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Saint-Maurice-la-Clouère, France

Chevrier C.,University of Rennes 1 | Warembourg C.,University of Rennes 1 | Monfort C.,University of Rennes 1 | Guldner L.,French Institute for Public Health Surveillance InVS | Cordier S.,University of Rennes 1
Epidemiology | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: People in developed countries are widely exposed to low levels of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Seafood is a major contributor to PCB exposure. Toxicity of those various pollutants to reproductive and endocrine functions raises questions about possible effects on fertility. We explored whether serum levels of these pollutants and seafood consumption were associated with the fertility of couples enrolled in a French birth cohort (PELAGIE). METHODS: Time-to-pregnancy was investigated in 3,421 pregnant women by asking how many months they had taken to conceive. Levels of 14 organochlorine pesticides, 12 PCBs, and 10 PBDE compounds were measured in cord blood serum from a random subcohort (n = 394). Mercury concentrations measured in maternal hair were considered as a potential coexposure. Fecundability odds ratios (ORs) were estimated from multivariate discrete-time Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: Shellfish consumption was associated with longer time-to-pregnancy (fecundability OR ≥twice/week vs. 0.410 μg/L vs. <0.266 μg/L, fecundability OR = 0.46 [0.32-0.66]). In multiple sensitivity analyses, reduced fecundability was most consistently associated with shellfish consumption, p,p'-DDE, total PCBs, PCB153, and PCB187. Models that simultaneously included multiple coexposure factors led to similar conclusions. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings were robust in sensitivity analyses, including analysis restricted to primiparous women. These results suggest that PCBs, p,p'-DDE, and other shellfish contaminants may impair human fertility. Copyright © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Gharbi M.,French National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts | Gharbi M.,Institute Pasteur Of Guadeloupe | Quenel P.,Regional Office of the French Institute for Public Health Surveillance | Cassadou S.,Regional Office of the French Institute for Public Health Surveillance | And 4 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

Background: During the last decades, dengue viruses have spread throughout the Americas region, with an increase in the number of severe forms of dengue. The surveillance system in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) is currently operational for the detection of early outbreaks of dengue. The goal of the study was to improve this surveillance system by assessing a modelling tool to predict the occurrence of dengue epidemics few months ahead and thus to help an efficient dengue control.Methods: The Box-Jenkins approach allowed us to fit a Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) model of dengue incidence from 2000 to 2006 using clinical suspected cases. Then, this model was used for calculating dengue incidence for the year 2007 compared with observed data, using three different approaches: 1 year-ahead, 3 months-ahead and 1 month-ahead. Finally, we assessed the impact of meteorological variables (rainfall, temperature and relative humidity) on the prediction of dengue incidence and outbreaks, incorporating them in the model fitting the best.Results: The 3 months-ahead approach was the most appropriate for an effective and operational public health response, and the most accurate (Root Mean Square Error, RMSE = 0.85). Relative humidity at lag-7 weeks, minimum temperature at lag-5 weeks and average temperature at lag-11 weeks were variables the most positively correlated to dengue incidence in Guadeloupe, meanwhile rainfall was not. The predictive power of SARIMA models was enhanced by the inclusion of climatic variables as external regressors to forecast the year 2007. Temperature significantly affected the model for better dengue incidence forecasting (p-value = 0.03 for minimum temperature lag-5, p-value = 0.02 for average temperature lag-11) but not humidity. Minimum temperature at lag-5 weeks was the best climatic variable for predicting dengue outbreaks (RMSE = 0.72).Conclusion: Temperature improves dengue outbreaks forecasts better than humidity and rainfall. SARIMA models using climatic data as independent variables could be easily incorporated into an early (3 months-ahead) and reliably monitoring system of dengue outbreaks. This approach which is practicable for a surveillance system has public health implications in helping the prediction of dengue epidemic and therefore the timely appropriate and efficient implementation of prevention activities. © 2011 Gharbi et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Motreff Y.,French Institute for Public Health Surveillance InVS
Prehospital and disaster medicine | Year: 2013

