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Dermota U.,National Laboratory for Health | Zdovc I.,University of Ljubljana | Strumbelj I.,National Laboratory for Health | Grmek-Kosnik I.,National Laboratory for Health | And 8 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2015

Following the recognition of a mecC MRSA isolate from a patient hospitalized in the northeastern region of Slovenia, a national collection of 395 community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) isolates from 2006 to 2013 was screened. An additional six mecC MRSA strains were found and characterized as spa types t843, t9397 and t10009, and multilocus sequence type ST130. The low oxacillin minimum inhibitory concentrations and absence of the mecA gene make recognition of these MRSA strains problematical for diagnostic laboratories. In such strains the presence of mecC should be determined. © 2014 Cambridge University Press.


PubMed | National Laboratory for Health, University of Ljubljana and French National Reference Center for Staphylococci
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Epidemiology and infection | Year: 2015

SUMMARY Following the recognition of a mecC MRSA isolate from a patient hospitalized in the northeastern region of Slovenia, a national collection of 395 community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) isolates from 2006 to 2013 was screened. An additional six mecC MRSA strains were found and characterized as spa types t843, t9397 and t10009, and multilocus sequence type ST130. The low oxacillin minimum inhibitory concentrations and absence of the mecA gene make recognition of these MRSA strains problematical for diagnostic laboratories. In such strains the presence of mecC should be determined.


PubMed | Edouard Herriot Hospital, French Institute of Health and Medical Research and French National Reference Center for Staphylococci
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

Biofilm formation, intra-osteoblastic persistence, small-colony variants (SCVs) and the dysregulation of agr, the major virulence regulon, are possibly involved in staphylococcal bone and joint infection (BJI) pathogenesis. We aimed to investigate the contributions of these mechanisms among a collection of 95 Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates from 64 acute (67.4%) and 31 chronic (32.6%) first episodes of BJI. The included isolates were compared for internalization rate, cell damage and SCV intracellular emergence using an ex vivo model of human osteoblast infection. Biofilm formation was assessed in a microbead immobilization assay (BioFilm Ring test). Virulence gene profiles were assessed by DNA microarray. Seventeen different clonal complexes were identified among the screened collection. The staphylococcal internalization rate in osteoblasts was significantly higher for chronic than acute BJI isolates, regardless of the genetic background. Conversely, no differences regarding cytotoxicity, SCV emergence, biofilm formation and virulence gene distribution were observed. Additionally, agr dysfunction, detected by the lack of delta-toxin production using whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis (n = 15; 15.8%), was significantly associated with BJI chronicity, osteoblast invasion and biofilm formation. These findings provide new insights into MSSA BJI pathogenesis, suggesting the correlation between chronicity and staphylococcal osteoblast invasion. This adaptive mechanism, along with biofilm formation, is associated with agr dysfunction, which can be routinely assessed by delta-toxin detection using MALDI-TOF spectrum analysis, possibly providing clinicians with a diagnostic marker of BJI chronicity at the time of diagnosis.


Valour F.,Hospices Civils de Lyon | Valour F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Trouillet-Assant S.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Riffard N.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | And 14 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2015

Although Staphylococcus aureus persistence in osteoblasts, partly as small-colony variants (SCVs), can contribute to bone and joint infection (BJI) relapses, the intracellular activity of antimicrobials is not currently considered in the choice of treatment strategies for BJI. Here, antistaphylococcal antimicrobials were evaluated for their intraosteoblastic activity and their impact on the intracellular emergence of SCVs in an ex vivo osteoblast infection model. Osteoblastic MG63 cells were infected for 2 h with HG001 S. aureus. After killing the remaining extracellular bacteria with lysostaphin, infected cells were incubated for 24 h with antimicrobials at the intraosseous concentrations reached with standard therapeutic doses. Intracellular bacteria and SCVs were then quantified by plating cell lysates. A bactericidal effect was observed with fosfomycin, linezolid, tigecycline, oxacillin, rifampin, ofloxacin, and clindamycin, with reductions in the intracellular inocula of-2.5,-3.1,-3.9,-4.2,-4.9,-4.9, and-5.2 log10 CFU/100,000 cells, respectively (P<10-4). Conversely, a bacteriostatic effect was observed with ceftaroline and teicoplanin, whereas vancomycin and daptomycin had no significant impact on intracellular bacterial growth. Ofloxacin, daptomycin, and vancomycin significantly limited intracellular SCV emergence. Overall, ofloxacin was the only molecule to combine an excellent intracellular activity while limiting the emergence of SCVs. These data provide a basis for refining the choice of antibiotics to prioritise in the management of BJI, justifying the combination of a fluoroquinolone for its intracellular activity with an anti-biofilm molecule, such as rifampin. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Valour F.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Valour F.,University of Lyon | Blanc-Pattin V.,University of Lyon | Freydiere A.-M.,University of Lyon | And 8 more authors.
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease | Year: 2014

