicability, will be made highly available. The near-market replication of our technology and subsequent commercialization efforts are an integral part of REGROUND. This will enable immobilization of toxic metal contaminations at sites which were left untreated so far due to technical or economic reasons.

Steiner S.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Schroter Y.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Pfalz J.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Pfannschmidt T.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Plant Physiology | Year: 2011

The major RNA polymerase activity in mature chloroplasts is a multisubunit, Escherichia coli-like protein complex called PEP (for plastid-encoded RNA polymerase). Its subunit structure has been extensively investigated by biochemical means. Beside the "prokaryotic" subunits encoded by the plastome-located RNA polymerase genes, a number of additional nucleus-encoded subunits of eukaryotic origin have been identified in the PEP complex. These subunits appear to provide additional functions and regulation modes necessary to adapt transcription to the varying functional situations in chloroplasts. However, despite the enormous progress in genomic data and mass spectrometry techniques, it is still under debate which of these subunits belong to the core complex of PEP and which ones represent rather transient or peripheral components. Here, we present a catalog of true PEP subunits that is based on comparative analyses from biochemical purifications, protein mass spectrometry, and phenotypic analyses. We regard reproducibly identified protein subunits of the basic PEP complex as essential when the corresponding knockout mutants reveal an albino or pale-green phenotype. Our study provides a clearly defined subunit catalog of the basic PEP complex, generating the basis for a better understanding of chloroplast transcription regulation. In addition, the data support a model that links PEP complex assembly and chloroplast buildup during early seedling development in vascular plants. © 2011 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

Brantl S.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Microbiology Spectrum | Year: 2014

Plasmids are selfish genetic elements that normally constitute a burden for the bacterial host cell. This burden is expected to favor plasmid loss. Therefore, plasmids have evolved mechanisms to control their replication and ensure their stable maintenance. Replication control can be either mediated by iterons or by antisense RNAs. Antisense RNAs work through a negative control circuit. They are constitutively synthesized and metabolically unstable. They act both as a measuring device and a regulator, and regulation occurs by inhibition. Increased plasmid copy numbers lead to increasing antisense-RNA concentrations, which, in turn, result in the inhibition of a function essential for replication. On the other hand, decreased plasmid copy numbers entail decreasing concentrations of the inhibiting antisense RNA, thereby increasing the replication frequency. Inhibition is achieved by a variety of mechanisms, which are discussed in detail. The most trivial case is the inhibition of translation of an essential replication initiator protein (Rep) by blockage of the rep-ribosome binding site. Alternatively, ribosome binding to a leader peptide mRNA whose translation is required for efficient Rep translation can be prevented by antisense-RNA binding. In 2004, translational attenuation was discovered. Antisense-RNA-mediated transcriptional attenuation is another mechanism that has, so far, only been detected in plasmids of Gram-positive bacteria. ColE1, a plasmid that does not need a plasmid-encoded replication initiator protein, uses the inhibition of primer formation. In other cases, antisense RNAs inhibit the formation of an activator pseudoknot that is required for efficient Rep translation. © 2014 American Society for Microbiology. All rights reserved.

Dey A.,TU Eindhoven | Bomans P.H.H.,TU Eindhoven | Muller F.A.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Will J.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | And 3 more authors.
Nature Materials | Year: 2010

Unravelling the processes of calcium phosphate formation is important in our understanding of both bone and tooth formation, and also of pathological mineralization, for example in cardiovascular disease. Serum is a metastable solution from which calcium phosphate precipitates in the presence of calcifiable templates such as collagen, elastin and cell debris. A pathological deficiency of inhibitors leads to the uncontrolled deposition of calcium phosphate. In bone and teeth the formation of apatite crystals is preceded by an amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) precursor phase. ACP formation is thought to proceed through prenucleation clusters stable clusters that are present in solution already before nucleation as was recently demonstrated for CaCO 3 (refs 15,16). However, the role of such nanometre-sized clusters as building blocks for ACP has been debated for many years. Here we demonstrate that the surface-induced formation of apatite from simulated body fluid starts with the aggregation of prenucleation clusters leading to the nucleation of ACP before the development of oriented apatite crystals. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Groschel A.H.,University of Bayreuth | Schacher F.H.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Schmalz H.,University of Bayreuth | Borisov O.V.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 4 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2012

Hierarchical self-assembly offers elegant and energy-efficient bottom-up strategies for the structuring of complex materials. For block copolymers, the last decade witnessed great progress in diversifying the structural complexity of solution-based assemblies into multicompartment micelles. However, a general understanding of what governs multicompartment micelle morphologies and polydispersity, and how to manipulate their hierarchical superstructures using straightforward concepts and readily accessible polymers remains unreached. Here we demonstrate how to create homogeneous multicompartment micelles with unprecedented structural control via the intermediate pre-assembly of subunits. This directed self-assembly leads to a step-wise reduction of the degree of conformational freedom and dynamics and avoids undesirable kinetic obstacles during the structure build-up. It yields a general concept for homogeneous populations of well-defined multicompartment micelles with precisely tunable patchiness, while using simple linear ABC triblock terpolymers. We further demonstrate control over the hierarchical step-growth polymerization of multicompartment micelles into micron-scale segmented supracolloidal polymers as an example of programmable mesoscale colloidal hierarchies via well-defined patchy nanoobjects. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Hergt S.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Shah A.,Weizmann Institute of Science | Schafer G.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

The orbital motion is derived for a nonspinning test mass in the relativistic, gravitational field of a rotationally deformed body not restricted to the equatorial plane or spherical orbit. The gravitational field of the central body is represented by the Kerr metric, expanded to second post-Newtonian order including the linear and quadratic spin terms. The orbital period, the intrinsic periastron advance, and the precession of the orbital plane are derived with the aid of novel canonical variables and action-based methods. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Gies H.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Lippoldt S.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

Catalyzed symmetry breaking arises from a parametric enhancement of critical fluctuations independently of the coupling strength. Symmetry-breaking fermionic long-range fluctuations exhibit such an enhancement on negatively curved spaces, as is known from mean-field studies. We study gravitational catalysis from the viewpoint of the functional renormalization group using the 3d Gross-Neveu model as a specific example. We observe gravitational catalysis toward a phase of broken discrete chiral symmetry both on a maximally symmetric (anti-de Sitter) and on a purely spatially curved manifold for constant negative curvature (Lobachevsky plane). The resulting picture for gravitational catalysis obtained from the renormalization flow is closely related to that of magnetic catalysis. As an application, we estimate the curvature required for subcritical systems of finite length to acquire a gravitationally catalyzed gap. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Van Schrojenstein Lantman E.M.,University Utrecht | Deckert-Gaudig T.,Institute of Photonic Technology | Mank A.J.G.,University Utrecht | Mank A.J.G.,HIGH-TECH | And 3 more authors.
Nature Nanotechnology | Year: 2012

