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Manoharan B.,University of Malaya | Sulaimen Z.,Freshwater Fisheries Research Center | Omar F.,University of Malaya | Othman R.Y.,University of Malaya | And 2 more authors.
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2011

Malaysian arowana (dragonfish; Scleropages formosus) is an ancient osteoglossid fish from southeast Asia. Due to the high demand of the ornamental fish trade and because of habitat loss, the species is close to extinction. We isolated and characterized 10 polymorphic microsatellites of this species, using 5'-anchored PCR. The number of alleles at the 10 microsatellite loci ranged from 2 to 28, with a mean of 7.8/locus. The observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.03 to 0.93 (mean: 0.39), whereas the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.03 to 0.94 (mean: 0.46). Seven microsatellites deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and three conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and were in linkage equilibrium. These 10 novel microsatellites should facilitate studies of genetic diversity and population structure of arowana to help plan actions for the conservation of the indigenous Malaysian arowana. © FUNPEC-RP www.funpecrp.com.br.

Fang D.-A.,Freshwater Fisheries Research Center | Fang D.-A.,East China Normal University | Wang Y.,East China Normal University | Wang J.,East China Normal University | And 2 more authors.
Gene | Year: 2013

Prohibitin (PHB) proteins have diverse functions, such as cellular signaling, transcriptional control and mitochondrial biogenesis. In this study, we characterized PHB gene and its protein expression in Cherax quadricarinatus. PHB cDNA comprises 1472 nucleotides with an open reading frame of 828. bp, which encodes 275 amino acid residues. The highest transcript levels were found during the spermatogonial developmental phase, with the lowest levels detected during the resting phase in the reproductive cycle. Western blot analysis revealed that PHB is an approximately 30. kDa protein, and occurs in a number of unexpected isoforms, ranging from 30. kDa to greater than 180. kDa in the testes of different developmental phases, which may be the ubiquitinated substrates. The strongest immunolabeling signal was found in spermatogonia, with lower levels of staining in secondary spermatocytes, and weak or absent expression in mature sperm. Immunogold electron microscopy results confirmed the localization of PHB in the inner mitochondrial membranes. The results showed that PHB is a substrate protein for spermatogenesis, with a potential reproductive function involving sperm ubiquitination in invertebrates. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Firdaus-Nawi M.,University Putra Malaysia | Yusoff S.M.,University Putra Malaysia | Yusof H.,Freshwater Fisheries Research Center | Abdullah S.-Z.,National Fish Health Research Center | Zamri-Saad M.,University Putra Malaysia
Aquaculture Research | Year: 2013

This study was conducted to determine the systemic, mucosal immunity and protective capacity of the feed-based adjuvant vaccine (FAV) of Streptococcus agalactiae following oral vaccination against streptococcosis in tilapias. Two hundred and sixteen red tilapia fish were divided into three major groups. Each major group consisted eight tilapia kept in nine 2000 L glass aquaria. At day 0, all fish from the FAV group were fed with feed that had been incorporated with an adjuvant, while fish in the feed-based vaccine (FNV) group were fed with vaccine incorporated into the pellet without adjuvant. Fish in the control-unvaccinated group, FC, were fed with normal commercial pellet. Booster dose was performed on day 14 post immunization. Fish from each group were sacrificed on a weekly basis for the entire 7 weeks. Serum, body mucus and gut lavage fluid were evaluated for antibody responses by indirect ELISA, while histological examination was carried out on the gut following intraperitoneal challenge. The FAV group had a significantly higher protection (P < 0.05) following challenge with 3.4 × 109 CFU mL-1 of live S. agalactiae than FNV group. This level of protection may be due to high antibody responses, increase in size of gut-associated lymphoid tissue and high number of lymphocytes in the FAV group. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Fang D.-A.,Freshwater Fisheries Research Center | Huang X.-M.,Freshwater Fisheries Research Institute of Zhejiang Province | Zhang Z.-Q.,Shangrao Normal University | Xu D.-P.,Freshwater Fisheries Research Center | And 5 more authors.
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2013

A novel chymotrypsin-like serine protease (CLSP) was isolated from the hepatopancreas of the redclaw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus (Cq-chy). The full-length cDNA of Cq-chy contains 951 nucleotides encodes a peptide of 270 amino acids. The mature peptide comprising 223 amino acids contains the conserved catalytic triad (H, D, and S). Similarity analysis showed that Cq-chy shares high identity with chymotrypsins from the fiddler crab; Uca pugilator. Cq-chy mRNA expression in C.quadricarinatus was shown to be: (a) tissue-related with the highest expression in the hepatotpancreas and widely distributed, (b) highly responsive in the hepatopancreas to White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) challenge, and (c) differently regulated in immature and adult crayfish. In this study we successfully isolated Cq-chy. Our observations indicate that Cq-chy is differently involved in the immature and adult innate immune reactions, thus suggesting a role for CLSPs in the invertebrate innate immune system. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Amal M.N.A.,University Putra Malaysia | Zamri-Saad M.,University Putra Malaysia | Zulkafli A.R.,Freshwater Fisheries Research Center | Siti-Zahrah A.,National Health Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances | Year: 2010

A study was conducted on water quality profiling to confirm susceptibility of tilapia cultured in lakes to Streptococcus agalactiae infection. A total of 1,010 and 719 tilapias of different sizes were collected from two lakes; the Kenyir and Pedu lakes, respectively. They were randomly sampled for a period of 24 months. Swabs of brain, eye and kidney were streaked directly onto blood agar before S. agalactiae was identified by the API 20 STREP kit, Slidex Strepto-kit and PCR technique. The water temperature (thermocline) and dissolved oxygen profiling were determined at 1 m intervals for up to 20 m deep. Water clarity and flow rate were also recorded using Secchi disk and a current meter. S. agalactiae was successfully isolated from both lakes throughout the year, ranging between 2 and 78%. Isolation was more frequent during the hot and dry months of both years. During this period, the mean water temperature was >29°C for up to 8 m deep due to the significantly (p<0.05) clearer water and slow rate of water flow that allowed deeper light penetration and enhanced heat retention. Water thermocline that showed a drop in water temperature was observed only in Kenyir lake at >12 m deep. This and the slow water flow kept the water temperature at 4 m deep where tilapias under the cage culture system were kept to remain high causing stress to tilapia and increases susceptibility to S. agalactiae. Dissolved oxygen profiling, however remained high at >5 mg L-1 for up to 8 m deep and did not give adverse effects to susceptibility of tilapia to S. agalactiae. © Medwell Journals, 2010.

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