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Suss J.,Friedrich Loeffler Institute Jena | Kahl O.,Free University of Berlin | Aspock H.,Medical University of Vienna | Vaheri A.,University of Helsinki | And 11 more authors.
Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift | Year: 2010

The 11th meeting of the International Scientific Working Group on Tick-borne Encephalitis (ISW-TBE) was conducted under the title of, .From childhood to golden age: increased mobility - increased risk of contracting TBE?" Participants from 26 countries, including the United States of America and China, presented reports on the latest developments and trends in local TBE cases, vaccination coverage and risk factors. In particular, the situation of children and the elderly (the "golden agers") was discussed. As the current evidence suggests, the location and extension of endemic areas for TBE have changed over the last few years, along with global warming and the shift of infected ticks to higher altitudes. The increased mobility of the human population adds to the heightened exposure; outdoor activities and international travel are on the rise also, and especially, amongst the 50+ generation, who are already per se at higher risk of disease manifestation, complications and case fatality. Most Europeans travel within Europe, often without sufficient awareness of endemic areas. Only high immunization rates can ensure low disease rates in the long run. To achieve this goal, public education is the sole effective approach for raising the level of awareness. Overall, the risk of any given person to contract TBE should not be regarded as a fixed entity, but rather it must be estimated individually, on the basis of knowledge of the TBE virus endemic areas and risk factors. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Frimmel S.,University of Rostock | Krienke A.,University of Rostock | Riebold D.,University of Rostock | Loebermann M.,University of Rostock | And 3 more authors.
BioMed Research International | Year: 2014

The incidence of tick-borne encephalitis has risen in Europe since 1990 and the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) has been documented to be spreading into regions where it was not previously endemic. In Mecklenburg-West Pomerania, a federal state in Northern Germany, TBEV was not detectable in over 16,000 collected ticks between 1992 and 2004. Until 2004, the last human case of TBE in the region was reported in 1985. Following the occurrence of three autochthonous human cases of TBE after 2004, however, we collected ticks from the areas in which the infections were contracted. To increase the chance of detecting TBEV-RNA, some of the ticks were fed on mice. Using nested RT-PCR, we were able to confirm the presence of TBEV in ticks for the first time after 15 years. A phylogenetic analysis revealed a close relationship between the sequences we obtained and a TBEV sequence from Mecklenburg-East Pomerania published in 1992 and pointed to the reemergence of a natural focus of TBEV after years of low activity. Our results imply that natural foci of TBEV may either persist at low levels of activity for years or reemerge through the agency of migrating birds. © 2014 Silvius Frimmel et al.

Pantchev A.,Chemisches und Veterinaruntersuchungsamt Stuttgart | Sting R.,Chemisches und Veterinaruntersuchungsamt Stuttgart | Bauerfeind R.,Justus Liebig University | Tyczka J.,Chemisches und Veterinaruntersuchungsamt Karlsruhe | Sachse K.,Friedrich Loeffler Institute Jena
Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

