Maisons-Alfort, France
Maisons-Alfort, France

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Cerf O.,National Veterinary School of Alfort | Carpentier B.,French Food Safety Agency AFSSA | Sanders P.,French Food Safety Agency AFSSA
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2010

There are concerns that more extensive application of disinfectants in the food industry could result in increased resistance of bacteria to antibiotics and that therapeutic failure could ensue. This paper highlights the differences in application and mode of action between antibiotics in human or animal medicine and disinfectants in the food industry. It describes the completely different methods used to determine in-use concentrations in the two contexts. It points out that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is never the concentration at which disinfectants should be applied. It also discusses erroneous conclusions that may be drawn when the failure of therapy or disinfection is attributed to intrinsic properties of the molecules rather than to misuse of antibiotics or disinfectants. The paper suggests that the intended meaning of the word "resistance" be carefully defined in scientific articles with due reference to the measurement mentioned in the abstract and possibly reflected in the title. It also suggests that in matters of disinfection the word "resistance" be preferred when the phenomenon being studied is killing and "tolerance" when it is the adaptation to inhibitory concentrations. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Guldner L.,University of Rennes 1 | Guldner L.,National Institute of Public Health Surveillance InVS | Multigner L.,University of Rennes 1 | Heraud F.,French Food Safety Agency AFSSA | And 6 more authors.
Environmental Research | Year: 2010

Context: Chlordecone, an environmentally persistent organochlorine insecticide used intensively in banana culture in the French West Indies until 1993, has permanently polluted soils and contaminated foodstuffs. Consumption of contaminated food is the main source of exposure nowadays. We sought to identify main contributors to blood chlordecone concentration (BCC) and to validate an exposure indicator based on food intakes. Material and methods: We used a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) completed by a sample of 194 pregnant women to estimate their dietary exposure to chlordecone and compared it to blood levels. In a first approach, chlordecone daily intake was estimated as the product of daily eaten quantity of 214 foodstuffs, multiplied by their chlordecone content, and summed over all items. We then predicted individual blood chlordecone concentration with empirical weight regression models based on frequency of food consumption, and without contamination data. Results: Among the 191 subjects who had BCC determination, 146 (76%) had detectable values and mean BCC was 0.86 ng/mL (range < LOD-13.2). Mean per capita dietary intake of chlordecone was estimated at 3.3 μg/day (range: 0.1-22.2). Blood chlordecone levels were significantly correlated with food exposure predicted from the empirical weight models (r=0.47, p<0.0001) and, to a lesser extent, with chlordecone intake estimated from food consumption and food contamination data (r=0.20, p=0.007). Main contributors to chlordecone exposure included seafood, root vegetables, and Cucurbitaceous. Conclusion: These results show that the Timoun FFQ provides valid estimates of chlordecone exposure. Estimates from empirical weight models correlated better with blood levels of chlordecone than did estimates from the dietary intake assessment. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Lioret S.,French Food Safety Agency Afssa | Dubuisson C.,French Food Safety Agency Afssa | Dufour A.,French Food Safety Agency Afssa | Touvier M.,French Food Safety Agency Afssa | And 4 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2010

The objectives of the present study were to assess the intake of different food groups in French children aged 3-17 years (n 1455), and to analyse trends since a dietary survey undertaken 8 years ago. Dietary intake was evaluated using data from the 2006-7 cross-sectional INCA2 national dietary survey (étude Individuelle Nationale sur les Consommations Alimentaires), based on a 7d food record. Dietary intake (percentage of subjects consuming the food group and amount eaten) was assessed for thirty-nine food categories. We observed variations in food consumption by age, sex, North-South regional gradient, seasonal period and educational level of the responding parent. Trends in dietary intake between 1999 and 2007 were determined by comparing the INCA1 (n 1126) and the INCA2 surveys. Both surveys had been carried out using the same methodology. The findings showed a decrease in energy intake in children aged 3-14 years, due to a reduction in the consumption of foods of animal origin and sweetened products. In adolescents aged 15-17 years, energy intake remained rather stable; during this 8-year period, the consumption of meat decreased, whereas the consumption of savoury snacks such as sandwiches and hamburgers significantly increased. These trends occurred during a time of growing concern about overweight and the associated co-morbidities in France. A number of public health measures were implemented over this period to improve dietary habits and physical activity patterns in children and adults. The periodic monitoring of dietary patterns through the INCA surveys is an essential part of the surveillance network in France.


