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Chacon J.L.,University of Sao Paulo | Mizuma M.,University of Sao Paulo | Vejarano M.P.,University of Sao Paulo | Toquin D.,French Agency for Food Environmental and Occupational Health Safety Anses | And 4 more authors.
Avian Diseases | Year: 2011

Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) causes turkey rhinotracheitis and is associated with swollen head syndrome in chickens, which is usually accompanied by secondary infections that increase mortality. AMPVs circulating in Brazilian vaccinated and nonvaccinated commercial chicken and turkey farms were detected using a universal reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR assay that can detect the four recognized subtypes of AMPV. The AMPV status of 228 farms with respiratory and reproductive disturbances was investigated. AMPV was detected in broiler, hen, breeder, and turkey farms from six different geographic regions of Brazil. The detected viruses were subtyped using a nested RT-PCR assay and sequence analysis of the G gene. Only subtypes A and B were detected in both vaccinated and nonvaccinated farms. AMPV-A and AMPV-B were detected in 15 and 23 farms, respectively, while both subtypes were simultaneously found in one hen farm. Both vaccine and field viruses were detected in nonvaccinated farms. In five cases, the detected subtype was different than the vaccine subtype. Field subtype B virus was detected mainly during the final years of the survey period. These viruses showed high molecular similarity (more than 96% nucleotide similarity) among themselves and formed a unique phylogenetic group, suggesting that they may have originated from a common strain. These results demonstrate the cocirculation of subtypes A and B in Brazilian commercial farms. © 2011 American Association of Avian Pathologists. Source


Vorimore F.,French Agency for Food Environmental and Occupational Health Safety Anses | Cavanna N.,French Agency for Food Environmental and Occupational Health Safety Anses | Vicari N.,National Reference Laboratory for Animal Chlamydioses | Magnino S.,National Reference Laboratory for Animal Chlamydioses | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Microbiological Methods | Year: 2012

We describe a novel high-resolution melt assay that clearly differentiates Chlamydia abortus live vaccine strain 1B from field C. abortus strains and field wild-type isolates based on previously described single nucleotide polymorphisms. This modern genotyping technique is inexpensive, easy to use, and less time-consuming than PCR-RFLP. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.. Source


Carpentier B.,French Agency for Food Environmental and Occupational Health Safety Anses | Lagendijk E.,French Agency for Food Environmental and Occupational Health Safety Anses | Chassaing D.,French Agency for Food Environmental and Occupational Health Safety Anses | Rosset P.,French Agency for Food Environmental and Occupational Health Safety Anses | And 2 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2012

Our aim was to determine factors that have an impact on the bacterial load of inner surfaces of food refrigeration equipment to develop recommendations that should be made to consumers. We investigated 23 domestic refrigerators (DRs) and, for comparison, six serve-over counters (SOCs). Several zones were studied for aerobic mesophilic counts (AMC) presumptive Bacillus cereus and coagulase-positive staphylococci. In addition, for each DR sample, we collected data on the condition of the sampled surface and refrigeration practices. In DRs, there was no correlation between AMC and temperature, relative humidity, pH or cleaning frequency. AMC counts in SOCs, which are cleaned and disinfected weekly, were similar to the figures from the less frequently cleaned DRs, but B. cereus and coagulase-positive Staphylococus were less frequently found in SOCs. In DRs, the highest AMC counts were reached when both condensation and food traces were visible, i.e. when growth conditions were met, resulting in a mean of 10 4 CFU/cm 2 against of mean of 32 CFU/cm 2 on clean surfaces and dry surfaces with food traces. Consequently, two recommendations for consumers are (1) to avoid condensation and (2) to clean up food spills as soon as possible. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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