Heterogeneous catalysts play a pivotal role in the chemical industry, but acquiring molecular insights into functioning catalysts remains a significant challenge. Recent advances in micro-spectroscopic approaches have allowed spatiotemporal information to be obtained on the dynamics of single active sites and the diffusion of single molecules. However, these methods lack nanometre-scale spatial resolution and/or require the use of fluorescent labels. Here, we show that time-resolved tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy can monitor photocatalytic reactions at the nanoscale. We use a silver-coated atomic force microscope tip to both enhance the Raman signal and to act as the catalyst. The tip is placed in contact with a self-assembled monolayer of p-nitrothiophenol molecules adsorbed on gold nanoplates. A photocatalytic reduction process is induced at the apex of the tip with green laser light, while red laser light is used to monitor the transformation process during the reaction. This dual-wavelength approach can also be used to observe other molecular effects such as monolayer diffusion. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Flore R.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Wipf A.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Zanusso O.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

We study the renormalization group flow of the O(N) nonlinear sigma model in arbitrary dimensions. The effective action of the model is truncated to fourth order in the derivative expansion, and the flow is obtained by combining the nonperturbative renormalization group and the background field method. We investigate the flow in three dimensions and analyze the phase structure for arbitrary N. While a nontrivial fixed point is present in a reduced truncation of the effective action and has critical properties that can be related to the well-known features of the O(N) universality class, one of the fourth-order operators destabilizes this fixed point and has to be discussed carefully. The results about the renormalization flow of the models will serve as a reference for upcoming simulations with the Monte Carlo renormalization group. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Johnson-Mcdaniel N.K.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

We show that there is a direct relation between upper limits on (or potential future measurements of) the m=2 quadrupole moments of slowly rotating neutron stars and the l=m=2 deformation of the star's surface, in full general relativity, to first order in the perturbation. This relation only depends on the star's structure through its mass and radius. All one has to assume about the star's constituents is that the stress-energy tensor at its surface is that of a perfect fluid, which will be true with good accuracy in almost all the situations of interest, and that the magnetic field configuration there is force free, which is likely to be a good approximation. We then apply this relation to the stars which have direct LIGO/Virgo bounds on their m=2 quadrupole moment, below the spin-down limit, and compare with the expected surface deformations due to rotation. In particular, we find that LIGO observations have constrained the Crab pulsar's l=m=2 surface deformation to be smaller than its l=2, m=0 deformation due to rotation, for all the causal equations of state we consider, a statement that could not have been made just using the upper bounds on the l=m=2 deformation from electromagnetic observations. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Bambi C.,Fudan University | Lukes-Gerakopoulos G.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

Black hole candidates in X-ray binary systems and at the centers of galaxies are expected to be the Kerr black holes of general relativity, but the actual nature of these objects has yet to be verified. In this paper, we consider the possibility that they are exotic compact objects and we describe their exterior gravitational field with a subclass of the Manko-Novikov metrics, which are exact solutions of the vacuum Einstein's equations and can describe the spacetime geometry around bodies with arbitrary mass-multipole moments. We point out that around a Manko-Novikov object there may exist many disconnected nonplunging regions at small radii, with no counterpart in the Kerr background, and that their existence may be tested. For instance, in the presence of an accretion disk, they may be filled by the accreting gas, forming a ring structure that might remind the one of the rings of Saturn. We suggest that the existence of these regions may have a clear observational signature in the waveform of the gravitational radiation emitted by an extreme-mass-ratio inspiral: in the last stage of the inspiral, the waveform would be the combination of "regular chirps," produced when the small object orbits in one of the nonplunging regions, and "bursts," which are released when the small object jumps from a nonplunging region to another one at smaller radii. Our conclusions are supported by some numerical calculations of trajectories in the geodesic approximation, in which a particle plunges from the innermost stable circular orbit and then seems to get trapped in the potential well at smaller radii. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Damour T.,Institute des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques | Nagar A.,Institute des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques | Bernuzzi S.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

We improve the effective-one-body (EOB) description of nonspinning coalescing black-hole binaries by incorporating several recent analytical advances, notably: (i) logarithmic contributions to the conservative dynamics; (ii) resummed horizon-absorption contribution to the orbital angular momentum loss; and (iii) a specific radial component of the radiation-reaction force implied by consistency with the azimuthal one. We then complete this analytically improved EOB model by comparing it to accurate numerical-relativity (NR) simulations performed by the Caltech-Cornell-CITA group for mass ratios q=(1,2,3,4,6). In particular, the comparison to NR data allows us to determine with high accuracy (∼104) the value of the main EOB radial potential: A(u;ν), where u=GM/(Rc2) is the interbody gravitational potential and ν=q/(q+1)2 is the symmetric mass ratio. We introduce a new technique for extracting from NR data an intrinsic measure of the phase evolution [Qω(ω) diagnostics]. Aligning the NR-completed EOB quadrupolar waveform and the NR one at low frequencies, we find that they keep agreeing (in phase and amplitude) within the NR uncertainties throughout the evolution for all mass ratios considered. We also find good agreement for several subdominant multipoles without having to introduce and tune any extra parameters. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Konig E.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Bininda-Emonds O.R.P.,Carl von Ossietzky University
Peptides | Year: 2011

Amphibians are characterized in part by their highly specialized and glandular skin that enables key physiological functions such as cutaneous respiration and defense against a variety of micro- and macroscopic predators via toxic components (e.g., alkaloids and bufodienolids), biogenic amines, neuropeptides and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). To date, DNA sequence information regarding AMP genes in anurans is restricted to only a few anuran families and largely to "higher frogs" (Neobatrachia). Here, we analyze the DNA information for the signal sequences of the AMP precursors in anuran amphibians available to the end of 2009 in an explicit phylogenetic framework to characterize the evolution of this large, diverse gene family. Comparison of cDNA sequences suggests that there are at least three different motifs within the signal peptide sequence of the AMP-precursor corresponding to the evolutionary lineages Neobatrachia, Bombinatoridae (Bombina spp.) and Pipidae (Xenopus laevis). The signal sequences are strongly conserved within each lineage (as previously noted for Neobatrachia), but highly divergent between them. Together with the lack of a linear relationship between the degree of sequence divergence and evolutionary time, we hypothesize that the anuran AMP system has evolved convergently on at least three occasions. However, additional sampling, especially among the largely poorly sampled non-neobatrachian lineages, is required to confirm this hypothesis and could reveal the existence of additional signal sequence motifs. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Kupfer S.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Guthmuller J.,Technical University of Gdansk | Gonzalez L.,University of Vienna
Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation | Year: 2013

