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Cao Z.,Freshwater Fisheries Research Center | Ding W.,Freshwater Fisheries Research Center | Wang J.,Freshwater Fisheries Research Center | Bing X.,Freshwater Fisheries Research Center
International Journal of Simulation: Systems, Science and Technology | Year: 2016

In this study we aim to investigate the relationships the quantitative characteristics of DNA methylation. We determine the effect of genomic DNA Methylation Polymorphisms on the variations in the weight of fish specie Carp (Cyprinus Carpio). We start by selecting two pairs of parental combinations from two different families of Jian carp to cross and reproduce the off springs. The results indicate that increasing the stocking densities can increase the proportions of genomic DNA methylation polymorphisms in both liver and muscle tissues. They demonstrate that the standard deviation for body weight consisted of two parts, one part is derived from the difference in DNA sequence and the other part is derived from the difference in genomic DNA methylation in different tissues. © 2016, UK Simulation Society. All rights reserved.


Fang D.-A.,Freshwater Fisheries Research Center | Huang X.-M.,Freshwater Fisheries Research Institute of Zhejiang Province | Zhang Z.-Q.,Shangrao Normal University | Xu D.-P.,Freshwater Fisheries Research Center | And 5 more authors.
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2013

A novel chymotrypsin-like serine protease (CLSP) was isolated from the hepatopancreas of the redclaw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus (Cq-chy). The full-length cDNA of Cq-chy contains 951 nucleotides encodes a peptide of 270 amino acids. The mature peptide comprising 223 amino acids contains the conserved catalytic triad (H, D, and S). Similarity analysis showed that Cq-chy shares high identity with chymotrypsins from the fiddler crab; Uca pugilator. Cq-chy mRNA expression in C.quadricarinatus was shown to be: (a) tissue-related with the highest expression in the hepatotpancreas and widely distributed, (b) highly responsive in the hepatopancreas to White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) challenge, and (c) differently regulated in immature and adult crayfish. In this study we successfully isolated Cq-chy. Our observations indicate that Cq-chy is differently involved in the immature and adult innate immune reactions, thus suggesting a role for CLSPs in the invertebrate innate immune system. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Mohamad S.N.,Freshwater Fisheries Research Center | Ramanan R.N.,University Putra Malaysia | Mohamad R.,University Putra Malaysia | Ariff A.B.,University Putra Malaysia
New Biotechnology | Year: 2011

The effect of different carbon and nitrogen sources on the production of mannan-degrading enzymes, focussing on β-mannanase, by Aspergillus niger was investigated using shake flask culture. The β-mannanase activity obtained during growth of A. niger on guar gum (GG, 1495nkatmL-1) was much higher than those observed on other carbon substrates, locust bean gum (1148nkatmL-1), α-cellulose (10.7nkatmL-1), glucose (8.8nkatmL-1) and carboxymethylcellulose (4.6nkatmL-1). For fermentation using GG as a carbon source, bacteriological peptone gave the highest β-mannanase activity (1744nkatmL-1) followed by peptone from meat (1168nkatmL-1), yeast extract (817nkatmL-1), ammonium sulphate (241nkatmL-1), ammonium nitrate (113nkatmL-1) and ammonium chloride (99nkatmL-1) when used as a nitrogen source. The composition of bacteriological peptone and initial pH of the medium were further optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Medium consisted of 21.3gL-1 GG and 57gL-1 peptone with initial culture pH of 5.5 was optimum for β-mannanase production (2063nkatmL-1) by A. niger. The β-mannanase production obtained in this study using A. niger was significantly higher than those reported in the literature. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Chew P.C.,Freshwater Fisheries Research Center | Abd-Rashid Z.,Freshwater Fisheries Research Center | Hassan R.,Freshwater Fisheries Research Center | Asmuni M.,Freshwater Fisheries Research Center | Chuah H.P.,Freshwater Fisheries Research Center
Journal of Applied Ichthyology | Year: 2010

