Fridtjof Nansen Institute
Fridtjof Nansen Institute
Not to be confused with Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center in Bergen. The Fridtjof Nansen Institute is named after the Norwegian polar explorer Fridtjof Nansen . It is housed in Polhøgda, Nansen's mansion from 1901 to 1930.The institute is an independent research foundation with a multi-disciplinary approach, engaged in research on international environmental, energy, resource management politics and law of the sea. The main disciplines are political science and international law. The research centers around six focal points: Marine affairs and law of the sea Global governance and sustainable development Biodiversity and biosafety Polar and Russian politics European energy and environmental politics Chinese energy and environmental politicsThe Fridtjof Nansen Institute groups as one of Norway's foreign politics research institutes. The Fridtjof Nansen Institute is internationally recognized for its long-standing research in the field of the law of the sea and on 21–23 August 2008, the Institute hosted its last international law of the sea conference, 'The World Ocean in Globalisation: Challenges for Marine Regions'. Wikipedia.
Prip C.,Fridtjof Nansen Institute
Ecosystem Services | Year: 2017
Biodiversity underpins ecosystem services. The UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) has adopted an ecosystem services approach as a framework for biodiversity management at the national level. Protection of ecosystem services requires far more than traditional nature conservation measures like the designation and management of protected areas. The economic sectors that affect biodiversity and ecosystem services must be involved, to address not merely the symptoms but the root causes of the degradation of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Achieving coherence in policies and actions across economic sectors and the changes involved in values, decision-making and practices, requires legal approaches to ensure buy-in and accountability. Ideally, such approaches should be included in National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans (NBSAPs), the key instrument for translating the CBD into national action. A review of 20 revised NBSAPs shows that such measures have been introduced only to a very limited extent with many countries still in the earliest stages of preparing measures to protect ecosystem services. Thus, there is a need for further research and practical guidance regarding legal approaches to ecosystem services. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.
Auld G.,Carleton University |
Gulbrandsen L.H.,Fridtjof Nansen Institute
Global Environmental Politics | Year: 2010
Nonstate certification programs have formed in the past 20 years to address social and environmental problems associated with production practices in several economic sectors. These programs embody the idea that information disclosure can be a tool for NGOs, investors, governments, and consumers to support high performers and hence, advocates hope, place upward pressure on sector-wide practices. Many unanswered questions remain, however, about information disclosure's practices and outcomes. We compare the use of procedural and outcome transparency in the rule-making and auditing processes of the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) and Forest Stewardship Council (FSC).We highlight key differences in how transparency relates to accountability and legitimacy of the programs. The MSC uses transparency and stakeholder consultation instrumentally, whereas the FSC treats them as ends unto themselves. This underscores the importance of considering transparency alongside other governance aspects, such as who the eligible stakeholders are and who gets decision-making power. © 2010 by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Korppoo A.,Fridtjof Nansen Institute |
Korobova N.,Institute of Environmental Economics and Ecological Policy
Energy Policy | Year: 2012
This article explores the significance of modernization policies concerning Russia's technically obsolete but socially important residential heating sector, focusing on the 2009 energy efficiency framework law and its prospects for implementation. Ownership and control structures are in flux throughout the heating sector chain. Inefficiencies, causing low service quality and rising prices, have already started eroding the market share of district heating, despite its potential benefits. End-use management practices - such as lack of metering, communal billing, and low prices that do not cover production costs - reduce consumer incentives to cut consumption. The diversity of end-users adds to the complexity of focused measures like energy-saving contracts. However, end-use sector reforms such as mandatory meter installation and increasing prices - even if socially acceptable and fully implemented - cannot alone provide the massive investments required. More appropriate is sector-wide reform with the government's financial participation - especially if consumer efforts can yield better service quality. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Vidas D.,Fridtjof Nansen Institute
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences | Year: 2011
The current law of the sea provides a framework for various specific issues, but is incapable of responding adequately to the overall challenges facing humankind, now conceivably already living in the Anthropocene. The linkages between the development of the law of the sea and the current process towards formal recognition of an Anthropocene epoch are twofold. First, there is a linkage of origin. The ideological foundations of the law of the sea facilitated the emergence of forces that were to lead to the Industrial Revolution and, eventually, to levels of development entailing ever-greater human impacts on the Earth System. Second, there are linkages in interaction. Geological information has prompted key developments in the law of the sea since the introduction of the continental shelf concept in the mid-twentieth century. With the formalization of the Anthropocene epoch, geology might again act as a trigger for new developments needed in the law of the sea. This article explores those two aspects of linkages and examines prospects for further development of the law of the sea framework, through concepts such as the responsibility for the seas as well as those related to new approaches to global sustainability such as the 'planetary boundaries'. © 2011 The Royal Society.