The excitation energies and gradients in the ground and the first excited state of a novel donor-(π-bridge)-acceptor 4-methoxy-1,3-thiazole-based chromophore were investigated by means of MS-RASPT2/RASSCF and TDDFT in solution. Within both methods, the excitation energies strongly depend on the employed equilibrium structures, whose differences can be rationalized in terms of bond length alternation indexes. It is shown that functionals with an increased amount of exact exchange provide the best estimation of the ground and excited state properties. While B3LYP fails to predict the excitation energies due to its intrinsic problems in describing charge transfer (CT) states, the long-range corrected CAM-B3LYP and M06-2X functionals deliver good agreement with the experimental UV/vis absorption spectrum. The calculation of resonance Raman intensity patterns is used to discern which ground and excited state gradients are best. The results clearly evidence that both CAM-B3LYP and RASSCF excited state gradients and energies in combination with CAM-B3LYP ground state gradients are appropriate to describe the CT state of this push-pull chromophore. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Brugmann B.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Journal of Computational Physics | Year: 2013

We construct a pseudospectral method for the solution of time-dependent, non-linear partial differential equations on a three-dimensional spherical shell. The problem we address is the treatment of tensor fields on the sphere. As a test case we consider the evolution of a single black hole in numerical general relativity. A natural strategy would be the expansion in tensor spherical harmonics in spherical coordinates. Instead, we consider the simpler and potentially more efficient possibility of a double Fourier expansion on the sphere for tensors in Cartesian coordinates. As usual for the double Fourier method, we employ a filter to address time-step limitations and certain stability issues. We find that a tensor filter based on spin-weighted spherical harmonics is successful, while two simplified, non-spin-weighted filters do not lead to stable evolutions. The derivatives and the filter are implemented by matrix multiplication for efficiency. A key technical point is the construction of a matrix multiplication method for the spin-weighted spherical harmonic filter. As example for the efficient parallelization of the double Fourier, spin-weighted filter method we discuss an implementation on a GPU, which achieves a speed-up of up to a factor of 20 compared to a single core CPU implementation. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Pohl H.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Microscopy Research and Technique | Year: 2010

The specimen holder for scanning electron microscopy described herein allows a single specimen to be examined in any possible view and significantly improves object illumination. The specimen is glued to a fine pin and flexibly mounted on a double-sided adhesive conductive pad on a rotatable pivot. A milled pot placed beneath the specimen acts as an electron trap. This provides a homogeneous black image background by minimizing noisy signals from the specimen's surroundings. Microsc. Res. Tech. 73:1073-1076, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Janssen R.,Uppsala University | Damen W.G.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Budd G.E.,Uppsala University
BMC Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2011

Background: A recent study on expression and function of the ortholog of the Drosophila collier (col) gene in various arthropods including insects, crustaceans and chelicerates suggested a de novo function of col in the development of the appendage-less intercalary segment of insects. However, this assumption was made on the background of the now widely-accepted Pancrustacea hypothesis that hexapods represent an in-group of the crustaceans. It was therefore assumed that the expression of col in myriapods would reflect the ancestral state like in crustaceans and chelicerates, i.e. absence from the premandibular/intercalary segment and hence no function in its formation. Results: We find that col in myriapods is expressed at early developmental stages in the same anterior domain in the head, the parasegment 0, as in insects. Comparable early expression of col is not present in the anterior head of an onychophoran that serves as an out-group species closely related to the arthropods. Conclusions: Our findings suggest either that i) the function of col in head development has been conserved between insects and myriapods, and that these two classes of arthropods may be closely related supporting the traditional Atelocerata (or Tracheata) hypothesis; or ii) alternatively col function could have been lost in early head development in crustaceans, or may indeed have evolved convergently in insects and myriapods. © 2011 Janssen et al.

Lecaplain C.,CNRS Complex Interprofessional Research in Aerothermochemistry | Baumgartl M.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Schreiber T.,Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Optics and Precision Engineering | Hideur A.,CNRS Complex Interprofessional Research in Aerothermochemistry
Optics Express | Year: 2011

We report on the generation of high-energy pulses in an all normal dispersion photonic-crystal fiber laser. Two mode-locking techniques with and without passive spectral filtering are studied both numerically and experimentally to address a roadmap for energy scaling. It is found that high-contrast passive modulation is a very promising modelocking technique for energy scaling in dissipative-soliton laser. Moreover, this technique does not need any additional spectral filtering than the limited gain bandwidth to stabilize high-energy ultrashort pulses. The presented laser generates 110 nJ chirped pulses at 57 MHz repetition rate for an average power of 6.2 W. The output pulses could be dechirped close to the transform-limited duration of 100 fs. © 2011 Optical Society of America.

Kim M.-S.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Scharf T.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Muhlig S.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Rockstuhl C.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Herzig H.P.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne
Optics Express | Year: 2011

Photonic Nanojets are highly localized wave fields emerging directly behind dielectric microspheres; if suitably illuminated. In this contribution we reveal how different illumination conditions can be used to engineer the photonic Nanojets by measuring them in amplitude and phase with a high resolution interference microscope. We investigate how the wavelength, the amplitude distribution of the illumination, its polarization, or a break in symmetry of the axial-symmetric structure and the illumination affect the position, the localization and the shape of the photonic Nanojets. Various fascinating properties are systematically revealed and their implications for possible applications are discussed. © 2011 Optical Society of America.

Granacher U.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Muehlbauer T.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Gruber M.,University of Konstanz
Journal of Aging Research | Year: 2012

A continuously greying society is confronted with specific age-related health problems (e.g., increased fall incidence/injury rate) that threaten both the quality of life of fall-prone individuals as well as the long-term sustainability of the public health care system due to high treatment costs of fall-related injuries (e.g., femoral neck fracture). Thus, intense research efforts are needed from interdisciplinary fields (e.g., geriatrics, neurology, and exercise science) to (a) elucidate neuromuscular fall-risk factors, (b) develop and apply adequate fall-risk assessment tools that can be administered in clinical practice, and (c) develop and design effective intervention programs that have the potential to counteract a large number of fall-risk factors by ultimately reducing the number of falls in the healthy elderly. This paper makes an effort to present the above-raised research topics in order to provide clinicians, therapists, and practitioners with the current state-of-the-art information. © 2012 Urs Granacher et al.