The GeneXpert MRSA/SA SSTI assay was compared to conventional cultures to detect Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistance from 91 bone and joint infection samples. Sensitivity and specificity were 94.4% and 100%. Three false-positive results were observed, in fact providing from patients known to be infected by S. aureus on the basis of other concomitant osteoarticular samples, which suggests that PCR was more sensitive than culture. This diagnosis accuracy may help shorten toxic and non-optimal empirical therapies such as glycopeptides in case of methicillin-susceptible strains. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Laurent F.,French National Reference Center for Staphylococci | Chardon H.,Aix en Provence Hospital | Haenni M.,French Agency for Food | Bes M.,French National Reference Center for Staphylococci | And 5 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

We describe human cases and clustered animal cases of mecA LGA251-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in France. Our report confirms that this new variant has a large distribution in Europe. It may represent a public health threat because phenotypic and genotypic tests seem unable to detect this new resistance mechanism.


Shambat S.,Indian Institute of Science | Shambat S.,Karolinska University Hospital | Nadig S.,Indian Institute of Science | Prabhakara S.,Indian Institute of Science | And 5 more authors.
BMC Microbiology | Year: 2012

Background: Diseases from Staphylococcus aureus are a major problem in Indian hospitals and recent studies point to infiltration of community associated methicillin resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) into hospitals. Although CA-MRSA are genetically different from nosocomial MRSA, the distinction between the two groups is blurring as CA-MRSA are showing multidrug resistance and are endemic in many hospitals. Our survey of samples collected from Indian hospitals between 2004 and 2006 had shown mainly hospital associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) carrying staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type III and IIIA. But S. aureus isolates collected from 2007 onwards from community and hospital settings in India have shown SCCmec type IV and V cassettes while several variations of type IV SCCmec cassettes from IVa to IVj have been found in other parts of the world. In the present study, we have collected nasal swabs from rural and urban healthy carriers and pus, blood etc from in patients from hospitals to study the distribution of SCCmec elements and sequence types (STs) in the community and hospital environment. We performed molecular characterization of all the isolates to determine their lineage and microarray of select isolates from each sequence type to analyze their toxins, virulence and immune-evasion factors. Results: Molecular analyses of 68 S. aureus isolates from in and around Bengaluru and three other Indian cities have been carried out. The chosen isolates fall into fifteen STs with all major clonal complexes (CC) present along with some minor ones. The dominant MRSA clones are ST22 and ST772 among healthy carriers and patients. We are reporting three novel clones, two methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) isolates belonging to ST291 (related to ST398 which is live stock associated), and two MRSA clones, ST1208 (CC8), and ST672 as emerging clones in this study for the first time. Sixty nine percent of isolates carry Panton- Valentine Leucocidin genes (PVL) along with many other toxins. There is more diversity of STs among methicillin sensitive S. aureus than resistant ones. Microarray analysis of isolates belonging to different STs gives an insight into major toxins, virulence factors, adhesion and immune evasion factors present among the isolates in various parts of India. Conclusions: S. aureus isolates reported in this study belong to a highly diverse group of STs and CC and we are reporting several new STs which have not been reported earlier along with factors influencing virulence and host pathogen interactions. © 2012 Shambat et al.


