Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller was a German poet, philosopher, historian, and playwright. During the last seventeen years of his life , Schiller struck up a productive, if complicated, friendship with already famous and influential Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. They frequently discussed issues concerning aesthetics, and Schiller encouraged Goethe to finish works he left as sketches. This relationship and these discussions led to a period now referred to as Weimar Classicism. They also worked together on Xenien, a collection of short satirical poems in which both Schiller and Goethe challenge opponents to their philosophical vision. Wikipedia.
Fraunhofer Gesellschaft zur Forderung der angewandten Forschung e.V. and Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Date: 2015-02-03
The invention relates to an optical array comprising a splitting element (1) which splits an input beam (E) into at least two partial beams (T1, T2, T3, T4), at least one optical element (V1, V2, V3, V4, MV) through which at least one of the partial beams (T1, T2, T3, T4) propagates, and at least one combining element (4) which spatially superimposes the partial beams (T1, T2, T3, T4) in one output beam (A). The object of the invention is to provide an optical array which is improved over the prior art and which permits effective and simple splitting of the input light beam, in particular a laser beam with pulsed or continuous emission. The invention achieves this object in that the splitting element (1) and/or the combining element (4) each have a partially reflective element (2, 2) which reflects the radiation of the input beam (E) or of the output beam (A) two or more times, wherein the partially reflective element (2, 2) has zones (a, b, c, d) of different reflectivity.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-EID | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2015-EID | Award Amount: 3.86M | Year: 2016
The target of this project is to prepare and train future engineers for the design challenges and opportunities provided by modern optics technology. Such challenges include lossless photon management, modelling at the system, components and feature level, and the link between design and technology. Today all optical designs are often perceived following different approaches, namely geometrical optics, physical optics and nano-photonics. Traditionally these approaches are linked to the different lengths-scale that are important to the system. Starting from the entire system that is macroscopic and uses geometrical optics, over the miniaturized unit that is based on micro-optics and needs physical optics design, down to the active nano-photonics entity that allows steering light truly at the nano-scale but which requires to be designed with rigorous methods that provide full wave solutions to the governing Maxwells equations. A design for manufacture of next generation optical applications necessarily requires to bridge the gap between the different length scales and to consider the design at a holistic level. At the core are optical simulation models developed and used in the academic research and the one used for optical designs in industry. Up to now, only the academic partners apply an integral approach to include micro- and nano-photonics in their simulations. Together with the industrial partners projects will be launched to promote the academic developments in optical design and simulation over different length scales towards the industry. The industry will use the know-how to consolidate their expertise, expand their businesses, and occupy new fields of activities. For each research subject, may it be nano-photonics, micro-optics or system engineering, a channel can be provided to access particular knowledge and/or stimulate collaborations.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: SGA-RIA | Phase: FETFLAGSHIP | Award Amount: 89.00M | Year: 2016
This project is the second in the series of EC-financed parts of the Graphene Flagship. The Graphene Flagship is a 10 year research and innovation endeavour with a total project cost of 1,000,000,000 euros, funded jointly by the European Commission and member states and associated countries. The first part of the Flagship was a 30-month Collaborative Project, Coordination and Support Action (CP-CSA) under the 7th framework program (2013-2016), while this and the following parts are implemented as Core Projects under the Horizon 2020 framework. The mission of the Graphene Flagship is to take graphene and related layered materials from a state of raw potential to a point where they can revolutionise multiple industries. This will bring a new dimension to future technology a faster, thinner, stronger, flexible, and broadband revolution. Our program will put Europe firmly at the heart of the process, with a manifold return on the EU investment, both in terms of technological innovation and economic growth. To realise this vision, we have brought together a larger European consortium with about 150 partners in 23 countries. The partners represent academia, research institutes and industries, which work closely together in 15 technical work packages and five supporting work packages covering the entire value chain from materials to components and systems. As time progresses, the centre of gravity of the Flagship moves towards applications, which is reflected in the increasing importance of the higher - system - levels of the value chain. In this first core project the main focus is on components and initial system level tasks. The first core project is divided into 4 divisions, which in turn comprise 3 to 5 work packages on related topics. A fifth, external division acts as a link to the parts of the Flagship that are funded by the member states and associated countries, or by other funding sources. This creates a collaborative framework for the entire Flagship.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2015-ETN | Award Amount: 3.46M | Year: 2016