Stoessel A.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Stoessel A.,Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology | Fischer M.S.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Journal of Experimental Biology | Year: 2012

Analyses of how intralimb coordination during locomotion varies within and across different taxa are necessary for understanding the morphological and neurological basis for locomotion in general. Previous findings suggest that intralimb proportions are the major source of kinematic variation that governs intralimb coordination across taxa. Also, independence of kinematics from habitat preference and phylogenetic position has been suggested for mammals. This leads to the hypothesis that among equally sized bird species exhibiting equal limb proportions, similar kinematics can be observed. To test this hypothesis, the bipedal locomotion of two distantly related ground-dwelling bird species (Eudromia elegans and Coturnix coturnix) and of a less terrestrial species (Corvus monedula) was investigated by means of a biplanar high-speed X-ray videographic analysis. Birds exhibited similar intralimb proportions and were filmed over a broad range of speed while moving on a treadmill. Joint and limb element angles, as well as pelvic rotations, were quantified. Regarding fore-aft motions of the limb joints and elements, a congruent pattern of intralimb coordination was observed among all experimental species. The sample of species suggests that this is largely independent of their habitat preference and systematic position and seems to be related to demands for coping with an irregular terrain with a minimum of necessary control. Hence, the initial hypothesis was confirmed. However, this congruence is not found when looking at medio-lateral limb motions and pelvic rotations, showing distinct differences between grounddwellers (e.g. largely restricted to a parasagittal plane) and C. monedula (e.g. increased mobility of the hip joint). © 2012. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

Egorov O.A.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Skryabin D.V.,University of Bath | Lederer F.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2011

We demonstrate the existence of parametric solitons due to four-wave mixing in a coherently pumped semiconductor microcavity operating in the strong-coupling regime. These spatial solitons are localized in the direction perpendicular to the pump momentum and form periodic trains of pulses in the direction parallel to it. The parametric solitons constitute a family continuously parameterized by the energies and momenta of the signal and idler components. They also play a profound role in the formation of two-dimensional polariton solitons. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Pavlova M.K.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Silbereisen R.K.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Journals of Gerontology - Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences | Year: 2012

Objectives. We tested whether formal volunteering, in terms of its associations with mental health, compensates for the absence of major work and family roles among older adults or rather complements such roles among both younger and older adults. Method. Two cross-sectional samples of younger (aged 18-42 years, N = 2,346) and older (aged 56-75 years, N = 1,422) German adults were used. We regressed mental health indicators on control variables, 2 indicators of formal volunteering (participation in voluntary organizations and volunteer work), and their interactions with employment/partnership status. Results. Participation in voluntary organizations was associated with higher positive affect, higher life satisfaction, and fewer depressive symptoms in younger adults. In older adults, it was related to higher life satisfaction only among working individuals, although the difference from nonworking individuals was not significant. Volunteer work was associated with higher positive affect in both age groups. In younger adults, it had no relation to life satisfaction and depressive symptoms. In older adults, it was related to higher life satisfaction among nonworking individuals and to fewer depressive symptoms among those without a steady partner. Discussion. Volunteer work but not participation in voluntary organizations yielded compensatory effects on mental health among older adults. © 2012 The Author.

Prince E.K.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Pohnert G.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2010

Chemically mediated interactions between organisms influence ecosystem structure, making it crucial for ecologists to understand these interactions. Advances in chemical ecology have often been closely linked to advances in analytical chemistry techniques. One recent development is the use of metabolomics to address questions in chemical ecology. Although metabolomics has much to offer this field, it is not without drawbacks. Here we consider how metabolomics techniques can supplement the traditional bioassay-guided fractionation approach to chemical ecology. We focus on specific examples that illustrate the advantages that metabolomic methods can provide over other methods in order to understand chemically mediated interactions between organisms. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

Steyer R.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Mayer A.,Ghent University | Geiser C.,Utah State University | Cole D.A.,Vanderbilt University
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology | Year: 2015

We present a revision of latent state-trait (LST-R) theory with new definitions of states and traits. This theory applies whenever we study the consistency of behavior, its variability, and its change over time. States and traits are defined in terms of probability theory. This allows for a seamless transition from theory to statistical modeling of empirical data. LST-R theory not only gives insights into the nature of latent variables but it also takes into account four fundamental facts: Observations are fallible, they never happen in a situational vacuum, they are always made using a specific method of observations, and there is no person without a past. Although the first fact necessitates considering measurement error, the second fact requires allowances for situational fluctuations. The third fact implies that, in the first place, states and traits are method specific. Furthermore, compared to the previous version of LST theory (see, e.g., Steyer et al. 1992, 1999), our revision is based on the notion of a person-at-time-t. The new definitions in LST-R theory have far-reaching implications that not only concern the properties of states, traits, and the associated concepts of measurement errors and state residuals, but also are related to the analysis of states and traits in longitudinal observational and intervention studies. © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Haase D.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Denzler J.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2011

X-ray videography is one of the most important techniques for the locomotion analysis of animals in biology, motion science and robotics. Unfortunately, the evaluation of vast amounts of acquired data is a tedious and time-consuming task. Until today, the anatomical landmarks of interest have to be located manually in hundreds of images for each image sequence. Therefore, an automatization of this task is highly desirable. The main difficulties for the automated tracking of these landmarks are the numerous occlusions due to the movement of the animal and the low contrast in the x-ray images. For this reason, standard tracking approaches fail in this setting. To overcome this limitation, we analyze the application of Active Appearance Models for this task. Based on real data, we show that these models are capable of effectively dealing with occurring occlusions and low contrast and can provide sound tracking results. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Kramer M.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Reichenbach J.R.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Zeitschrift fur Medizinische Physik | Year: 2014

We report the application of PROPELLER-EPI for high resolution T2 *-weighted imaging with sub-millimeter in-plane resolution on a clinical 3 Tesla scanner. Periodically rotated blades of a long-axis PROPELLER-EPI sequence were acquired with fast gradient echo readout and acquisition matrix of 320×50 per blade. Images were reconstructed by using 2D-gridding, phase and geometric distortion correction and compensation of resonance frequency drifts that occurred during extended measurements. To characterize these resonance frequency offsets, short FID calibration measurements were added to the PROPELLER-EPI sequence. Functional PROPELLER-EPI was performed with volunteers using a simple block design of right handed finger tapping. Results indicate that PROPELLER-EPI can be employed for fast, high resolution T2 *-weighted imaging provided geometric distortions and possible resonance frequency drifts are properly corrected. Even small resonance frequency drifts below 10Hz as well as non-corrected geometric distortions degraded image quality substantially. In the initial fMRI experiment image quality and signal-to-noise ratio was sufficient for obtaining high resolution functional activation maps. © 2014.