Ex situ conservation of Malaysian Mahseer (Tor tambroides and T. douronensis), the ecologically threatened freshwater fish species in Malaysia via semen cryo-banking was started in 2008 with the mature Tor species from four different locations in Peninsular Malaysia. At current stage, a total of 150-ml semen sample was collected from male fish of 73 T. tambroides and 15 T. douronensis and kept cryo-storage in liquid nitrogen (LN2) in the semen cryo-bank at Freshwater Fisheries Research Centre (FFRC). Sperm motility after cryo-preservation was found to be reduced by an average of 15 and 30% for T. douronensis and T. tambroides respectively; i.e. with pre-frozen motility 87.8±7.9% (n=73) and 88.8±6.7% (n=15), and post-thaw motility 54.9±14.3% (n=73) and 74.0±11.2% (n=15) for T. tambroides and T. douronensis respectively. The mean fertilization and hatching rates by using cryo-preserved semen in T. tambroides were 36.4±10.5% (n=360) and 34.5±11% (n=360) respectively; whereas were 89.8±10.2% (n=360) and 80.2±16.6% (n=360) respectively for fresh semen. Meanwhile, the survival rate of fry produced from cryo-preserved sperm (97.6±3.1%, n=360) was equally good (P>0.05) when compared to the use of fresh sperm (99.7±0.5%, n=360). Sperm motility (%) during milt collection, before freezing and after thawing of each cryo-preserved semen samples was recorded. These tests were done with sperm from all semen samples and kept up to date into the Fishery Information Network System (INFOFins). The subsequent fertilization capacity and hatching rates of eggs fertilized with sperm from selected cryo-preserved semen sample were also quantified and recorded into INFOFins. Future prospects of the semen cryo-banking of Malaysian Mahseer is also reported and discussed in the present paper. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.


Chew P.C.,Freshwater Fisheries Research Center | Hassan R.,Freshwater Fisheries Research Center | Rashid Z.A.,Freshwater Fisheries Research Center | Chuah H.P.,Freshwater Fisheries Research Center
Journal of Applied Ichthyology | Year: 2010

The objective of this study was to develop a cryopreservation method in Probarbus jullieni sperm, an endangered riverine fish species in Southeast Asia, including the optimization of an extender solution (14 extender formulations were tested) and selecting a cryoprotectant (five types of agents and methanol were used at concentrations (v/v) of 5, 7.5, 9, 10, 12, 15 and 20%). The semen to diluent ratios tested were as follow: 1-:-1, 1-:-2, 1-:-3, 1-:-4, 1-:-5, 1-:-7, 1-:-9, 1-:-14, 1-:-19, 1-:-24 and 1-:-49. Vapour exposure duration was set at 5, 10, 15 and 20-min while the distance between sample and liquid nitrogen (LN2) during the vapour exposure was designed at 3, 3.5, 4, 5 and 6-cm. Further, the time frame for thawing was set at 6, 7, 8, 10, 20 and 30-s. The optimum protocol was by using CF-HBSS (pH 7.5, osmolality 285±10-mOsmol-kg-1) in combination with methanol at 9% (v/v); sperm to diluents ratio between 1-:-3 to 1-:-5; vapour exposure for 5-min or 10-min, with samples placed at 3.5-cm or 4-cm above LN2 and thawing at 40°C for 7-s. The mean of pre-frozen and post-thaw sperm motility was 80.1±13.6% (n=43) and 49.6±16.4% (n=43) respectively. The reproductive characteristics of P. jullieni during its spawning season were addressed in present work. Cryopreserved sperm was found to have lower fertilization ability (4.2±2.5%, n=1050) and hatching rate (1.6±1.2%, n=1050) compared with fresh sperm (fertilization 77.7±6.2%, n=1050; hatching 64.7±7.7%, n=1050). The resulted problems and constraints encountered in the process of sperm cryopreservation of the species studied were also reported in this paper. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.


Adnan M.S.,Kyushu University | Shimatani Y.,Kyushu University | Rashid Z.A.,Freshwater Fisheries Research Center
IAHS-AISH Publication | Year: 2011

River water quality in the Pahang River and its adjacent tributaries is facing degradation due to increasing anthropogenic activities along the river bank. This study was initiated with the aim of investigating the effects of human activities and its impacts on water quality and water quantity. The spatial and temporal changes, as well as the human activities along this river are determined by analysing and calculating the water quality Index (WQI) and applying statistical approaches: principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA), to explore the relationship between anthropogenic activities and environmental variables. From the results obtained, it was seen that the WQI was highly correlated with the activities along the river bank. Human disturbance has severely degraded the water quality and ecosystem integrity, thereby depleting water resources. In addition, we speculate the significant decreasing trend between upstream and downstream of the Pahang River. Thus, serious mitigation steps should be proposed to protect our valuable resources. Copyright © 2011 IAHS Press.


Firdaus-Nawi M.,University Putra Malaysia | Yusoff S.M.,University Putra Malaysia | Yusof H.,Freshwater Fisheries Research Center | Abdullah S.-Z.,National Fish Health Research Center | Zamri-Saad M.,University Putra Malaysia
Aquaculture Research | Year: 2013

