Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg better known as FAU is a public research university in the cities of Erlangen and Nuremberg in Bavaria, Germany. The name Friedrich-Alexander comes from the university's first founder Friedrich, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, and its benefactor Christian Frederick Charles Alexander, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach.In Germany, traditional liberal arts universities do not usually have an engineering school or department. However, FAU does have a distinct engineering faculty.FAU is the second largest state university in the state Bavaria. It has 5 faculties, 23 departments/schools, 30 clinical departments, 19 autonomous departments, 656 professors, 3,404 members of academic staff and roughly 13,000 employees.In winter semester 2014/15 around 39,085 students enrolled in the university in 239 fields of study, with about 2/3 are studying at the Erlangen campus and the remaining 1/3 at the Nuremberg campus. These statistics putted FAU in the list of top 10 largest universities in Germany.In year 2013, there were 5251 students graduated from the university as well as 663 doctorates and 50 post-doctoral theses registered. Moreover, it received 171 million Euro external funding in the same year, therefore making its one of the strongest third-party funded universities in Germany.In 2006 and 2007, as part of the national excellence initiative, FAU was chosen by the German Research Foundation as one of the winners in the German Universities Excellence Initiative. FAU is also a member of DFG and the Top Industrial Managers for Europe network.In Academic Ranking of World Universities for year 2014, FAU ranked second among German universities in Engineering/Technology and Computer science group for all four ranking parameters TOP, FUN, HiCi and PUB. Wikipedia.
Bogdan C.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg
Trends in Immunology | Year: 2015
Thirty years after the discovery of its production by activated macrophages, our appreciation of the diverse roles of nitric oxide (NO) continues to grow. Recent findings have not only expanded our understanding of the mechanisms controlling the expression of NO synthases (NOS) in innate and adaptive immune cells, but have also revealed new functions and modes of action of NO in the control and escape of infectious pathogens, in T and B cell differentiation, and in tumor defense. I discuss these findings, in the context of a comprehensive overview of the various sources and multiple reaction partners of NO, and of the regulation of NOS2 by micromilieu factors, antisense RNAs, and 'unexpected' cytokines. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
Mattner J.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg
Current Opinion in Immunology | Year: 2013
Natural killer T (NKT) cells represent an innate-like lymphocyte population endowed with unique antigen recognition and tissue distribution features. Their abundance in the microvascular compartments of the liver allows NKT cells to immediately respond to lipid antigens and soluble factors circulating through the portal vein system by releasing tremendous amounts of different cytokines and chemokines. Subsequently, dependent on the nature of the lipid antigen encountered as well as the accessory signal(s) provided, NKT cells not only contribute to the maintenance of immune tolerance, but also direct adverse immune reactions locally and systemically. Focusing on their potent immunomodulatory features and their interactions with various innate and adaptive immune cells, the role of NKT cells in perpetuating the loss of liver-specific immune tolerance will be discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Kisch H.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013
Preceding work on photoelectrochemistry at semiconductor single-crystal electrodes has formed the basis for the tremendous growth in the three last decades in the field of photocatalysis at semiconductor powders. The reason for this is the unique ability of inorganic semiconductor surfaces to photocatalyze concerted reduction and oxidation reactions of a large variety of electron-donor and -acceptor substrates. Whereas great attention was paid to water splitting and the exhaustive aerobic degradation of pollutants, only a small amount of research also explored synthetic aspects. After introducing the basic mechanistic principles, standard experiments for the preparation and characterization of visible light active photocatalysts as well as the investigation of reaction mechanisms are discussed. Novel atom-economic C-C and C-N coupling reactions illustrate the relevance of semiconductor photocatalysis for organic synthesis, and demonstrate that the multidisciplinary field combines classical photochemistry with electrochemistry, solid-state chemistry, and heterogeneous catalysis. Photoinduced charge generation at semiconductor surfaces is currently the most promising method for the chemical utilization of visible light. These charges can be utilized for catalytic redox processes such as nitrogen fixation, functionalization of alkanes, and linear addition reactions of olefins to 1,2-diazenes and imines. Semiconductor photocatalysis combines aspects of classical photochemistry with electrochemistry, solid-state chemistry, and heterogeneous catalysis. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Neurath M.F.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg
Mucosal Immunology | Year: 2014
Healing of the inflamed mucosa (mucosal healing) is an emerging new goal for therapy and predicts clinical remission and resection-free survival in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). The era of antitumor necrosis factor (TNF) antibody therapy was a remarkable progress in IBD therapy and anti-TNF agents led to mucosal healing in a subgroup of IBD patients; however, many patients do not respond to anti-TNF treatment highlighting the relevance of finding new targets for therapy of IBD. In particular, current studies are addressing the role of other anticytokine agents including antibodies against interleukin (IL)-6R, IL-13, and IL-12/IL-23 as well as new anti-inflammatory concepts (regulatory T cell therapy, Smad7 antisense, Jak inhibition, Toll-like receptor 9 stimulation, worm eggs). In addition, blockade of T-cell homing via the integrins α4β7 and the addressin mucosal vascular addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 (MAdCAM-1) emerges as a promising new approach for IBD therapy. Here, new approaches for achieving mucosal healing are discussed as well as their implications for future therapy of IBD. © 2014 Society for Mucosal Immunology.
Baur A.S.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg
Blood | Year: 2013
Denileukin diftitox (DD), a diphtheria toxin fragment IL-2 fusion protein, is thought to target and kill CD25(+) cells. It is approved for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and is used experimentally for the depletion of regulatory T cells (Treg) in cancer trials. Curiously enough, clinical effects of DD did not strictly correlate with CD25 expression, and Treg depletion was not confirmed unambiguously. Here, we report that patients with melanoma receiving DD immediately before a dendritic cell (DC) vaccine failed to develop a tumor-antigen-specific CD4 and CD8 T-cell immune response even after repeated vaccinations. Analyzing the underlying mechanism, so far we found unknown effects of DD. First, DD modulated DCs toward tolerance by downregulating costimulatory receptors such as CD83 and CD25 while upregulating tolerance-associated proteins/pathways including Stat-3, β-catenin, and class II transactivator-dependent antigen presentation. Second, DD blocked Stat3 phosphorylation in maturing DCs. Third, only activated, but not resting, Treg internalized DD and were killed. Conversely, resting Treg showed increased survival because of DD-mediated antiapoptotic IL-2 signaling. We conclude that DD exerts functions beyond CD25(+) cell killing that may affect their clinical use and could be tested for novel indications.