Nowotny K.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Jung T.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Grune T.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Hohn A.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Experimental Gerontology | Year: 2014

Increasing cellular damage during the aging process is considered to be one factor limiting the lifespan of organisms. Besides the DNA and lipids, proteins are frequent targets of non-enzymatic modifications by reactive substances including oxidants and glycating agents. Non-enzymatic protein modifications may alter the protein structure often leading to impaired functionality. Although proteolytic systems ensure the removal of modified proteins, the activity of these proteases was shown to decline during the aging process. The additional age-related increase of reactive compounds as a result of impaired antioxidant systems leads to the accumulation of damaged proteins and the formation of protein aggregates. Both, non-enzymatic modified proteins and protein aggregates impair cellular functions and tissue properties by a variety of mechanisms. This is increasingly important in aging and age-related diseases. In this review, we will give an overview on oxidation and glycation of proteins and the function of modified proteins in aggregate formation. Furthermore, their effects as well as their role in aging and age-related diseases will be highlighted. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Komusiewicz C.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Uhlmann J.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2011

Given an undirected graph G and a nonnegative integer k, the NP-hard Cluster Editing problem asks whether G can be transformed into a disjoint union of cliques by applying at most k edge modifications. In the field of parameterized algorithmics, Cluster Editing has almost exclusively been studied parameterized by the solution size k. Contrastingly, in many real-world instances it can be observed that the parameter k is not really small. This observation motivates our investigation of parameterizations of Cluster Editing different from the solution size k. Our results are as follows. Cluster Editing is fixed-parameter tractable with respect to the parameter "size of a minimum cluster vertex deletion set of G", a typically much smaller parameter than k. Cluster Editing remains NP-hard on graphs with maximum degree six. A restricted but practically relevant version of Cluster Editing is fixed-parameter tractable with respect to the combined parameter "number of clusters in the target graph" and "maximum number of modified edges incident to any vertex in G". Many of our results also transfer to the NP-hard Cluster Deletion problem, where only edge deletions are allowed. © 2011 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Bocker S.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2011

The Cluster Editing problem asks to transform a graph by at most k edge modifications into a disjoint union of cliques. The problem is NP-complete, but several parameterized algorithms are known. We present a novel search tree algorithm for the problem, which improves running time from O*(1.76 k ) to O*(1.62k ). In detail, we can show that we can always branch with branching vector (2,1) or better, resulting in the golden ratio as the base of the search tree size. Our algorithm uses a well-known transformation to the integer-weighted counterpart of the problem. To achieve our result, we combine three techniques: First, we show that zero-edges in the graph enforce structural features that allow us to branch more efficiently. Second, by repeatedly branching we can isolate vertices, releasing costs. Finally, we use a known characterization of graphs with few conflicts. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Schwager S.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Rothermund K.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Cognition and Emotion | Year: 2014

Valence biases in attention allocation were assessed after remembering positive or negative personal events that were either still emotionally hot or to which the person had already adapted psychologically. Differences regarding the current state of psychological adjustment were manipulated experimentally by instructing participants to recall distant vs. recent events (Experiment 1) or affectively hot events vs. events to which the person had accommodated already (Experiment 2). Valence biases in affective processing were measured with a valence search task. Processes of emotional counter-regulation (i.e., attention allocation to stimuli of opposite valence to the emotional event) were elicited by remembering affectively hot events, whereas congruency effects (i.e., attention allocation to stimuli of the same valence as the emotional event) were obtained for events for which a final appraisal had already been established. The results of our study help to resolve conflicting findings from the literature regarding congruent vs. incongruent effects of remembering emotional events on affective processing. We discuss implications of our findings for the conception of emotions and for the dynamics of emotion regulation processes. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

Kobayashi H.,Nagoya University | Lohne T.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2014

Several hundred stars older than 10 million years have been observed to have infrared excesses. These observations are explained by dust grains formed by the collisional fragmentation of hidden planetesimals. Such dusty planetesimal discs are known as debris discs. In a dynamically cold planetesimal disc, collisional coagulation of planetesimals produces planetary embryos which then stir the surrounding leftover planetesimals. Thus, the collisional fragmentation of planetesimals that results from planet formation forms a debris disc. We aim to determine the properties of the underlying planetesimals in debris discs by numerically modelling the coagulation and fragmentation of planetesimal populations. The brightness and temporal evolution of debris discs depend on the radial distribution of planetesimal discs, the location of their inner and outer edges, their total mass, and the size of planetesimals in the disc. We find that a radially narrow planetesimal disc is most likely to result in a debris disc that can explain the trend of observed infrared excesses of debris discsvvv around G-type stars, for which planet formation occurs only before 100 million years. Early debris disc formation is induced by planet formation, while the later evolution is explained by the collisional decay of leftover planetesimals around planets that have already formed. Planetesimal discs with underlying planetesimals of radii ~100 km at ~30 au most readily explain the Spitzer Space Telescope 24 and 70 μm fluxes from debris discs around G-type stars. © 2014 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Schneider D.,University of Queensland | Schneider D.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Nott Z.E.,University of Queensland | Dux P.E.,University of Queensland
Cognition | Year: 2014

It has been hypothesized that humans are able to track other's mental states efficiently and without being conscious of doing so using their implicit theory of mind (iToM) system. However, while iToM appears to operate unconsciously recent work suggests it does draw on executive attentional resources (Schneider, Lam, Bayliss, & Dux, 2012) bringing into question whether iToM is engaged efficiently. Here, we examined other aspects relating to automatic processing: The extent to which the operation of iToM is controllable and how it is influenced by behavioral intentions. This was implemented by assessing how task instructions affect eye-movement patterns in a Sally-Anne false-belief task. One group of subjects was given no task instructions (No Instructions), another overtly judged the location of a ball a protagonist interacted with (Ball Tracking) and a third indicated the location consistent with the actor's belief about the ball's location (Belief Tracking). Despite different task goals, all groups' eye-movement patterns were consistent with belief analysis, and the No Instructions and Ball Tracking groups reported no explicit mentalizing when debriefed. These findings represent definitive evidence that humans implicitly track the belief states of others in an uncontrollable and unintentional manner. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Kotzing T.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Algorithmica | Year: 2015

Recent advances in drift analysis have given us better and better tools for understanding random processes, including the run time of randomized search heuristics. In the setting of multiplicative drift we do not only have excellent bounds on the expected run time, but also more general results showing the strong concentration of the run time. In this paper we investigate the setting of additive drift under the assumption of strong concentration of the “step size” of the process. Under sufficiently strong drift towards the goal we show a strong concentration of the hitting time. In contrast to this, we show that in the presence of small drift a Gambler’s-Ruin-like behavior of the process overrides the influence of the drift, leading to a maximal movement of about (Formula presented.) steps within t iterations. Finally, in the presence of sufficiently strong negative drift the hitting time is superpolynomial with high probability; this corresponds to the well-known Negative Drift Theorem. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Zaske R.,Institute of Psychology | Volberg G.,Institute of Psychology | Kovacs G.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Schweinberger S.R.,Institute of Psychology
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2014

Listeners can recognize familiar human voices from variable utterances, suggesting the acquisition of speech-invariant voice representations during familiarization. However, the neurocognitive mechanisms mediating learning and recognition of voices from natural speech are currently unknown. Using electrophysiology, we investigated how representations are formed during intentional learning of initially unfamiliar voices that were later recognized among novel voices. To probe the acquisition of speech-invariant voice representations, we compared a "same sentence" condition, in which speakers repeated the study utterances at test, and a "different sentence" condition. Although recognition performance was higher for same compared with different sentences, substantial voice learning also occurred for different sentences, with recognition performance increasing across consecutive study-test-cycles. During study, eventrelated potentials elicited by voices subsequently remembered elicited a larger sustained parietal positivity (~250-1400 ms) compared with subsequently forgotten voices. This difference due to memory was unaffected by test sentence condition and may thus reflect the acquisition of speech-invariant voice representations. At test, voices correctly classified as "old" elicited a larger late positive component (300 -700 ms) at Pz than voices correctly classified as "new." This event-related potential OLD/NEW effect was limited to the same sentence condition and may thus reflect speech-dependent retrieval of voices from episodic memory. Importantly, a speech-independent effect for learned compared with novel voices was found in beta band oscillations (16 -17 Hz) between 290 and 370 ms at central and right temporal sites. Our results are a first step toward elucidating the electrophysiological correlates of voice learning and recognition. © 2014 the authors.