The aim of the present study was to analyse the occurrence of chlamydiae in several mammalian host species. Clinical samples that previously tested positive in a Chlamydiaceae-specific real-time PCR were retested using six species-specific real-time PCR assays to identify the chlamydial species involved. Chlamydophila (Cp.) abortus was the agent most frequently found in cattle, sheep, horses, goats, and pigs. Detection in cattle of Cp. psittaci (11% of samples) and Chlamydia (C.) suis (9%), as well as Cp. psittaci in a goat sample was somewhat unexpected. DNA of two different chlamydiae was identified in 56 (12.7%) of 440 samples tested. Cp. felis was the predominant species found in cats, while in guinea pigs and rabbits only Cp. caviae was detected. Interestingly, the latter two pathogens were also identified in samples from dogs. The data show that mixed chlamydial infections are not rare and suggest an extended host range of individual species. L'objectif de la présente étude est d'analyser l'occurrence de chlamydiae et ce, dans plusieurs espèces mammaliennes hôtes. Des échantillons cliniques, préalablement confirmés positifs par PCR en temps réel spécifique de la famille des Chlamydiaceae, ont été de nouveau testés via six PCR en temps réel espèces-spécifiques. Ainsi, il en résulte que Chlamydophila (Cp.) abortus est fréquemment retrouvé chez les bovins, moutons, chevaux, chèvres et cochons. La détection de Cp. psittaci and Chlamydia (C.) suis chez les bovidés (11% et 9% respectivement) ainsi que de Cp. psittaci dans un échantillon dóovidé se révèle quelque peu inattendu. Sur 440 échantillons testés, 56 (soit 12,7%) contiennent l'ADN de deux espèces différentes de chlamydiae. Cp. felis représente l'espèce dominante chez le chat alors que Cp. caviae est présente uniquement chez les cobaye et lapin. Curieusement, ces deux pathogènes sont également détectés dans des échantillons d'origine canine. Les données tendent à démontrer que les infections simultanées par différentes espèces chlamydiales sont rarement des cas isolés et suggèrent dès lors d'étendre la gamme d'hôtes des espèces individuelles. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

Mohamad K.Y.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Mohamad K.Y.,Al-Furat University | Kaltenboeck B.,Auburn University | Rahman Kh.S.,Auburn University | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Chlamydia (C.) pecorum, an obligate intracellular bacterium, may cause severe diseases in ruminants, swine and koalas, although asymptomatic infections are the norm. Recently, we identified genetic polymorphisms in the ompA, incA and ORF663 genes that potentially differentiate between high-virulence C. pecorum isolates from diseased animals and lowvirulence isolates from asymptomatic animals. Here, we expand these findings by including additional ruminant, swine, and koala strains. Coding tandem repeats (CTRs) at the incA locus encoded a variable number of repeats of APA or AGA amino acid motifs. Addition of any non-APA/AGA repeat motif, such as APEVPA, APAVPA, APE, or APAPE, associated with low virulence (P<10-4), as did a high number of amino acids in all incA CTRs (P = 0.0028). In ORF663, high numbers of 15-mer CTRs correlated with low virulence (P = 0.0001). Correction for ompA phylogram position in ORF663 and incA abolished the correlation between genetic changes and virulence, demonstrating co-evolution of ompA, incA, and ORF663 towards low virulence. Pairwise divergence of ompA, incA, and ORF663 among isolates from healthy animals was significantly higher than among strains isolated from diseased animals (P≤10-5), confirming the longer evolutionary path traversed by low-virulence strains. All three markers combined identified 43 unique strains and 4 pairs of identical strains among all 57 isolates tested, demonstrating the suitability of these markers for epidemiological investigations. © 2014 Mohamad et al.

Frimmel S.,Abteilung fur Tropenmedizin und Infektionskrankheiten | Krienke A.,Abteilung fur Tropenmedizin und Infektionskrankheiten | Riebold D.,Abteilung fur Tropenmedizin und Infektionskrankheiten | Lobermann M.,Abteilung fur Tropenmedizin und Infektionskrankheiten | And 5 more authors.
Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift | Year: 2010

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) was known to have occurred in humans in the area of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania in Germany, until 1985. Between 1992 and 2004 more than 16.000 ticks were tested and found to be negative for TBE virus in that area of Germany, wich was therefore thought to be free of TBE. But after 19 years three autochthonous cases of human TBE-infections were identified between 2004 and 2006. We subsequently collected ticks from the three areas where the infection had been acquired and tested them for the presence of TBE-virus RNA with a nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Since there is evidence that a blood-meal leads to an increase of FSME-RNA in ticks, we tested both, unfed ticks and ticks after a blood-meal. Three unfed and one fed nymph from the area around Lake Woblitz and one unfed and one fed nymph from Thiessow were positive for TBE-virus RNA. A total of six of 250 (2.4%) ticks tested positive for TBE-virus. The emerging of human TBE infections in three regions in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania shows that the activity of natural TBE virus foci does not cease even after decades, or that TBE-infected ticks could have recolonized these regions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart - New York.

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