Deictic communication is fundamental to understanding communication in both typical and atypical populations, and forms the key connection between language and objects/locations in the world. It is therefore critical to understanding human-human interaction, and human-system interaction in a range of technology applications from mobile phones to cognitive robotics and to the enhancement of clinical and educational interventions with typical and atypical populations. This ETN will train the next generation of scientists in the full range of multidisciplinary and cross-sectorial methods necessary to make significant progress in understanding deictic communication, with direct synergies between basic research and application. Training is structured around two interdisciplinary research themes Understanding Deictic Communication and Deictic Communication in Application both involving extensive and systematic co-supervision and collaboration across sites with key interplay between academic and nonacademic beneficiaries and partners. In turn we expect that a range of applications will be enhanced with increased usability, with associated societal and economic benefit. The training of the cohort of ESR fellows is based on innovative PhD training approaches, providing not only training in interdisciplinary methods, but also employing peer-assisted methods and the latest in educational innovation. This will produce a cohort of highly skilled researchers who will be highly employable given the potential contribution they will make to future research and innovation in the public and private sectors.
Stark A.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Energy and Environmental Science | Year: 2011
The combination of the concept of an integrated biorefinery with ionic liquid technology is critically assessed, and potentials for further research and development are identified. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Schulze B.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena |
Schubert U.S.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2014
The research on 1,2,3-triazoles has been lively and ever-growing since its stimulation by the advent of click chemistry. The attractiveness of 1H-1,2,3-triazoles and their derivatives originates from their unique combination of facile accessibility via click chemistry and truly diverse supramolecular interactions, which enabled myriads of applications in supramolecular and coordination chemistry. The nitrogen-rich triazole features a highly polarized carbon atom allowing the complexation of anions by hydrogen and halogen bonding or, in the case of the triazolium salts, via charge-assisted hydrogen and halogen bonds. On the other hand, the triazole offers several N-coordination modes including coordination via anionic and cationic nitrogen donors of triazolate and triazolium ions, respectively. After CH-deprotonation of the triazole and the triazolium, powerful carbanionic and mesoionic carbene donors, respectively, are available. The latter coordination mode even features non-innocent ligand behavior. Moreover, these supramolecular interactions can be combined, e.g., in ion-pair recognition, preorganization by intramolecular hydrogen bond donation and acceptance, and in bimetallic complexes. Ultimately, by clicking two building blocks into place, the triazole emerges as a most versatile functional unit allowing very successful applications, e.g., in anion recognition, catalysis, and photochemistry, thus going far beyond the original purpose of click chemistry. It is the intention of this review to provide a detailed analysis of the various supramolecular interactions of triazoles in comparison to established functional units, which may serve as guidelines for further applications. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.
Maas A.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Physics Reports | Year: 2013
Gauge theories of the Yang-Mills type are the single most important building block of the standard model of particle physics and beyond. They are an integral part of the strong and weak interactions, and in their Abelian version of electromagnetism. Since Yang-Mills theories are gauge theories their elementary particles, the gauge bosons, cannot be described without fixing a gauge. Therefore, to obtain their properties a quantized and gauge-fixed setting is necessary.Beyond perturbation theory, gauge-fixing in non-Abelian gauge theories is obstructed by the Gribov-Singer ambiguity, which requires the introduction of non-local constraints. The construction and implementation of a method-independent gauge-fixing prescription to resolve this ambiguity is the single most important first step to describe gauge bosons beyond perturbation theory. Proposals for such a procedure, generalizing the perturbative Landau gauge, are described here. Their implementation are discussed for two example methods, lattice gauge theory and the quantum equations of motion.After gauge-fixing, it is possible to study gauge bosons in detail. The most direct access is provided by their correlation functions. The corresponding two- and three-point correlation functions are presented at all energy scales. These give access to the properties of the gauge bosons, like their absence from the asymptotic physical