Sutton A.M.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Algorithmica | Year: 2015

The ((Formula presented.)) EA is a simple evolutionary algorithm that is known to be efficient on linear functions and on some combinatorial optimization problems. In this paper, we rigorously study its behavior on three easy combinatorial problems: finding the 2-coloring of a class of bipartite graphs, solving a class of satisfiable 2-CNF formulas, and solving a class of satisfiable propositional Horn formulas. We prove that it is inefficient on all three problems in the sense that the number of iterations the algorithm needs to minimize the cost functions is superpolynomial with high probability. Our motivation is to better understand the influence of problem instance structure on the runtime character of a simple evolutionary algorithm. We are interested in what kind of structural features give rise to so-called metastable states at which, with probability (Formula presented.), the ((Formula presented.)) EA becomes trapped and subsequently has difficulty leaving. Finally, we show how to modify the ((Formula presented.)) EA slightly in order to obtain a polynomial-time performance guarantee on all three problems. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Mackovic M.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Niekiel F.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Wondraczek L.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Spiecker E.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg
Acta Materialia | Year: 2014

We report on the use of in situ transmission electron microscopy techniques and finite element method simulations to study the influence of electron beam irradiation on the deformation behavior and mechanical properties of nanoscale amorphous silica balls. We show that, on the nanometer scale, electron beam irradiation of silica results in athermal densification and simultaneous material hardening. It is demonstrated how the amount of densification can be controlled via the irradiation dose, using specific beam current densities inside a transmission electron microscope. The electron-beam-induced densification is interpreted as the direct reason for the observed hardening effect. Finite element method simulations are used to model the mechanical response of the silica balls, confirming that the intrinsic properties (such as the Young's modulus) of amorphous silica can be tailored with the electron beam on the nanoscale. © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Wakai F.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Guillon O.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Acta Materialia | Year: 2014

The sintering stress is a driving force for morphological evolution of pores in sintering, and can be determined from knowledge of the microstructure. The sintering stress of non-equilibrium, non-uniform and non-isotropic porous glass films cast and sintered on rigid substrates was computed from synchrotron X-ray microtomography data. This method was able to show how the inhomogeneous distribution of local density at the particle scale led to a difference in local sintering stress. The anisotropic microstructure in the film was correlated to the deviatoric components of the sintering stress, which were defined by surface energy tensor. The topological evolution of pore structure was characterized by genus and Euler characteristic. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Baade J.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Schmullius C.C.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing | Year: 2010

The meter-scale ground resolution of TerraSAR-X spotlight images promises for the first time the 3-D detection of landforms and landform changes on the microrelief scale from a satellite-based remote sensing system. Using repeat-pass pairs of high-resolution spotlight images, this paper analyzes the spatial variation of coherence on the micro- and mesorelief scale and demonstrates the high potential as well as some limitations of this approach for digital elevation model generation, geomorphological mapping, and geomorphic-change detection in contrasting landscapes of the coastal desert of southern Peru. © 2009 IEEE.

Reiche M.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Gleixner G.,Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry | Kusel K.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Biogeosciences | Year: 2010

Peatlands play an important role in the global carbon cycle and represent both an important stock of soil carbon and a substantial natural source of relevant greenhouse gases like CO 2 and CH 4. While it is known that the quality of organic matter affects microbial degradation and mineralization processes in peatlands, the manner in which the quality of peat organic matter affects the formation of CO 2 and CH 4 remains unclear. In this study we developed a fast and simple peat quality index in order to estimate its potential greenhouse gas formation by linking the thermo-degradability of peat with potential anaerobic CO 2 and CH 4 formation rates. Peat samples were obtained at several depths (0-40 cm) at four sampling locations from an acidic fen (pH̃4.7). CO 2 and CH 4 formation rates were highly spatially variable and depended on depth, sampling location, and the composition of pyrolysable organic matter. Peat samples active in CO 2 and CH 4 formation had a quality index above 1.35, and the fraction of thermally labile pyrolyzable organic matter (comparable to easily available carbon substrates for microbial activity) obtained by thermogravimetry was above 35%. Curie-point pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry mainly identified carbohydrates and lignin as pyrolysis products in these samples, indicating that undecomposed organic matter was found in this fraction. In contrast, lipids and unspecific pyrolysis products, which indicate recalcitrant and highly decomposed organic matter, correlated significantly with lower CO 2 formation and reduced methanogenesis. Our results suggest that undecomposed organic matter is a prerequisite for CH 4 and CO 2 development in acidic fens. Furthermore, the new peat quality index should aide the estimation of potential greenhouse gas formation resulting from peatland restoration and permafrost thawing and help yield more robust models of trace gas fluxes from peatlands for climate change research. © Author(s) 2010.

Wisniewski W.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Volksch G.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Russel C.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Ultramicroscopy | Year: 2011

Surface crystallized samples of glass-ceramics containing cordierite, rhombohedral BaAl 2B 2O 7 and fresnoite were analyzed using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The first two materials were chosen because surface crystallized samples of these materials have previously been shown to contain crystals covered by a very thin layer of glass. In all materials, EBSD pattern degradation occurs if the step size of a scan is chosen to be small. It is shown that the minimum step size enabling an evaluable EBSD-scan increases notably, if the crystals are covered by a thin layer of glass. It is also shown that pattern degradation may be utilized to prove the existence of such a thin glass or otherwise thermally sensitive layer. This provides significant information concerning the nucleation process of glasses also with respect to nucleation theory of glass-ceramics. It is also possible to describe the quantity of crystalline surface covered by the thermally sensitive layer. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Don A.,Johann Heinrich Von Thunen Institute | Schumacher J.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Freibauer A.,Johann Heinrich Von Thunen Institute
Global Change Biology | Year: 2011

