French Agency for Food Environmental and Occupational Health Safety Anses

Ploufragan, France

French Agency for Food Environmental and Occupational Health Safety Anses

Ploufragan, France
SEARCH FILTERS
Time filter
Source Type

Dommergues L.,National Veterinary School of Alfort | Rautureau S.,French agency for food Environmental and occupational health safety ANSES | Petit E.,FRGDS Bourgogne | Dufour B.,National Veterinary School of Alfort
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases | Year: 2012

France attained 'Officially Tuberculosis-Free' status in 2000. However, the Côte d'Or department (a French administrative unit) has since seen an increase in bovine tuberculosis (bTB) cases, with 35% of cases attributed to neighbourhood contamination. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of neighbourhood contacts in an area affected by bTB in 2010, through the use of social network methods. We carried out a survey to determine the frequency and distribution of between-herd contacts in an area containing 22 farms. Contacts were weighted, as not all types of contact carried the same risk of bTB transmission. Cattle movement was considered to be associated with the highest risk, but was not observed within the studied area during the study period. Contact with wild boars was the most frequent type of contact, but was associated with a very low risk. Direct cattle-to-cattle contacts in pasture and contacts with badger latrines were less frequent, but entailed a greater risk of M. bovis transmission. Centrality values were heterogeneous in these two networks. This would enable the disease to spread more rapidly at the start of epidemics than in a perfect randomly mixed population. However, this situation should also result in the total number of infected herds being smaller. We attributed 95% of the contacts to direct contact in pasture or contact with wild boars or badger latrines. Other kinds of contact occurred less frequently (equipment sharing, cattle straying) or did not occur at all (attendance at a show). Most of the contact types were correlated, but none was sufficient in itself to account for all contacts between one particular farm and its neighbours. Contacts with neighbours therefore represent a challenge for the implementation or improvement of control measures. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Rautureau S.,French Agency for Food Environmental and Occupational Health Safety ANSES | Dufour B.,National Veterinary School of Alfort | Durand B.,French Agency for Food Environmental and Occupational Health Safety ANSES
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases | Year: 2012

Rapid detection of infection is critical to the containment and control of contagious pathogens. Passive surveillance, based on the detection of clinical signs through farmers' observations and subsequent veterinarian notification, is the primary means of initially detecting an epizootic and for implementing control measures. The objective of this study was to analyse how the composition and structure of passive surveillance networks may impact epizootic spread and control. Three compositions of passive surveillance network were considered: (i) A veterinarian-based surveillance network composed of farmers and veterinarians (the common passive surveillance network where each veterinarian follows up a group of holdings), (ii) a farmer-based surveillance network composed of farmers only (the farmer plays the same role as in the preceding network as well as that of the veterinarian but his point of view is limited to his animals) and (iii) a hierarchical surveillance network composed of farmers, veterinarians and district-level veterinarian specialists (in case of doubt, the local veterinarian calls the specialist veterinarian). We compared the efficacy of these different network types where actors have successively a structurally wider perspective than the preceding ones using a specific stochastic model for the spread of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). The model was forced by actual data to generate realistic simulated FMD epizootics in France. Our results show that maintaining the presence of field veterinarians following-up several holdings in breeding areas is fundamental and adding veterinarian specialists to passive surveillance networks could greatly enhance surveillance network efficacy. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Vorimore F.,French Agency for Food Environmental and Occupational Health Safety Anses | Cavanna N.,French Agency for Food Environmental and Occupational Health Safety Anses | Vicari N.,Instituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dellEmilia Romagna Bruno Ubertini | Magnino S.,Instituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dellEmilia Romagna Bruno Ubertini | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Microbiological Methods | Year: 2012

We describe a novel high-resolution melt assay that clearly differentiates Chlamydia abortus live vaccine strain 1B from field C. abortus strains and field wild-type isolates based on previously described single nucleotide polymorphisms. This modern genotyping technique is inexpensive, easy to use, and less time-consuming than PCR-RFLP. © 2012 Elsevier B.V..


