Grelet C.,Walloon Agricultural Research Center |
Bastin C.,University of Liege |
Gele M.,French Livestock Institute IDELE |
Daviere J.-B.,CLASEL |
And 9 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2016
To manage negative energy balance and ketosis in dairy farms, rapid and cost-effective detection is needed. Among the milk biomarkers that could be useful for this purpose, acetone and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) have been proved as molecules of interest regarding ketosis and citrate was recently identified as an early indicator of negative energy balance. Because Fourier transform mid-infrared spectrometry can provide rapid and cost-effective predictions of milk composition, the objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of this technology to predict these biomarkers in milk. Milk samples were collected in commercial and experimental farms in Luxembourg, France, and Germany. Acetone, BHB, and citrate contents were determined by flow injection analysis. Milk mid-infrared spectra were recorded and standardized for all samples. After edits, a total of 548 samples were used in the calibration and validation data sets for acetone, 558 for BHB, and 506 for citrate. Acetone content ranged from 0.020 to 3.355 mmol/L with an average of 0.103 mmol/L; BHB content ranged from 0.045 to 1.596 mmol/L with an average of 0.215 mmol/L; and citrate content ranged from 3.88 to 16.12 mmol/L with an average of 9.04 mmol/L. Acetone and BHB contents were log-transformed and a part of the samples with low values was randomly excluded to approach a normal distribution. The 3 edited data sets were then randomly divided into a calibration data set (3/4 of the samples) and a validation data set (1/4 of the samples). Prediction equations were developed using partial least square regression. The coefficient of determination (R2) of cross-validation was 0.73 for acetone, 0.71 for BHB, and 0.90 for citrate with root mean square error of 0.248, 0.109, and 0.70 mmol/L, respectively. Finally, the external validation was performed and R2 obtained were 0.67 for acetone, 0.63 for BHB, and 0.86 for citrate, with respective root mean square error of validation of 0.196, 0.083, and 0.76 mmol/L. Although the practical usefulness of the equations developed should be further verified with other field data, results from this study demonstrated the potential of Fourier transform mid-infrared spectrometry to predict citrate content with good accuracy and to supply indicative contents of BHB and acetone in milk, thereby providing rapid and cost-effective tools to manage ketosis and negative energy balance in dairy farms. © 2016 American Dairy Science Association.