Land-use changes are the second largest source of human-induced greenhouse gas emission, mainly due to deforestation in the tropics and subtropics. CO2 emissions result from biomass and soil organic carbon (SOC) losses and may be offset with afforestation programs. However, the effect of land-use changes on SOC is poorly quantified due to insufficient data quality (only SOC concentrations and no SOC stocks, shallow sampling depth) and representativeness. In a global meta-analysis, 385 studies on land-use change in the tropics were explored to estimate the SOC stock changes for all major land-use change types. The highest SOC losses were caused by conversion of primary forest into cropland (-25%) and perennial crops (-30%) but forest conversion into grassland also reduced SOC stocks by 12%. Secondary forests stored less SOC than primary forests (-9%) underlining the importance of primary forests for C stores. SOC losses are partly reversible if agricultural land is afforested (+29%) or under cropland fallow (+32%) and with cropland conversion into grassland (+26%). Data on soil bulk density are critical in order to estimate SOC stock changes because (i) the bulk density changes with land-use and needs to be accounted for when calculating SOC stocks and (ii) soil sample mass has to be corrected for bulk density changes in order to compare land-use types on the same basis of soil mass. Without soil mass correction, land-use change effects would have been underestimated by 28%. Land-use change impact on SOC was not restricted to the surface soil, but relative changes were equally high in the subsoil, stressing the importance of sufficiently deep sampling. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Wild A.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Wild A.,Dutch Polymer Institute | Winter A.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Winter A.,Dutch Polymer Institute | And 3 more authors.
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2011

This critical review summarizes the research progress made in the field of π-conjugated terpyridines within the last decade. Supramolecular materials based on metal ion complexes of 2,2′:6′,2″-terpyridine derivatives have found manifold potential applications - from opto-electronic devices to life science. In this contribution, synthetic strategies towards π-conjugated terpyridines and their incorporation into advanced supramolecular architectures are evaluated. Applications as photoactive species in, e.g., photovoltaic devices, polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDSs) and nanotechnology are discussed comprehensively (523 references). © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Haenlein G.F.W.,University of Delaware | Anke M.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2011

The long term studies with dairy goats on the effects of deficient semisynthetic feeding rations in one of 16 elements as reported in the annual proceedings of the Workshops on Minerals and Trace Elements and the International Trace Element Symposia by the University of Jena, Germany, since 1975 until today were reviewed. The development of the complex semisynthetic ration system was particularly important as it enabled to produce significant deficiencies of single elements in long term replicated studies and their interactions with other elements. The studies focused mainly on determining deficiency levels for each of the 16 elements, identifying deficiency symptoms and reasons for them, and establishing evidence for essentiality of the elements according to 7 criteria. Large amounts of analytical data were accumulated showing the changes in organ and tissue contents of the elements under study at normal and deficient levels, and their relation to impaired reproductive efficiency, growth, milk production, health, and mortality of goats and their kids. Histological sections of organs also showed their ultrastructural changes due to the elemental deficiencies. Most element deficiencies caused reproductive failures, reduced growth and milk production, but high mortality, while the control goats thrived on their semisynthetic but sufficient ration, attesting to its completely correct biological value. The identification of the reliable " indicator" organs and tissues for the diagnosis and detection of deficiency status of the specific elements in goats is of particular value to veterinary medicine and animal nutrition. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Sharma G.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Deckert-Gaudig T.,Institute of Photonic Technology | Deckert V.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Deckert V.,Institute of Photonic Technology
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews | Year: 2015

Tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) has become a powerful tool for nanoscale structural analysis for several branches of organic, inorganic, and biological chemistry. This highly sensitive technique enables molecular characterization with a lateral resolution far beyond Abbe's diffraction limit and correlates structural and topographic information on a nanometer scale. In this review, the current experimental concepts with respect to their strengths and obstacles are introduced and discussed. A further focus was set to biochemistry comprising applications like nucleic acids, proteins, and microorganisms, thus demonstrating the potential use towards the pharmaceutically relevant challenges where nanometer resolution is required. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Venus Y.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Oelmuller R.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Molecular Plant | Year: 2013

The RHO-related GTPases ROP1 and ROP6 and the ROP1-interacting protein RIC4 in Arabidopsis are involved in various processes of F-actin dynamics, cell growth, and plant/microbe interactions. The knockout rop1 and rop1 rop6 seeds germinate earlier and are impaired in root hair development. Also root hair branching is strongly affected by manipulation of the RHO-related GTPase (ROP) levels. Furthermore, in the double knockout line rop1 rop6, no actin bundle formation can be detected. We demonstrate that these proteins are required for establishing a mutualistic interaction between the root-colonizing endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica and Arabidopsis. The fungus promotes growth of wild-type plants. rop1, rop6, rop1 rop6, ric4, 35S::ROP1, and 35S::ROP6 seedlings are impaired in the response to the fungus. Since the different root architectures have no effect on root colonization, the impaired response to P. indica should be caused by ROP-mediated events in the root cells. In wild-type roots, P. indica stimulates the formation of F-actin bundles and this does not occur in the rop1 rop6 knockout line. Furthermore, the fungus stimulates the expression of the calmodulin-binding protein gene Cbp60g, and this response is severely reduced in the rop mutants. We propose that ROP1 and ROP6 are required for F-actin bundle formation in the roots, which is required for P. indica-mediated growth promotion in Arabidopsis. © 2012 The Author.

Rumpel C.,IRD Montpellier | Eusterhues K.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Kogel-Knabner I.,Wissenschaftszentrum Weihenstephan
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2010

We investigated the polysaccharide composition of bulk and mineral-bound (density fractions >2 g cm-3) organic matter in topsoil and subsoil horizons of a Podzol and a Cambisol. Total sugar contents were generally higher in the Cambisol than in the Podzol. For most horizons of both soils, the sugars were enriched in the mineral-bound organic matter fraction. This fraction showed a monosaccharide distribution typical for microbial sugars, whereas in bulk soil horizons higher contributions of plant-derived sugars were observed. A strong relationship with the 14C activity of the dense fraction suggests that microbial-derived polysaccharides are most likely stabilised preferentially by mineral interactions compared to plant-derived polysaccharides. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Hohn T.J.A.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Grune T.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Redox Biology | Year: 2014

Here, we review shortly the current knowledge on the regulation of the proteasomal system during and after oxidative stress. After addressing the components of the proteasomal system and the degradation of oxidatively damaged proteins in part I and II of this series, we address here which changes in activity undergo the proteasome and the ubiquitin-proteasomal system itself under oxidative conditions. While several components of the proteasomal system undergo direct oxidative modification, a number of redox-regulated events are modulating the proteasomal activity in a way it can address the major tasks in an oxidative stress situation: the removal of oxidized proteins and the adaptation of the cellular metabolism to the stress situation. © 2014 The Authors.