PubMed | French Agency for Food Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety Anses, University of Bath and University of Swansea
Type: | Journal: Applied and environmental microbiology | Year: 2017

Campylobacter is among the most common worldwide causes of bacterial gastroenteritis. This organism is part of the commensal microbiota of numerous host species, including livestock, and these animals constitute potential sources of human infection. Molecular typing approaches, especially multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), have been used to attribute the source of human campylobacteriosis by quantifying the relative abundance of alleles, at 7 MLST loci, among isolates from animal reservoirs and human infection, implicating chicken as a major infection source. The increasing availability of bacterial genomes provides data on allelic variation at loci across the genome, providing the potential to improve the discriminatory power of data for source attribution. Here we present a source attribution approach based on the identification of novel epidemiological markers among a reference pan-genome list of 1810 genes identified through gene-by-gene comparison of 884 genomes of C. jejuni isolates from animal reservoirs, the environment and clinical cases. Fifteen loci, involved in metabolic activities, protein modification, signal transduction and stress response, or coding for hypothetical proteins, were selected as host-segregating markers and used to attribute the source of 42 French and 281 UK clinical C. jejuni isolates. Consistent with previous studies of British campylobacteriosis, analyses performed using STRUCTURE software, attributed 56.8% of British clinical cases to chicken, emphasizing the importance of this host reservoir as an infection source in the UK. However, among French clinical isolates, approximately equal proportions of isolates were attributed to chicken and ruminant reservoirs suggesting possible differences in the relative importance of animal host reservoirs and indicating a benefit for further national-scale attribution modelling to account for differences in production, behaviour and food consumption.Accurately quantifying the relative contribution of different host reservoirs to human Campylobacter infection is an ongoing challenge. This study based on the development of a novel source attribution approach, provides the first results of source attribution in Campylobacter jejuni in France. A systematic analysis using gene-by-gene comparison of 884 genomes of C. jejuni isolates, with a pan-genome list of genes, identified 15 novel epidemiological markers for source attribution. The different proportions of French and UK clinical isolates attributed to each host reservoir illustrates a potential role for local/national variations in C. jejuni transmission dynamics.


Chacon J.L.,University of Sao Paulo | Mizuma M.,University of Sao Paulo | Vejarano M.P.,University of Sao Paulo | Toquin D.,French Agency for Food Environmental and Occupational Health Safety Anses | And 4 more authors.
Avian Diseases | Year: 2011

Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) causes turkey rhinotracheitis and is associated with swollen head syndrome in chickens, which is usually accompanied by secondary infections that increase mortality. AMPVs circulating in Brazilian vaccinated and nonvaccinated commercial chicken and turkey farms were detected using a universal reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR assay that can detect the four recognized subtypes of AMPV. The AMPV status of 228 farms with respiratory and reproductive disturbances was investigated. AMPV was detected in broiler, hen, breeder, and turkey farms from six different geographic regions of Brazil. The detected viruses were subtyped using a nested RT-PCR assay and sequence analysis of the G gene. Only subtypes A and B were detected in both vaccinated and nonvaccinated farms. AMPV-A and AMPV-B were detected in 15 and 23 farms, respectively, while both subtypes were simultaneously found in one hen farm. Both vaccine and field viruses were detected in nonvaccinated farms. In five cases, the detected subtype was different than the vaccine subtype. Field subtype B virus was detected mainly during the final years of the survey period. These viruses showed high molecular similarity (more than 96% nucleotide similarity) among themselves and formed a unique phylogenetic group, suggesting that they may have originated from a common strain. These results demonstrate the cocirculation of subtypes A and B in Brazilian commercial farms. © 2011 American Association of Avian Pathologists.


Carpentier B.,French Agency for Food Environmental and Occupational Health Safety ANSES | Lagendijk E.,French Agency for Food Environmental and Occupational Health Safety ANSES | Chassaing D.,French Agency for Food Environmental and Occupational Health Safety ANSES | Rosset P.,French Agency for Food Environmental and Occupational Health Safety ANSES | And 2 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2012

Our aim was to determine factors that have an impact on the bacterial load of inner surfaces of food refrigeration equipment to develop recommendations that should be made to consumers. We investigated 23 domestic refrigerators (DRs) and, for comparison, six serve-over counters (SOCs). Several zones were studied for aerobic mesophilic counts (AMC) presumptive Bacillus cereus and coagulase-positive staphylococci. In addition, for each DR sample, we collected data on the condition of the sampled surface and refrigeration practices. In DRs, there was no correlation between AMC and temperature, relative humidity, pH or cleaning frequency. AMC counts in SOCs, which are cleaned and disinfected weekly, were similar to the figures from the less frequently cleaned DRs, but B. cereus and coagulase-positive Staphylococus were less frequently found in SOCs. In DRs, the highest AMC counts were reached when both condensation and food traces were visible, i.e. when growth conditions were met, resulting in a mean of 10 4 CFU/cm 2 against of mean of 32 CFU/cm 2 on clean surfaces and dry surfaces with food traces. Consequently, two recommendations for consumers are (1) to avoid condensation and (2) to clean up food spills as soon as possible. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Loading French Agency for Food Environmental and Occupational Health Safety Anses collaborators
Loading French Agency for Food Environmental and Occupational Health Safety Anses collaborators