Huntingdon, United Kingdom
Huntingdon, United Kingdom

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Bunting S.W.,University of Essex | Mishra R.,Center for Development of Human Initiatives | Smith K.G.,Freshwater Biodiversity Unit | Ray D.,Center for Development of Human Initiatives
International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability | Year: 2014

Potential impacts of sustainable intensification and diversification options for agriculture-based livelihoods in Buxa, West Bengal, India, were evaluated using bioeconomic modelling. The baseline scenario involved multiple cropping seasons and a combination of crops on 0.9 ha land-holdings, livestock husbandry, and exploitation of common property resources. With capital costs of Rs.128,180 (US$2293) and annual operating costs of Rs.37,290 (US$667), the net benefit generated (excluding depreciation) was Rs.70,250 (US$1257) annually. The pay-back period was 1.8 years, and the internal rate of return (IRR) was 53.7% over 10 years. Allocation of 20 days annually to fishing increased the net benefit to Rs.75,030 (US$1342) and IRR to 56.5% with minimal added costs and risks. Adopting the system of rice intensification (SRI) for paddy cultivation on 0.35 ha increased the IRR to 61.1%, while reducing agrochemical and inorganic fertilizer use. Including small-scale fish culture in a 0.1 ha pond integrated in the irrigation scheme for SRI cultivation resulted in an IRR of 77.3% and reduced the pay-back period to 1.3 years. Some risks to biodiversity are apparent with each scenario; however, with appropriate safeguards, sustainable agricultural intensification and livelihoods diversification could bolster agrobiodiversity and social-ecological resilience of highland communities, while alleviating pressure on biodiversity. © 2014 Taylor & Francis

Bunting S.W.,University of Essex | Luo S.,South China Agricultural University | Cai K.,South China Agricultural University | Kundu N.,Institute of Environmental Studies and Wetland Management | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Planning and Management | Year: 2016

The need for enhanced environmental planning and management for highland aquatic resources is described and a rationale for integrated action planning is presented. Past action planning initiatives for biodiversity conservation and wetland management are reviewed. A reflective account is given of integrated action planning from five sites in China, India and Vietnam. Eight planning phases are described encompassing: stakeholder assessment and partner selection; rapport building and agreement on collaboration; integrated biodiversity, ecosystem services, livelihoods and policy assessment; problem analysis and target setting; strategic planning; planning and organisation of activities; coordinated implementation and monitoring; evaluation and revised target setting. The scope and targeting of actions are evaluated using the Driving forces, Pressures, State, Impacts and Responses framework and compatibility with biodiversity conservation and socio-economic development objectives are assessed. Criteria to evaluate the quality of planning processes are proposed. Principles for integrated action planning elaborated here should enable stakeholders to formulate plans to reconcile biodiversity conservation with the wise use of wetlands. © 2016 University of Newcastle upon Tyne

Holland R.A.,University of Sheffield | Holland R.A.,Freshwater Biodiversity Unit | Eigenbrod F.,University of Sheffield | Eigenbrod F.,University of Southampton | And 9 more authors.
Ecological Applications | Year: 2011

To inform the design and implementation of land-use policies that consider the variety of goods and services people derive from ecosystems, it is essential to understand spatial patterns of individual services, how multiple services relate to each other, and how these relationships vary across spatial scales and localities. Despite the importance of freshwater as a determinant of regional economic and human demographic patterns, there are surprisingly few studies that map the provision of a range of services associated with the quality of the aquatic environment. Here we examine relationships between indicators of riverine water and associated habitat quality, freshwater biodiversity, three terrestrial ecosystem services, and terrestrial biodiversity across England and Wales. The results indicate strong associations between our indicators of freshwater services. However, a comparison of these indicators of freshwater services with other ecosystem services (carbon storage, agricultural production, recreation) and biodiversity of species of conservation concern in the surrounding terrestrial landscape shows no clear relationships. While there are potential policy "win-wins" for the protection of multiple services shown by associations between indicators of freshwater services and carbon storage in upland areas of Britain, the other ecosystem services showed either negative or no relationships with the indicators of freshwater services. We also consider the influence that spatial scale has on these relationships using River Basin Districts. Our results indicate that relationships between indicators of services can change dramatically depending on the societal pressures and other regional conditions. Thus, the delivery of multiple ecosystem services requires the development of regional strategies, or of national strategies that take account of regional variation. © 2011 by the Ecological Society of America.

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