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Sainte-Foy-lès-Lyon, France

Chevalier V.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Pepin M.,French Agency for Food Safety | Plee L.,French Agency for Food Safety | Lancelot R.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2010

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe mosquito-borne disease affecting humans and domestic ruminants, caused by a Phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae). It is widespread in Africa and has recently spread to Yemen and Saudi Arabia. RVF epidemics are more and more frequent in Africa and the Middle East, probably in relation with climatic changes (episodes of heavy rainfall in eastern and southern Africa), as well as intensified livestock trade. The probability of introduction and large-scale spread of RVF in Europe is very low, but localised RVF outbreaks may occur in humid areas with a large population of ruminants. Should this happen, human cases would probably occur in exposed individuals: farmers, veterinarians, slaughterhouse employees etc. Surveillance and diagnostic methods are available, but control tools are limited: vector control is difficult to implement, and vaccines are only available for ruminants, with either a limited efficacy (inactivated vaccines) or a residual pathogenic effect. The best strategy to protect Europe and the rest of the world against RVF is to develop more efficient surveillance and control tools and to implement coordinated regional monitoring and control programmes. Source


Lupo C.,French Agency for Food Safety | Le Bouquin S.,French Agency for Food Safety | Allain V.,French Agency for Food Safety | Balaine L.,French Agency for Food Safety | And 4 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2010

A field study was conducted to estimate the sanitary condemnation proportion in male turkey broiler flocks, to describe the reasons for condemnation and the related macroscopic lesions, and to investigate whether primary production information would predict the risk of condemnation. Male turkey standard broiler flocks (117) were randomly selected in the 13 slaughterhouses located in Western France, from February to July 2006. The flocks were monitored from their arrival at the slaughterhouse until the results of the post mortem sanitary inspection. Information about rearing conditions, health history, catching and loading conditions, transportation to the slaughterhouse and slaughtering was also collected. Sampling design was considered in the calculations and the condemnation proportion was modelled using a negative binomial regression, accounting for clustering within slaughterhouse. The within-flock weighted average condemnation proportion was 1.8% (95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.3%). Emaciation, arthritis-polyarthritis and congestion were the main reported official reasons for condemnation, representing 76% of the condemned carcases. Three variables were significantly associated with increased risk of condemnation: observed locomotor disorders on the farm, high cumulative mortality 2 weeks before slaughter, and clinical signs observed by the Veterinary Services during the ante mortem inspection at the slaughterhouse. The final model explained 35% of the total variation in condemnation risk. Half of this explained variation could be attributed to locomotor disorders observed during rearing. The sensitivity and specificity of the model to predict a high flock condemnation risk were 80% and 74%, respectively, when using an optimum threshold of 0.95% to define high risk. The results of this study suggested that the variables found to be associated with condemnation proportion were markers of increased risk and could be used as indicators. These risk indicators can easily be retrieved from the pre-existing regulatory document transmitted before flock arrival at the slaughterhouse and could be used to screen flocks before slaughter, according to their expected risk of condemnation. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Lupo C.,French Agency for Food Safety | Bougeard S.,French Agency for Food Safety | Balaine L.,French Agency for Food Safety | Michel V.,French Agency for Food Safety | And 4 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2010

An innovative and well-adapted statistical method, called multiblock redundancy analysis, is proposed for a complex health-event analysis to account for the thematic block organization of variables. The outcome block contained the condemnation rates of 404 broiler chicken flocks, distinguishing infectious and traumatic condemnation categories. Explanatory variables were organized in blocks related to the different production stages (farm structure and routine husbandry practices; on-farm flock history and characteristics; catching, transport and lairage conditions; slaughterhouse and inspection features). The aim was to determine risk factors for both condemnation categories, and the relative impact of the different production stages on the whole condemnation rate. Results showed that significant factors were either specific to one condemnation category or related to both categories, and each of the explanatory blocks was involved in the explanation of infectious and traumatic condemnation rates. On-farm flock information explained 40% of the overall condemnation process whereas the other explanatory blocks had similar relative impacts. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2009. Source


Botrel M.-A.,French Agency for Food Safety | Morignat E.,French Agency for Food Safety | Meunier D.,French Agency for Food Safety | Madec J.-Y.,French Agency for Food Safety | Calavas D.,French Agency for Food Safety
Zoonoses and Public Health | Year: 2010

Multiresistance is a critical issue. This study points out the usefulness of cluster analysis techniques to describe concisely the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacterial isolates in a way that could effectively help in generating hypotheses on multiresistance mechanisms. Data were selected from the French antimicrobial resistance survey network on veterinary pathogens (Resapath). They were related to 1545 Escherichia coli isolates, which were isolated from faecal samples of diarrhoeic calves in France between 2002 and 2006. Ten clusters of isolates displaying similar features in terms of resistance profile to 13 relevant antimicrobials were computed. The presence of two to ten simultaneous resistances was detected in nine out of the ten clusters. Looking at potential mechanistic interpretations, results may suggest genetic links between some resistance mechanisms, but this should be confirmed by molecular investigation of the corresponding isolates. Looking at therapeutical potential implications, the high level of resistance and multiresistance to several antimicrobials observed in E. coli makes a critical reassessment of empiric oral antimicrobial therapy in calves highly desirable. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source


Hue O.,French Agency for Food Safety | Le Bouquin S.,French Agency for Food Safety | Laisney M.-J.,French Agency for Food Safety | Allain V.,French Agency for Food Safety | And 10 more authors.
Food Microbiology | Year: 2010

A study was conducted in 2008 to estimate the prevalence and identify the risk factors for Campylobacter spp. contamination of broiler carcasses during the slaughtering process. A pool of 10 caeca and one carcass were collected from 425 batches of broiler chickens slaughtered in 58 French slaughterhouses over a 12-month period. Potential risk factors were identified according to the Campylobacter contamination status of carcasses and processing variables identified from questionnaires. The statistical analysis took into account confounding factors that have already been associated with the presence of Campylobacter on carcasses such as the slaughter age of the chicken or seasonal variations. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 77.2% of caeca (95% CI 73.2 to 81.2) and from 87.5% of carcasses (95% CI 84.4 to 90.7). A multiple logistic regression showed 4 parameters as significant risk factors (p < 0.05) for contamination: (I) batches were not the first to be slaughtered in the logistic schedule (OR = 3.5), (II) temperature in the evisceration room was higher than 15 °C (OR = 3.1), (III) dirty marks on carcasses after evisceration were visible (OR = 2.6) and (IV) previous thinning of the flocks, from which slaughtered batches came, had occurred at the farm (OR = 3.3). This last result highlighted the need for sanitary precautions to be taken when catching birds for transport. At the slaughterhouse, evisceration seemed to be the operation contributing most to the spread of contamination. Effective risk management solutions could include the systematic external rinsing of carcasses after evisceration and the implementation of slaughtering schedules according to the Campylobacter contamination status of flocks. © 2010. Source

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