This study was conducted to determine the systemic, mucosal immunity and protective capacity of the feed-based adjuvant vaccine (FAV) of Streptococcus agalactiae following oral vaccination against streptococcosis in tilapias. Two hundred and sixteen red tilapia fish were divided into three major groups. Each major group consisted eight tilapia kept in nine 2000 L glass aquaria. At day 0, all fish from the FAV group were fed with feed that had been incorporated with an adjuvant, while fish in the feed-based vaccine (FNV) group were fed with vaccine incorporated into the pellet without adjuvant. Fish in the control-unvaccinated group, FC, were fed with normal commercial pellet. Booster dose was performed on day 14 post immunization. Fish from each group were sacrificed on a weekly basis for the entire 7 weeks. Serum, body mucus and gut lavage fluid were evaluated for antibody responses by indirect ELISA, while histological examination was carried out on the gut following intraperitoneal challenge. The FAV group had a significantly higher protection (P < 0.05) following challenge with 3.4 × 109 CFU mL-1 of live S. agalactiae than FNV group. This level of protection may be due to high antibody responses, increase in size of gut-associated lymphoid tissue and high number of lymphocytes in the FAV group. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Shen H.,Freshwater Fisheries Research Center | Zhou X.,Freshwater Fisheries Research Center | Bai A.,Freshwater Fisheries Research Center | Bai A.,Shanghai Ocean University | And 2 more authors.
Crustaceana | Year: 2013

The retinoid-X receptor (RXR) is among the most conserved members of the nuclear receptor superfamily and is widely studied in vertebrate and invertebrate families. RXR plays an important role in regulation of molting and/or metamorphosis, development and reproduction. We cloned the full-length cDNA sequence of the RXR from the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (De Haan, 1849) (MnRXR) and investigated the expression profile of MnRXR in different developmental stages of embryos, in different tissues and in the molting cycle. Two MnRXR splice variants were identified: One, MnRXR-L, the full length of which was 2472 bp, encoded a 449-amino-acid protein; the second, MnRXR-S, the full length of which was 1832 bp, encoded a 420-amino-acid protein, in which the first 29 amino-acid residues of MnRXR-L were absent. MnRXR was observed in all developmental stages of embryos and had the highest expression level in the embryonised-zoea stage, it was highly expressed in hepatopancreas, gill and intestine among the ten tissues examined. The expression of MnRXR was rapidly up-regulated in the premolt stage and rapidly down-regulated after molting. Moreover, of the two MnRXR splice variants, only MnRXR-S was induced during the molting cycle, suggesting that the two splice variants play different roles in the molting cycle. © 2013 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden.


Zhang C.,Freshwater Fisheries Research Center | Su S.,Freshwater Fisheries Research Center | Du F.,Freshwater Fisheries Research Center | Zhu J.,Freshwater Fisheries Research Center
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2016

In order to understand the genetic drift under closed population using equaled family size, two overlapping conservation methods proposed (increment and decrement) were introduced to compare with the discrete population. Finally, the article showed body weight controlled by hundred loci having average gene effect. For increment, the second generation had the parents composed of 400 original population and 100 from first generation; the third population consisted of 300 original population, 100 from first generation and 100 from second generation. The fourth population was composed 200 from original population, 100 from first population, 100 from second population, 100 from third population, and 100 from the fourth population. The fifth population was achieved by randomly selecting 100 from each population. For decrement, the method has the opposite direction. For different population, both more than one thousand and less than family sizes 10 have the stable gene frequency despite the different initial gene frequency and sex ratio. Despite several generations were maintained together, less than 5 generations increment conservation can make the gene frequency improved to less than 0.5, while more than 0.5, increment conservation can make them decrease to less than 5 generations and reach the stable higher gene frequency in the following generations. Generally, less than 0.4 gene frequency can use in the increment conservation. More than 0.7, you can use the decrement method. When 100 loci which have average gene effect and random initial gene frequency were assumed, both increment and decrement conservation methods can keep the phenotype stable. ©2016 Zoological Society of Pakistan.


Fang D.-A.,Freshwater Fisheries Research Center | Fang D.-A.,East China Normal University | Wang Y.,East China Normal University | Wang J.,East China Normal University | And 2 more authors.
Gene | Year: 2013

Prohibitin (PHB) proteins have diverse functions, such as cellular signaling, transcriptional control and mitochondrial biogenesis. In this study, we characterized PHB gene and its protein expression in Cherax quadricarinatus. PHB cDNA comprises 1472 nucleotides with an open reading frame of 828. bp, which encodes 275 amino acid residues. The highest transcript levels were found during the spermatogonial developmental phase, with the lowest levels detected during the resting phase in the reproductive cycle. Western blot analysis revealed that PHB is an approximately 30. kDa protein, and occurs in a number of unexpected isoforms, ranging from 30. kDa to greater than 180. kDa in the testes of different developmental phases, which may be the ubiquitinated substrates. The strongest immunolabeling signal was found in spermatogonia, with lower levels of staining in secondary spermatocytes, and weak or absent expression in mature sperm. Immunogold electron microscopy results confirmed the localization of PHB in the inner mitochondrial membranes. The results showed that PHB is a substrate protein for spermatogenesis, with a potential reproductive function involving sperm ubiquitination in invertebrates. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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