Lautenschlager C.,University Hospital Jena | Schmidt C.,University Hospital Jena | Fischer D.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Stallmach A.,University Hospital Jena
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews | Year: 2014

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a frequently occurring disease in young people, which is characterized by a chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. The therapy of IBD is dominated by the administration of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs, which suppress the intestinal inflammatory burden and improve the disease-related symptoms. Established treatment strategies are characterized by a limited therapeutical efficacy and the occurrence of adverse drug reactions. Thus, the development of novel disease-targeted drug delivery strategies is intended for a more effective therapy and demonstrates the potential to address unmet medical needs. This review gives an overview about the established as well as future-oriented drug targeting strategies, including intestine targeting by conventional drug delivery systems (DDS), disease targeted drug delivery by synthetic DDS and disease targeted drug delivery by biological DDS. Furthermore, this review analyses the targeting mechanisms of the respective DDS and discusses the possible field of utilization in IBD. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Frenkel J.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Vyverman W.,Ghent University | Pohnert G.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Plant Journal | Year: 2014

Algae are found in all aquatic and many terrestrial habitats. They are dominant in phytoplankton and biofilms thereby contributing massively to global primary production. Since algae comprise photosynthetic representatives of the various protoctist groups their physiology and appearance is highly diverse. This diversity is also mirrored in their characteristic life cycles that exhibit various facets of ploidy and duration of the asexual phase as well as gamete morphology. Nevertheless, sexual reproduction in unicellular and colonial algae usually has as common motive that two specialized, sexually compatible haploid gametes establish physical contact and fuse. To guarantee mating success, processes during sexual reproduction are highly synchronized and regulated. This review focuses on sex pheromones of algae that play a key role in these processes. Especially, the diversity of sexual strategies as well as of the compounds involved are the focus of this contribution. Discoveries connected to algal pheromone chemistry shed light on the role of key evolutionary processes, including endosymbiotic events and lateral gene transfer, speciation and adaptation at all phylogenetic levels. But progress in this field might also in the future provide valid tools for the manipulation of aquaculture and environmental processes. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Wolff N.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Wiese H.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Schweinberger S.R.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Psychology and Aging | Year: 2012

Young adult participants are more accurate at remembering young as compared with old faces (own-age bias). This study investigated behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) correlates of recognition memory in 4 consecutive age categories (ranging from 19-29, 30-44, 45-59, and 60-80 years), both with respect to face and participant age. Young and young middle-aged participants yielded more accurate recognition memory for both young and young middle-aged as compared to old middle-aged and old faces, suggesting that the own-age bias in adults is not exclusively directed toward age-congruent "in-group" faces. No own-age bias was observed in old middle-aged and elderly participants. Analysis of ERPs revealed significant positive correlations of both N170 latency and amplitude with participant age, thus, suggesting an age-related delay of processing speed and an increase in processing demands at early perceptual stages of face processing. Furthermore, an ERP old-new effect (400-700 ms), with more positive amplitudes for hits as compared with correct rejections, was detected in young and young middle-aged participants but not in the 2 older groups. Because these older groups did not demonstrate enhanced memory performance for own-age faces, we suggest that detailed recollection of study-episode information, as reflected in the ERP old-new effect, may be a necessary prerequisite for the own-age bias. © 2012 American Psychological Association.

Stolle A.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Szuppa T.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Leonhardt S.E.S.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Ondruschka B.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2011

During the last decade numerous protocols have been published using the method of ball milling for synthesis all over the field of organic chemistry. However, compared to other methods leaving their marks on the road to sustainable synthesis (e.g. microwave, ultrasound, ionic liquids) chemistry in ball mills is rather underrepresented in the knowledge of organic chemists. Especially, in the last three years the interest in this technique raised continuously, culminating in several high-quality synthetic procedures covering the whole range of organic synthesis. Thus, the present tutorial review will be focused on the highlights using this method of energy transfer and energy dissipation. The central aim is to motivate researchers to take notice of ball mills as chemical reactors, implementing this technique in everyday laboratory use and thus, pave the ground for future activities in this interdisciplinary field of research. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Liu X.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Testa B.,University of Lausanne | Fahr A.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2011

In this review, we first summarize the structure and properties of biological membranes and the routes of passive drug transfer through physiological barriers. Lipophilicity is then introduced in terms of the intermolecular interactions it encodes. Finally, lipophilicity indices from isotropic solvent systems and from anisotropic membrane-like systems are discussed for their capacity to predict passive drug permeation across biological membranes such as the intestinal epithelium, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) or the skin. The broad evidence presented here shows that beyond the predictive power of lipophilicity parameters, the various intermolecular forces they encode allow a mechanistic interpretation of passive drug permeation. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Durand S.,University Paris Diderot | Jahn N.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Condon C.,University Paris Diderot | Brantl S.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
RNA Biology | Year: 2012

Type I toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are widespread in bacteria and consist of a toxin-encoding mRNA and a partially overlapping antisense RNA that blocks expression of the toxin, either at the level of translation or by mRNA degradation. Four type I toxin families have so far been proposed in B. subtilis based on sequence similarity: TxpA/BsrG, BsrH/BsrE, YonT and YhzE and two (TxpA and BsrG) have been studied in some detail. Here we review what is known about these confirmed and putative toxin-antitoxin families in B. subtilis, their regulatory mechanisms, their potential roles and how they may link to the physiology of the cell. © 2012 Landes Bioscience.

Scriba G.K.E.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Bioanalytical Reviews | Year: 2011

Capillary electromigration techniques are often considered ideal methods for enantioseparations due to their high separation selectivity and flexibility. Thus, numerous methods employing a chiral selector as pseudostationary phase in a background electrolyte have been developed and applied for the chiral analysis of drugs in bulk ware, pharmaceutical formulations and biological matrices. Furthermore, electromigration techniques have been combined with spectroscopic methods such as nuclear magnetic resonance in order to understand the complexation of analytes by chiral selectors. The present review focuses on recent developments and applications of chiral electromigration techniques in pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis including examples illustrating analyte-selector complex formation or mechanistic studies which have been published between January 2009 and July 2011. Selector-mediated chiral separations clearly dominate while no applications of capillary electrochromatography to pharmaceutical or biomedical analysis have been reported during this period of time. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Whittell G.R.,University of Bristol | Hager M.D.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Hager M.D.,Dutch Polymer Institute | Schubert U.S.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | And 2 more authors.
Nature Materials | Year: 2011

Synthetic polymers containing metal centres are emerging as an interesting and broad class of easily processable materials with properties and functions that complement those of state-of-the-art organic macromolecular materials. A diverse range of different metal centres can be harnessed to tune macromolecular properties, from transition- and main-group metals to lanthanides. Moreover, the linkages that bind the metal centres can vary almost continuously from strong, essentially covalent bonds that lead to irreversible or 'static' binding of the metal to weak and labile, non-covalent coordination interactions that allow for reversible, 'dynamic' or 'metallosupramolecular', binding. Here we review recent advances and challenges in the field and illustrate developments towards applications as emissive and photovoltaic materials; as optical limiters; in nanoelectronics, information storage, nanopatterning and sensing; as macromolecular catalysts and artificial enzymes; and as stimuli-responsive materials. We focus on materials in which the metal centres provide function; although they can also play a structural role, systems where this is solely their purpose have not been discussed. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.