Tvedt M.W.,Fridtjof Nansen Institute
Polar Record | Year: 2011
The number of patents and patent applications related to inventions based on biological material from the Antarctic is increasing. Bioprospecting in the Antarctic is happening with no explicit regulation of property rights or benefit sharing requirements. This leaves patent law as the only legal system to establish exclusive rights to genes, bacteria, and other biological material found in the Antarctic. Patent law is general in form and is applied to all areas of invention with very few adaptations to single fields of innovation. Therefore, it is interesting to identify the issues in patent law in cases in which the biological material from the Antarctic is likely to create challenges or loopholes. The aim of this article is to couple the understanding of this particular legal regime and of biological circumstances in the Antarctic with knowledge of the international patent system for the purpose of contributing to the work of the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings (ATCMs) regarding bioprospecting in the Antarctic. © Cambridge University Press 2010.
Wettestad J.,Fridtjof Nansen Institute
Global Environmental Politics | Year: 2014
Is rescuing the EU's emissions trading system impossible? Despite the substantial reform in 2008, subsequent problems of allowance surplus and a low carbon price have spurred new efforts to reform the system for the 2013-2020 phase. But these efforts have met resistance both among member states and in the European parliament, and the EU is struggling in its efforts to improve the ETS. This article draws on four central EU and political science theory approaches to more systematically explore why. The financial crisis and slow international policy progress have narrowed the window of opportunity that was open in 2008. Factors that could open that window again include an economic upswing, a new European commission and parliament, and new global negotiations in 2015. But even without short-term reform, the linear reduction factor will gradually tighten the system and lead to a higher carbon price. © 2014 by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Inderberg T.H.,Fridtjof Nansen Institute
Local Environment | Year: 2011
This article contributes to the understanding of adaptive capacity within national sectors by utilising two perspectives from institutional theory. Resting on data from 21 interviews the paper analyses the Norwegian electricity sector and the influence on adaptive capacity to climate change from changes in formal structure and institutional culture. The sector underwent transformational change between the beginning of the 1980s and mid-2000s, with the reform from 1991 as a watershed, and gradual consolidation from about 2000. From a self-regulated vertically integrated sector with an emphasis on robustness of supply the sector changed into a liberalised and unbundled structure, with economic efficiency as the guiding principle. These changes reduced adaptive capacity to climate change. After 2000, gradually adaptive capacity has increased somewhat. The paper argues that also social contextual factors need to be taken account of, both to understand adaptive capacity to climate change and to provide practitioners with an ability to increase it. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.
Rosendal G.K.,Fridtjof Nansen Institute |
Andresen S.,Fridtjof Nansen Institute
Ecological Economics | Year: 2011
This contribution focuses on carbon mitigation and biodiversity conservation in the context of the UN initiative for Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation in Developing countries (REDD). The design of REDD is important as it may channel much of the international funding that will potentially be made available for future environmental problem-solving in developing countries. The most important multilateral environmental funding mechanism is the Global Environment Facility (GEF). With its basic structural similarity to the emerging REDD, it provides a good starting point for drawing lessons relevant to the design of REDD. In explaining GEF priorities and performance we discuss the role of key actors as well as the organizational and institutional structure of GEF. These factors do not encourage coalitions for addressing environmental problems in the poorest countries. The institutional setting of REDD in the Convention on Climate Change may further exacerbate this trend, as neither conservation nor socioeconomic concerns like the rights and well-being of indigenous peoples and local communities are addressed. Factors that favour utilizing a similar organization structure include scope for donor trust, for bringing in established competence and a comprehensive approach. REDD must be wary of catering solely to a Northern environmental agenda. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Skjaerseth J.B.,Fridtjof Nansen Institute
Environmental Policy and Governance | Year: 2010
In December 2008, the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) was significantly revised and strengthened. This article explores the basis for, and the consequences of, the revision for legitimacy. The key to legitimate EU governance is seen in the convergence of different sources of legitimacy at various levels of society. In addition to member-state consent, participation of non-state actors, democracy, expertise and effectiveness are of relevance. The first conclusion is that the recent revision of the EU ETS has indeed been grounded in a broader multilevel legitimacy basis. Second, the system faces significant challenges with regard to carbon markets and effectiveness, which could reduce its legitimacy in the long term. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.
Inderberg T.H.,Fridtjof Nansen Institute
Local Environment | Year: 2015
Adaptation takes place in both private and public sectors, or as an interrelation between the two, and often under the realm of public regulation. Thispaper uses the Swedish and the Norwegian electricity grid sector, as providers of a vital public good under strict public regulation, to analyse reforms' effects on adaptive capacity in this area. The paper shows that transformational changes in both sectors during the 1990s shifted both the formal organisational structure (rules and regulations), as well as the organisational culture, in the direction of economic efficiency. These two dimensions individually reduced adaptive capacity to climate change, although differently in the two countries. However, the formal structure and organisational culture also yielded substantial influence on each other. This leads to the conclusion that when designing public regulations and implementing reforms, organisational culture must be considered in the design. Also the paper contests previous findings in the literature by showing that under given conditions there exist some substitution between the two dimensions in influencing adaptive capacity, implying that both dimensions should be included when analysing adaptation since analysing them in isolation is likely to lead to wrong conclusions. © 2014, © 2014 Taylor & Francis.