state space, particle-like properties at high energies, and the running coupling. Furthermore, auxiliary degrees of freedom are introduced during gauge-fixing, and their properties are discussed as well. These results are presented for two, three, and four dimensions, and for various gauge algebras.Finally, the modifications of the properties of gauge bosons at finite temperature are presented. Evidence is provided that these reflect the phase structure of Yang-Mills theory. However, it is found that the phase transition is not deconfining the gauge bosons, although the bulk thermodynamical behavior is of a Stefan-Boltzmann type. The resolution of this apparent contradiction is also presented. In addition, this resolution provides an explicit and constructive solution to the Linde problem.Thus, the technical and conceptual framework presented here can be taken as a basis how to determine correlation functions in Yang-Mills theory, therefore opening up the avenue to investigate theories of direct practical relevance. The status of this effort will be briefly described, alongside with connections to other approaches to Yang-Mills theory beyond perturbation theory. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Pfannschmidt T.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Trends in Plant Science | Year: 2010
The genetic compartments of plant cells, nuclei, plastids and mitochondria exchange information by anterograde (nucleus-to-organelle) and retrograde (organelle-to-nucleus) signalling. These avenues of communication coordinate activities during the organelles' development and function. Despite extensive research retrograde signalling remains poorly understood. The proposed cytosolic signalling pathways and the putative organellar signalling molecules remain elusive, and a clear functional distinction from the signalling cascades of other cellular perception systems (i.e. photoreceptors or phytohormones) is difficult to obtain. Notwithstanding the stagnant progress, some basic assumptions about the process have remained virtually unchanged for many years, potentially obstructing the view on alternative routes for retrograde communication. Here, I critically assess the current models of retrograde signalling and discuss novel ideas and potential connections. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: FETOPEN-01-2016-2017 | Award Amount: 3.99M | Year: 2017
Our research aims to revolutionize the electronics industry by adding intra-chip and chip-to-chip communication at the speed of light, offering a significantly reduced energy consumption. Cubic crystal phase SiGe is known to be great for electronics. We propose to develop hexagonal crystal phase SiGe (Hex-SiGe) which features a direct bandgap and will add photonic capabilities to electronics. Direct bandgap silicon has been the holy grail of the semiconductor industry for many years, since it would allow integrating both electronic and optical functionalities on a silicon platform. Recent theoretical calculations predict that hexagonal crystal phase SixGe1-x features a tunable direct bandgap from 1380-1800 nm, exactly coinciding with the low loss window for optical fibre communications. We have recently developed a generic approach to grow defect-free hexagonal SixGe1-x with tunable composition. We propose to demonstrate efficient light emission from direct bandgap SiGe, followed by the development of a SiGe nanolaser. Work towards CMOS integration is included. The demonstration of a Hex-SiGe nanolaser will serve as a game-changer for transforming the electronics industry.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: ERC-COG | Phase: ERC-CoG-2015 | Award Amount: 1.97M | Year: 2016
Glasses have traditionally been enabling materials to major societal challenges. Significant breakthroughs on many areas of technological progress have been very closely linked to the exploitation of glassy materials. It is strong consensus that this key role will persist in the emerging solutions to major global challenges in living, energy, health, transport and information processing, provided that the fundamental limitations of the presently available empirical or semi-empirical approaches to glass processing can be overcome. In the coming decade, it is therefore a major task to take the step towards ab initio exploitation of disordered materials through highly-adapted processing strategies. This requires pioneering work and in-depth conceptual developments which combine compositional design, structural evolution and the thermo-kinetics of material deposition into holistic tools. Only those would significantly contribute to solving some of the most urgent materials needs for glass applications in functional devices, be it in the form of thin films, particles or bulk materials. The present project challenges todays engineering concepts towards the conception of such tools. For that, melt deposition, isothermal deposition from liquid phases, and gas-phase deposition of non-crystalline materials will be treated - within the class of inorganic glasses - in a generalist approach, unified by the understanding that glass formation represents the only strict deviation from self-organization, and that, hence, the evolution of structural complexity in glassy materials can be tailored on any length-scale through adequate processing. Providing a topological scheme for the quantification and chemical tailoring of structural complexity, UTOPES will answer to the challenge of finding order in disorder, and will thus break the grounds for the third generation of glasses with properties beyond what is presently thought as the limits of physical engineering.