Khokhar S.,University of Leeds | Marletta L.,National Institute for Research on Food and Nutrition | Shahar D.R.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Farre R.,University of Barcelona | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2010

Background:Reliable data on the composition of foods is needed to better understand individual diets, measure nutrient intakes and provide nutritional guidance for improving the health of the populations. Ethnic foods are becoming increasingly popular among all European consumers, and are the main source of nutrients in the diets of ethnic groups. However, there is limited information on the nutrient composition of ethnic foods in Europe. The objective of this study therefore was to generate new and reliable data on ethnic foods using harmonised methods for chemical analyses.Methods:New data on 128 ethnic foods were generated for inclusion in the national databases within the European Food Information Resource Network of Excellence through participants from France, Israel, Spain, Denmark, Italy, The Netherlands, Belgium and the United Kingdom. In each selected country, the list of prioritised foods and key nutrients, methods of analyses and quality assurance procedure were harmonised.Results:This paper presents the nutrient composition of 40 ethnic foods consumed in Europe. The nutrient composition of the foods varied widely because of the nature and variety of foods analysed, with energy content (kcal) ranging between 24 (biteku-teku, Blegium) and 495 (nachos, Italy) per 100 g of edible food. Polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids were generally higher in most ethnic foods consumed in Italy and Spain compared with ethnic foods of other countries.Conclusions:The new data were scrutinised and fully documented for inclusion in the national food composition databases. The data will aid effective diet and disease interventions, and enhance the provision of dietary advice, in all European consumers. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.


Wheelhouse N.,Moredun Research Institute | Aitchison K.,Moredun Research Institute | Laroucau K.,French Food Safety Agency AFSSA | Thomson J.,Scottish Agricultural College | Longbottom D.,Moredun Research Institute
Vaccine | Year: 2010

Chlamydophila abortus, the agent of ovine enzootic abortion (OEA), is a major cause of lamb mortality worldwide. Disease can be controlled through the use of vaccines based on the 1B temperature-sensitive mutant strain of . C. abortus. This study investigated suspected OEA cases across Scotland for the presence of the 1B strain by analysis of recently identified unique point mutations (9). Thirty-five cases were . C. abortus-positive and 14 came from vaccinated flocks. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms by PCR-RFLP and sequence analysis revealed the presence of point mutations consistent with the presence of the 1B vaccine strain in 5 of these 14 samples. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed comparable numbers of genome copies of the 1B strain in infected placentas to those present following wild-type infection. This study is the first to demonstrate the presence of the 1B vaccine strain in the placentas of OEA cases and suggests a probable causal role in the disease. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Ribiere M.,French Food Safety Agency AFSSA | Olivier V.,UMR PISC 1272 | Blanchard P.,French Food Safety Agency AFSSA
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology | Year: 2010

Chronic bee paralysis which was called Paralysis is a rather unusual disease caused by a rather unusual virus. In this review, we explore current knowledge of the disease and its etiological agent. Paralysis is the only common viral disease of adult bees whose symptoms include both behavioural and physiological modifications: trembling and hair loss. The disease often affects the strong colonies of an apiary and thousands of dead individuals are then observed in front of the hives. Two sets of symptoms have traditionally been described in the existing literature, but nowadays we can define a general syndrome. The morphology of the Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) particles and the multipartite organisation of the RNA genome are exceptional, as most honey bee viruses are picorna-like viruses belonging to the Iflavirus and Cripavirus genera with symmetric particles and monopartite positive, single-strand RNA genomes. CBPV is currently classified as an RNA virus but is not included in any family or genus. Although it shares several characteristics with viruses in the Nodaviridae and Tombusviridae families, it differs from previously known viruses according to the various demarcation criteria defined by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Thus, it should be considered as the type species of a new group of positive-strand RNA viruses. The recent sequencing of the complete CBPV genome has opened the way for phylogenetic studies and development of new molecular tools able to detect variable isolates and to quantify genomic loads. This article considers the results of such recent detection tests but also previous studies including: (i) the distribution of CBPV infection within the bees and the hive, (ii) the way the virus spreads and its persistence in the colony environment, and (iii) geographical and seasonal distribution and impact of CBPV infections. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Merel S.,EHESP School of Public Health | Clement M.,EHESP School of Public Health | Mourot A.,French Food Safety Agency AFSSA | Fessard V.,French Food Safety Agency AFSSA | Thomas O.,EHESP School of Public Health
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2010