Blanco R.,Basurto Hospital | Blanco R.,Hospital of Leon | Tristan A.,University of Lyon | Tristan A.,French National Reference Center for Staphylococci | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2011

We characterized all of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive Staphylococcus aureus isolates collected between 2005 and 2008 in the Bilbao, Spain, area. For the first time, the USA300 clone is reported as predominant among PVL-positive clones in a European autochthonous population, requiring active monitoring of the incidence of USA300 in Spain and throughout Europe. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Sanchini A.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita | Campanile F.,University of Catania | Monaco M.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita | Cafiso V.,University of Catania | And 8 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) isolates are widespread in many countries, with varying distribution and epidemiology. The aim of this study was to collect and characterise the CA-MRSA isolates circulating in Italy, since only some case reports have been published. Eighteen Panton-Valentine-positive CA-MRSA isolates were collected from different Italian hospitals during the period 2005-2009 from severe infections (skin and soft tissue infections, n=10; necrotising pneumonia, n=7; and sepsis, n=1). Accessory gene regulator (agr) typing, staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) mec typing, spa typing, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and DNA microarray were applied to categorise isolates into clones and to compare the relevant genetic features of each clone. Six different clones were identified, the most common (7 out of 18 isolates, 38.8%) being agrI/ST8/SCCmecIV, corresponding to the USA300 clone. Six out of the seven USA300 isolates did not harbour the arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME). Four strains (22.2%) were agrIII/ST80/SCCmecIV, corresponding to the European clone. Two of the other clones, namely, agrIII/ST88/SCCmecV and agrIII/ST772/SCCmecV, corresponded to CA-MRSA clones rarely found in other countries and probably originating from Africa or the Indian subcontinent. The results of microarray hybridisations showed that the distribution of resistance genes and other virulence factors was specific to each clone. Some characteristics could be exploited as specific markers for a clone or a group of isolates, e.g. the mer operon, recovered only in ACME-negative USA300 strains. DNA microarray contributed to a more complete description of the variety of different CA-MRSA clones circulating in Italy. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


PubMed | French National Reference Center for Staphylococci
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2013

Clonal complex 398 livestok-associated-MRSA (CC398 LA-MRSA) clone is described as a major animal pathogen that can also colonize and infect humans. CC398 methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (CC398 MSSA) is less described. We identified 126 CC398 MSSA strains of human origin within 6380 S. aureus isolates gathered between 2009 and 2011, from the French National Reference Centre for Staphylococci. They were characterized using antimicrobial susceptibility testing, spa typing, DNA microarrays (Identibac S. aureus Genotyping , Alere), CC398-specific sequence PCR, ermT (encoding macrolides rsistance) PCR. Fifty-three CC398 LA-MRSA collected from French pigs and veal were used as comparators, and phylogenetic relations between human CC398 MSSA and animal CC398 MRSA populations were explored on the basis of spa-typing and DNA microarrays. CC398 MSSA were able to induce a large spectrum of infections (especially skin, bloodstream, and pneumonias). The prevalence rate of this clone was high in MSSA population, i.e., 24.7% in a local prospective study on nasal colonization, and 7.5% in a national prospective study on infective endocarditis. CC398 MSSA isolates were frequently (89%) erythromycin resistant, due to the presence of the ermT gene, a gene not detected in erythromycin resistant CC398 LA-MRSA strains. Expression of staphylococcal complement inhibitor (scn) and the chemotaxis inhibitory protein (chp), was also specific to this population. The CC398 MRSA signature included also a panel of antibiotic resistance genes, especially a type IV or V cassette mec and tetM. CC398 MSSA and CC398 LA-MRSA populations were closely related based on spa-typing and DNA microarrays, with the MRSA strains forming the most derived lineage in phylogenic trees. Both MSSA and MRSA populations may come from common ancestors, which would have evolved in the settings of different selective pressures, explaining the acquisition of ermT, chp and scn for MSSA, and antibiotic resistance genes for MRSA.

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