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Cristi A.,French School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America | Year: 2010

The hypothesis that vocalic categories are enhanced in infant-directed speech (IDS) has received a great deal of attention and support. In contrast, work focusing on the acoustic implementation of consonantal categories has been scarce, and positive, negative, and null results have been reported. However, interpreting this mixed evidence is complicated by the facts that the definition of phonetic enhancement varies across articles, that small and heterogeneous groups have been studied across experiments, and further that the categories chosen are likely affected by other characteristics of IDS. Here, an analysis of the English sibilants /s/ and // in a large corpus of caregivers' speech to another adult and to their infant suggests that consonantal categories are indeed enhanced, even after controlling for typical IDS prosodic characteristics. © 2010 Acoustical Society of America. Source

Guillemot H.,French School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences
Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B - Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics | Year: 2010

Climate modeling is closely tied, through its institutions and practices, to observations from satellites and to the field sciences. The validity, quality and scientific credibility of models are based on interaction between models and observation data. In the case of numerical modeling of climate and climate change, validation is not solely a scientific interest: the legitimacy of computer modeling, as a tool of knowledge, has been called into question in order to deny the reality of any anthropogenic climate change; model validations thereby bring political issues into play as well. There is no systematic protocol of validation: one never validates a model in general, but the capacity of a model to account for a defined climatic phenomenon or characteristic. From practices observed in the two research centers developing and using a climate model in France, this paper reviews different ways in which the researchers establish links between models and empirical data (which are not reduced to the latter validating the former) and convince themselves that their models are valid. The analysis of validation practices-relating to parametrization, modes of variability, climatic phenomena, etc.-allows us to highlight some elements of the epistemology of modeling. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Mari A.,French School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences
Journal of Semantics | Year: 2014

Reciprocal sentences display a variety of interpretations, ranging from 'strong reciprocity' to 'inclusive alternative orderings'. In this interpretation, every element in the reference set participates with some other member in the relation provided by the predicate either as the first or second argument. Current reciprocal theories cannot fully explain why some sentences that satisfy these truth conditions are in fact false and unacceptable, such as '#the boys are taller than each other' or '#my mother and I procreated each other.' The core insight of the paper is that reciprocal sentences are true if they describe a relation that is either actually or possibly strong reciprocal over the reference set, insofar as the possibilities are reasonable. A branching time framework is used, in which a notion of reasonability is defined. We focus on permanent relations, for which we provide a new definition in modal terms. We show that whenever the relation is asymmetric and permanent, each other-sentences are unacceptable. We consider cases in which the relation is asymmetric and non-permanent and the each other-sentences are also unacceptable.We introduce a new modal notion of decidedness, and prove that for asymmetric relations, permanency entails decidedness. Showing how (a)symmetry, (non-)decidedness and (non-)permanency interact and proving that the truth of each other-sentences requires the relation to be either non-asymmetric or non-decided, we ensure a large and previously unattained empirical coverage. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source

Bonneuil C.,French School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences
Biological Conservation | Year: 2015

Biodiversity offsetting (BO) is now a well-established mechanism worldwide. In several countries, it stands as a regulatory requirement and can be achieved via commercial transactions of biodiversity "credits". Little is known however among ecologists and BO practitioners about the genealogy of BO instruments and the historical factors that shaped them. It is only quite recently that the use of market-based instruments to protect the environment has gone from being politically anathema to politically correct. How can we account for this shift? To shed light on the rise of BOmarketmechanisms, we build upon historical records and historical research. This research documents a link between the emergence of BO market mechanism and the 1973-1990 rollback of environmental regulations. These results help contextualize the rise of market-based instruments in conservation science and policies within the ascent of a new "liberal environmentalism" policy paradigm. They therefore shed light on the co-evolutionary relationship linking conservation to societal and ideological dynamics. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Fischler C.,French School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences
Social Science Information | Year: 2011

The founding fathers of the social sciences recognized commensality as a major issue but considered it mostly in a religious, sacrificial, ritualistic context. The notion of commensality is examined in its various dimensions and operations. Empirical data are used to examine cultural variability in attitudes about food, commensality and its correlates among countries usually categorized as 'Western' and 'modern'. Clear-cut differences are identified, hinting at possible relationships between, on the one hand, cultural attachment to commensality and, on the other hand, a lower prevalence of obesity and associated health problems involving nutrition. © The Author(s) 2011. Source

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