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Le Touquet – Paris-Plage, France

de Marsily G.,CNRS Transfers and Interactions in Hydrosystems and Soils | de Marsily G.,French Academy of science | Abarca-del-Rio R.,University of Concepcion
Surveys in Geophysics | Year: 2016

In 2000, the World population was 6.2 billion people; it reached 7 billion in 2012 and is expected to reach 9.5 billion (±0.4) in 2050 and 11 billion (±1.5) in 2100, according to the 2012 UN projections (Gerland et al. in Science 346:234–237, 2014). The trend after 2100 is still one of the global demographic growths, but after 2060, Africa is the only continent where the population would still increase. The amount of water consumed annually to produce the food necessary to meet the needs of the populations varies greatly between countries, from about 600 to 2500 m3/year per capita (Zimmer in L’empreinte eau. Les faces cachées d’une ressource vitale. Charles Léopold Meyer, Paris, 2013), depending on their wealth, their food habits, and the percentage of food waste they generate (on average, 30 % of the food produced is wasted). In 2000, the total food production was on the order of 3300 million tons (in cereal equivalents). In 2014, it is estimated that about 0.8 billion inhabitants of the planet suffer from hunger (FAO in World agriculture: towards 2030–2050. FAO, Rome, 2014. http://www.fao.org/docrep/004/Y3557E/y3557e00.HTM) and do not get the nutrition they need to be in good health or, in the case of children, to grow properly (both physically and intellectually). This food deficit was on the order of 40 million tons of cereal equivalents in 2014. The number of inhabitants with a food deficit was about 0.85 billion before the 2008 crisis and was decreasing annually, but it increased abruptly after 2008 up to 1 billion inhabitants and is slowly decreasing now. Assuming a World average water consumption for food of 1300 m3/year per capita in 2000, 1400 m3/year in 2050, and 1500 m3/year in 2100, a volume of water of around 8200 km3/year was needed in 2000, 13,000 km3/year will be needed in 2050, and 16,500 km3/year in 2100 (Marsily in L’eau, un trésor en partage. Dunod, Paris, 2009). Can bioenergy be added to food production? Will that much water be available on Earth, and where will it come from? Is climate change going to modify the answers to these questions? Can severe droughts occur? Can there be conflicts related to a food deficit? Some preliminary answers and scenarios for food production will be given in this paper from a hydrologist’s viewpoint. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Guillaumont R.,French Academy of science | Lipkowski J.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Petelenz B.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Vairon J.-P.,University Pierre and Marie Curie
Journal of Chemical Education | Year: 2013

The events organized for IYC 2011 were held in tandem with MSC100, that is, the joint French-Polish celebrations marking the centenary of the awarding of the Nobel Prize for Chemistry to Marie Skłodowska-Curie. These celebrations emphasized the traditional cultural bonds that exist between the two countries, the unique contribution of Marie and Pierre Curie to the development of science, and the beneficial role of Marie Skłodowska- Curie's discoveries. This communication summarizes one of the invited papers to the ConfChem online conference A Virtual Colloquium to Sustain and Celebrate IYC 2011 Initiatives in Global Chemical Education, held from May 18 to June 28, 2012, and jointly hosted by the ACS DivCHED Committee on Computers in Chemical Education and the IUPAC Committee on Chemistry Education. © 2013 The American Chemical Society and Division of Chemical Education, Inc. Source

Froger N.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Froger N.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Froger N.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Jammoul F.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 40 more authors.
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology | Year: 2013

Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are spiking neurons, which send visual information to the brain, through the optic nerve. RGC degeneration occurs in retinal diseases, either as a primary process or secondary to photoreceptor loss. Mechanisms involved in this neuronal degeneration are still unclear and no drugs directly targeting RGC neuroprotection are yet available. Here, we show that taurine is one factor involved in preserving the RGC survival. Indeed, a taurine depletion induced by the antiepileptic drug, vigabatrin, was incriminated in its retinal toxicity leading to the RGC loss. Similarly, we showed that RGC degeneration can be induced by pharmacologically blocking the taurine-transporter with the chronic administration of a selective inhibitor, which results in a decrease in the taurine levels both in the plasma and in the retinal tissue. Finally, we found that taurine can directly prevent RGC degeneration, occurring either in serum-deprived pure RGC cultures or in animal models presenting an RGC loss (glaucomatous rats and the P23H rats, a model for retinitis pigmentosa ). These data suggest that the retinal taurine level is a crucial marker to prevent RGC damage in major retinal diseases. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013. Source

Rosolen S.-G.,Reseau Europeen dOphtalmologie Veterinaire et de Vision Animale | Rosolen S.-G.,Voltaire | Rosolen S.-G.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Rosolen S.-G.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | And 19 more authors.
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology | Year: 2013

In the 70s, the amino acid taurine was found essential for photoreceptor survival. Recently, we found that taurine depletion can also trigger retinal ganglion cell degeneration both in vitro and in vivo . Therefore, evaluation of taurine levels could be a crucial biomarker for different pathologies of retinal ganglion cells such as glaucoma. Because different breeds of dog can develop glaucoma, we performed taurine measurements on plasma and aqueous humour samples from pet dogs. Here, we exposed results from a pilot study on normal selected breed of pet dogs, without any ocular pathology. Samples were collected by veterinarians who belong to the Réseau Européen d'Ophtalmologie Vétérinaire et de Vision Animale . Following measurements by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the averaged taurine concentration was 162.3 μ M in the plasma and 51.8 μ M in the aqueous humour. No correlation was observed between these two taurine concentrations, which exhibited a ratio close to 3. Further studies will determine if these taurine concentrations are changed in glaucomatous dogs. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013. Source

Froger N.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Froger N.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Froger N.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Moutsimilli L.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 35 more authors.
Progress in Retinal and Eye Research | Year: 2014

Taurine is the most abundant amino acid in the retina. In the 1970s, it was thought to be involved in retinal diseases with photoreceptor degeneration, because cats on a taurine-free diet presented photoreceptor loss. However, with the exception of its introduction into baby milk and parenteral nutrition, taurine has not yet been incorporated into any commercial treatment with the aim of slowing photoreceptor degeneration. Our recent discovery that taurine depletion is involved in the retinal toxicity of the antiepileptic drug vigabatrin has returned taurine to the limelight in the field of neuroprotection. However, although the retinal toxicity of vigabatrin principally involves a deleterious effect on photoreceptors, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are also affected. These findings led us to investigate the possible role of taurine depletion in retinal diseases with RGC degeneration, such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. The major antioxidant properties of taurine may influence disease processes. In addition, the efficacy of taurine is dependent on its uptake into retinal cells, microvascular endothelial cells and the retinal pigment epithelium. Disturbances of retinal vascular perfusion in these retinal diseases may therefore affect the retinal uptake of taurine, resulting in local depletion. The low plasma taurine concentrations observed in diabetic patients may further enhance such local decreases in taurine concentration. We here review the evidence for a role of taurine in retinal ganglion cell survival and studies suggesting that this compound may be involved in the pathophysiology of glaucoma or diabetic retinopathy. Along with other antioxidant molecules, taurine should therefore be seriously reconsidered as a potential treatment for such retinal diseases. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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