French Livestock Institute

Le Touquet – Paris-Plage, France

French Livestock Institute

Le Touquet – Paris-Plage, France
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Relun A.,French Livestock Institute | Relun A.,College of the Atlantic | Relun A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Guatteo R.,College of the Atlantic | And 5 more authors.
Animal | Year: 2013

This study aimed to catalogue the digital dermatitis (DD) treatment practices used by French dairy farmers and to identify the motivators and barriers to the adoption of these treatments. A semi-structured survey was conducted involving 65 farmers in the main dairy production areas of France in the spring of 2009. The different treatment modalities implemented by farmers since the first diagnosis of DD in their herds were described. The reasons for adopting or abandoning these treatments were then investigated based on criteria of perceived effectiveness, labour, time, cost and toxicity related to their use. For individual treatments, farmers used 30 different products, applied through three different routes, for 1 to 21 consecutive days. For collective treatments, farmers used 31 products, applied through four different routes, at a rate ranging from once a day to once a year. Several products, especially antibiotics, were used without observing the manufacturer's instructions. The principal criteria for the adoption of a treatment was the perceived effectiveness in healing DD lesions and in limiting recurrence, while the principal barriers to adopting a treatment were the time and labour required for its application, followed by cost. Topical oxytetracycline treatments applied individually were used and adopted the most. They were perceived to be effective in healing DD lesions. However, these treatments were judged labour and time consuming, particularly when many animals had to be treated. Collective treatments combining formalin and copper sulphate often were applied topically using walk-though footbaths. These treatments often were judged to be insufficiently effective in healing DD lesions, difficult to implement, labour and time consuming and costly. The plethora of DD treatment practices and the misuse of some treatments could suggest that there is a lack of guidelines available to farmers on the optimal use and expected effectiveness of treatments. Clinical trials should be conducted to develop recommendations based on scientific rather than empirical data, and to identify the DD control measures which consume the least amount of time and labour. © 2013 The Animal Consortium.


Relun A.,French Livestock Institute | Relun A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Relun A.,University of Nantes | Lehebel A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2013

The objective of this study was to estimate the association between digital dermatitis (DD) lesions and test-day milk yield (TDY) in dairy cows, taking into account the severity of the lesions. Data were collected for 6 mo on 47 French dairy farms endemically affected by DD and involved in a clinical trial aiming to assess the effectiveness of collective treatments against DD. The hind feet of all lactating cows were scored for DD by 14 trained investigators on a monthly basis using a 4-point M-stage scoring system (M0 to M4, M standing for Mortellaro). The DD status was defined in 3 categories at the animal level: no DD [scores of M0 and (or) M4 on both feet], moderate case (score of M1 on 1 or both feet and no M2 score), and severe case (score of M2 on 1 or both feet). All monthly TDY in the lactation were collected. The final complete data set included 7,599 TDY of 1,782 Holstein cows from 41 herds. The effect of DD lesions on the following TDY (i.e., within 30. d after detection of a DD lesion) was analyzed separately for primiparous and multiparous cows, using mixed-models ANOVA, with TDY as repeated measures. During the trial, 38% of the primiparous and 41% of the multiparous cows were observed at least once with a DD lesion (moderate or severe case), the cows being observed with a DD lesion, on average, for 2 consecutive visits. Milk yield decreased significantly for cows diagnosed with a DD lesion. Primiparous cows produced, on average, 0.63. kg/d less when DD was moderate and 0.50. kg/d less when the disease was severe, compared with unaffected cows. Multiparous cows produced, on average, 0.50. kg/d less when DD was moderate and 0.75. kg/d less when the disease was severe, compared with unaffected cows. These results confirm that DD lesions have a significant effect on the milk yield of dairy cows, including when animals are rigorously treated. Milk yield losses, thus, should be considered when evaluating the costs and benefits of DD control programs. © 2013 American Dairy Science Association.