During the night of February 27 and the early morning of February 28, 2010, 15 coastal municipalities situated in two French departments, Vendée and Charente-Maritime, were violently stricken by a severe windstorm named "Xynthia." This storm caused the death of 12 individuals in Charente-Maritime and 29 people in Vendée. Houses, agricultural fields, and shellfish companies were severely flooded with seawater. Several thousand people temporarily had to leave their homes. The objective of this study was to estimate the short-term mental health impact of Xynthia, in terms of psychotropic drug delivery, on the resident population of the 15 coastal municipalities severely hit by the flooding. The French national health insurance database was used to calculate a daily number of new psychotropic treatments from September 1, 2008 through December 24, 2010. New treatments were calculated for each of the following European Pharmaceutical Marketing Research Association (EphMRA) classes: tranquilizers (N05C), hypnotics (N05B), and antidepressants (N06A). A period of three weeks following the storm was defined as the exposure period. A generalized additive model with a Poisson distribution that allows for over-dispersion was used to analyze the correlation between the Xynthia variable and the number of new psychotropic treatments. With a relative risk (RR) of 1.54 (95% CI, 1.39-1.62) corresponding to an estimate of 409 new deliveries of psychotropic drugs during the three weeks following the storm, this study confirms the importance of the psychological impact of Xynthia. This impact is seen on all three classes of psychotropic drugs studied. The impact is greater for tranquilizers (RR of 1.78; 95% CI, 1.59-1.89) than for hypnotics (RR of 1.53; 95% CI, 1.31-1.67) and antidepressants (RR of 1.26; 95% CI, 1.06-1.40). The RR was higher for females than for males. This study shows the importance of the psychological impact of the storm as observed clinically by health workers who intervened in the field during the aftermath of Xynthia. It confirms that administrative databases can be used to show a health impact of a disaster even at a local level. This is one more step in the direction of a comprehensive strategy of collecting information to allow the assessment of the health impact of an extreme event, the detection of vulnerable populations, and the orientation of the short-, mid- and long-term public health response. Source

Hanninen O.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare | Knol A.B.,National Institute of Public Health and the Environment RIVM | Jantunen M.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare | Lim T.-A.,French Institute for Public Health Surveillance InVS | And 11 more authors.
Environmental Health Perspectives | Year: 2014

Background: Environmental health effects vary considerably with regard to their severity, type of disease, and duration. Integrated measures of population health, such as environmental burden of disease (EBD), are useful for setting priorities in environmental health policies and research. This review is a summary of the full Environmental Burden of Disease in European countries (EBoDE) project report. Objectives: The EBoDE project was set up to provide assessments for nine environmental risk factors relevant in selected European countries (Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands). Methods: Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were estimated for benzene, dioxins, secondhand smoke, formaldehyde, lead, traffic noise, ozone, particulate matter (PM2.5), and radon, using primarily World Health Organization data on burden of disease, (inter)national exposure data, and epidemiological or toxicological risk estimates. Results are presented here without discounting or age-weighting. Results: About 3-7% of the annual burden of disease in the participating countries is associated with the included environmental risk factors. Airborne particulate matter (diameter ≤ 2.5 μm; PM2.5) is the leading risk factor associated with 6,000-10,000 DALYs/year and 1 million people. Secondhand smoke, traffic noise (including road, rail, and air traffic noise), and radon had overlapping estimate ranges (600-1,200 DALYs/million people). Some of the EBD estimates, especially for dioxins and formaldehyde, contain substantial uncertainties that could be only partly quantified. However, overall ranking of the estimates seems relatively robust. Conclusions: With current methods and data, environmental burden of disease estimates support meaningful policy evaluation and resource allocation, including identification of susceptible groups and targets for efficient exposure reduction. International exposure monitoring standards would enhance data quality and improve comparability. Source

Santin G.,French Institute for Public Health Surveillance InVS | Imbernon E.,French Institute for Public Health Surveillance InVS | Goldberg M.,French Institute for Public Health Surveillance InVS | Goldberg M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research
Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology | Year: 2010

Introduction: The aim of this study is to describe the associations between depressive symptoms and some working conditions according to broad occupational categories in France. Methods: These data came from the decennial health survey conducted in 2003 in France by the National Institute for Statistics and Economics Studies (6,082 men, 5,521 women). The data collected included: depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale), psychosocial factors at work and potential confounding factors. Results: Associations between psychosocial work factors and depressive symptoms varied, according to occupational category and sex. Time pressure was significantly associated with depressive symptoms in the less advantaged occupational categories. The lack of job control was associated with depressive symptoms only in managers and associate professionals and technicians. Only low social support was systematically associated with depressive symptoms, regardless of occupational category. Conclusion: These results should be taken into account to adapt strategies of mental health disorders prevention at work, for a better efficacy. © 2009 Springer-Verlag. Source

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