In temperate countries, the occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms threatens drinking water resources. Consequently, cyanotoxins are increasingly considered in water treatment, and their reactions with chlorine used to disinfect drinking water are particularly investigated. This study presents new elements for further understanding of cylindrospermopsin chlorination, through reactants and by-products monitoring, UV spectrum examination, and cytotoxicity assessment on human intestinal Caco-2 cells. On the one hand, the evolution of mixture UV spectrum indicated that cylindrospermopsin was quickly transformed at least into one intermediate by-product. While mass spectrometry experiments confirmed that cylindrospermopsin was almost totally transformed within 5min, chlorine was consumed up to 20min after the beginning of the reaction with a rate of 5 mol per mol of toxin. Then, LC-MS analysis gave rise to the formation of a third cylindrospermopsin by-product in addition to 5-chloro-cylindrospermopsin and cylindrospermopsic acid previously identified. Thanks to the accurate mass measurement provided by the LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer, this new and stable chlorination by-product was assigned the chemical formula C13H18N4O7S. On the other hand, both of the mitochondrial and lysosomal activities measured on Caco-2 cells revealed that cylindrospermopsin chlorination significantly decreases mixture cytotoxicity. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Faurez F.,French Food Safety Agency Afssa | Dory D.,French Food Safety Agency Afssa | Le Moigne V.,French Food Safety Agency Afssa | Gravier R.,French Food Safety Agency Afssa | Jestin A.,French Food Safety Agency Afssa
Vaccine | Year: 2010

DNA vaccination has been widely studied to develop new, alternative, efficient and safe vaccines for humans and animals. Many efforts have been made to increase the immunising potential of these vaccines and three veterinary vaccines are now available on the market. Much work is also being dedicated to develop effective DNA vaccines for humans. However, this new vaccination technique raises issues concerning biosafety due to the nature of the vector, i.e. a DNA molecule that contains sequences of prokaryotic origin (e.g. genes for antibiotic resistance). This review describes the development of the new generation of DNA vectors that are partially or completely devoid of elements of prokaryotic origin and outlines the results of studies on the fate of plasmids after their injection in vivo. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Fillol F.,French Food Safety Agency Afssa | Dubuisson C.,French Food Safety Agency Afssa | Lafay L.,French Food Safety Agency Afssa | Dufour A.,French Food Safety Agency Afssa | And 5 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2011

The objective was to study the multidimensional nature of the relationship between adult obesity (OB) and socio-economic status (SES), using comprehensive indices of SES taken separately or synthesised in an overall index. A nationally representative sample of adults aged 18 79 years was taken from the French second National Individual Survey on Food Consumption (INCA 2) dietary survey (2006 07). Weight and height were measured and OB defined as BMI 30 kg/m 2. SES variables were reported in questionnaires and included occupation, education and characteristics of household wealth. Composite indices of SES (household wealth and overall SES indices) were computed by correspondence analysis, and relationships with OB were investigated with logistic regression analysis. In total, 11•8 (95 % CI 10•1, 13•4) % of French adults were obese, without significant difference by sex. While no significant relationship was observed in men, all SES indicators were inversely correlated to OB in women. Both education and the household wealth index were retained in the stepwise multivariate model, confirming that different socio-economic variables are not necessarily proxies of each other regarding the OB issue. On the other hand, controlling for SES while including several measures of SES in multivariate models may lead to collinearity, and thus over-adjustment. A more integrative approach may be to derive a synthetic index by including the SES factors available in a given study. Beyond this methodological perspective, understanding how OB is related to the different dimensions of SES should help to target the more vulnerable groups and increase the effectiveness of prevention. © 2011 The Authors.


Dubuisson C.,French Food Safety Agency AFSSA | Lioret S.,French Food Safety Agency AFSSA | Touvier M.,French Food Safety Agency AFSSA | Dufour A.,French Food Safety Agency AFSSA | And 3 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2010

Two independent cross-sectional dietary surveys (the Individual and National Food Consumption Surveys, INCA), performed in 1998-99 (INCA1) and in 2006-07 (INCA2) on nationally representative samples of French people, were used to analyse trends in the dietary habits and nutritional intake of French adults. Food consumption was recorded through 7-d dietary records, and nutritional intakes were assessed using the French food composition database. After exclusion of under-reporters, analyses were performed on 3267 adults, aged 18-79 years: 1345 from INCA1 and 1922 from INCA2. The trends highlighted over the 8-year period showed a decrease in consumption of dairy products, meat, bread, potatoes, pastries/croissant-like pastries/cakes/biscuits and sugar/confectionery. In contrast, the consumption of fruits and vegetables, rice, ice cream and chocolate increased. Other food groups, like fish and snacking foods, remained stable. Food choices were mostly age specific. These age differences remained consistent over the years and underlined two opposite dietary trends: a traditional one mainly followed by the elderly, and a snacking and convenience one mainly adopted by young adults. The overall trends in food consumption did not influence the mean energy intake, but did slightly modify the contribution of each macronutrient to energy intake. These repeated surveys highlighted the fact that trends in French food habits have moved towards an average European diet at the crossroads between Mediterranean and Northern diets, and that food consumption changes impacted, to a lesser extent, nutritional intake. Copyright © The Authors 2010.

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