Relun A.,French Livestock Institute | Relun A.,University of Health Sciences | Relun A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Lehebel A.,University of Health Sciences | And 7 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2013

The purpose of this study was to concurrently estimate the effect of different digital dermatitis (DD) treatment regimens and herd management practices on the occurrence of a new DD lesion. A controlled clinical trial was conducted and involved 4678 dairy cows from 52 French dairy farms where DD was endemic. Farms were allocated by minimisation to one of 4 treatment regimens, varying through the mode (footbath or collective spraying) and the frequency of application (2 days every 4 weeks or fortnightly). They were visited 7 times every 4 weeks by 14 trained investigators. Frailty Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the relative effect of potential risk factors and treatment practices on the time until the first occurrence of a DD lesion. At herd level, high initial DD prevalence strongly increased the risk for DD occurrence (HR = 1.93, CI 1.23-3.04), as well as absence of hoof-trimming (HR = 1.75, CI 1.36-2.27) and poor leg cleanliness (HR = 2.44, CI 1.80-3.31). At animal level, Holstein breed (HR = 1.92, CI 1.35-3.57) and high-productive cows (HR = 1.26, CI 1.01-1.56) were identified to be at higher risk for DD compared to Normande breed and low-productive cows, respectively. Compared to individual topical antibiotic treatments alone, collective treatments tended to decrease the risk of DD occurrence only when applied over 2 days at least every fortnight (HR range = 0.64-0.73). © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Relun A.,UMT Cattle Herd Health Control | Relun A.,French Livestock Institute | Relun A.,University of Nantes | Relun A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2012

A controlled field trial was conducted to evaluate in dairy cattle the benefit provided by different regimens of a collective topical treatment using a solution of copper and zinc chelates to cure digital dermatitis (DD) compared with individual treatment alone, and further to investigate factors that could explain variations in the clinical cure of DD lesions over 6. mo. The study was conducted between November 2009 and October 2010 and involved 4,677 dairy cows from 52 French dairy farms on which DD was endemic. The farms were quasi-randomly allocated to 1 of 4 treatment regimens for 6. mo: no collective treatment (control), walk-through footbath during 4 consecutive milkings every 4 wk (FB/4W) or every 2 wk (FB/2W) and collective spraying during 2 milkings every 2 wk (CS/2W). For ethical and welfare reasons, all farmers also had to treat all detected active DD lesions with individual topical spraying of oxytetracycline. Digital dermatitis and leg hygiene were scored on all lactating cows during milking 7 times every 4 wk by 14 trained investigators. During these farm visits, data related to farm management were also collected. The curative effectiveness of collective treatments was assessed through a Cox survival frailty model as the probability of cure of an active DD lesion during at least 2 consecutive visits. The model was adjusted for farm and cow risk factors as well as initial DD prevalence. Monthly DD cure rates were 58, 55, 76, and 76% in the control, FB/4W, FB/2W, and CS/2W regimens, respectively. The spontaneous monthly cure rate for untreated active DD lesions was 61%. Hazard of cure of DD was increased by 1.28 and 1.41 when walk-through footbath and collective spraying, respectively, were applied over 2 d every 2 wk compared with the control regimen. Applying a walk-through footbath 2 d every 4 wk was not sufficient to improve the cure of DD compared with individual treatments alone. Three main factors were identified as speeding DD healing: cleanliness of the feet, initial small size of the DD lesion, and additional individual topical treatment. Grazing tended to speed DD healing. These results highlight the need of combining several control measures, including individual and collective topical treatments, and improving foot hygiene and the early detection of DD lesions to ensure a high cure rate and rapid curing of digital dermatitis on endemically affected farms. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association.


Ravinet N.,French Livestock Institute | Ravinet N.,College of the Atlantic | Ravinet N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Chartier C.,College of the Atlantic | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infection can impair milk production (MP) in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1) the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2) herd and individual indicators associated with the post-Treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows) in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR), faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM) Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers' grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months) with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd). Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average). This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This posttreatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, nonpersistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season. © 2016 Ravinet et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in anymedium, provided the original author and source are credited.


PubMed | French National Institute for Agricultural Research, College of the Atlantic and French Livestock Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infection can impair milk production (MP) in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1) the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2) herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows) in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR), faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM) Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months) with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd). Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average). This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season.

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