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San Juan Bautista, CA, United States

Jenniskens P.,Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute | Gural P.S.,Advanced Research Corp. | Dynneson L.,Fremont Peak Observatory Association | Grigsby B.J.,University of California at Santa Cruz | And 4 more authors.
Icarus | Year: 2011

First results are presented from a newly developed meteoroid orbit survey, called CAMS - Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance, which combines meteor detection algorithms for low-light video observations with traditional video surveillance tools. Sixty video cameras at three stations monitor the sky above 31° elevation. Goal of CAMS is to verify meteor showers in search of their parent comets among newly discovered near-Earth objects. This paper outlines the concept of operations, the hardware, and software methods used during operation and in the data reduction pipeline, and accompanies the data release of the first batch of meteoroid orbits. During the month of November 2010, 2169 precisely reduced meteoroid trajectories from 17 nights have an error in the apparent radiant of the trajectory <2° and error in speed <10%. Median values of the error are 0.31° and 0.53. km/s, respectively, sufficient to resolve the intrinsic dispersion of annual meteor showers and resolve minor showers from the sporadic background. The limiting visual magnitude of the cameras is +5.4, recording meteors of +4 magnitude and brighter, bright enough to stand out from the mostly fainter sporadic meteors detected as under dense radar echoes. CAMS readily detected all established showers (6) active during the clear nights in November. Of the showers that needed confirmation, we confirm the theta Aurigids (THA, IAU#390), the chi Taurids (CTA, IAU#388), and the omicron Eridanids (OER, IAU#338). We conclude that the iota November Aurigids (IAR, IAU#248) are in fact the combined activity of the theta Aurigids and chi Taurids, and this shower should be dismissed from the list. Finally, there is also a clustering consistent with the zeta Cancrids (ZCN, IAU#243), but we cannot exclude that this is lower perihelion dust belonging to the Orionid shower. Data are submitted to the IAU Meteor Data Center on a semi-regular basis, and can be accessed also at http://cams.seti.org. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source


Jenniskens P.,NASA | Nenon Q.,Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute | Gural P.S.,Leidos | Albers J.,Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute | And 6 more authors.
Icarus | Year: 2015

The Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS) video-based meteoroid orbit survey adds 60 newly identified showers to the IAU Working List of Meteor Showers (numbers 427, 445-446, 506-507, and part of 643-750). 28 of these are also detected in the independent SonotaCo survey. In total, 230 meteor showers and shower components are identified in CAMS data, 177 of which are detected in at least two independent surveys. From the power-law size frequency distribution of detected showers, we extrapolate that 36% of all CAMS-observed meteors originated from ∼700 showers above the N =1 per 110,000 shower limit. 71% of mass falling to Earth from streams arrives on Jupiter-family type orbits. The transient Geminids account for another 15%. All meteoroids not assigned to streams form a sporadic background with highest detected numbers from the apex source, but with 98% of mass falling in from the antihelion source. Even at large ∼7-mm sizes, a Poynting-Robertson drag evolved population is detected, which implies that the Grün et al. collisional lifetimes at these sizes are underestimated by about a factor of 10. While these large grains survive collisions, many fade on a 104-y timescale, possibly because they disintegrate into smaller particles by processes other than collisions, leaving a more resilient population to evolve.The meteors assigned to the various showers are identified in the CAMS Meteoroid Orbit Database 2.0 submitted to the IAU Meteor Data Center, and can be accessed also at http://cams.seti.org. © 2015. Source


Jenniskens P.,NASA | Nenon Q.,Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute | Gural P.S.,Leidos | Albers J.,Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute | And 7 more authors.
Icarus | Year: 2015

Leading up to the 2015 IAU General Assembly, the International Astronomical Union's Working List of Meteor Showers included 486 unconfirmed showers, showers that are not certain to exist. If confirmed, each shower would provide a record of past comet or asteroid activity. Now, we report that 41 of these are detected in the Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS) video-based meteor shower survey. They manifest as meteoroids arriving at Earth from a similar direction and orbit, after removing the daily radiant drift due to Earth's motion around the Sun. These showers do exist and, therefore, can be moved to the IAU List of Established Meteor Showers. This adds to 31 previously confirmed showers from CAMS data. For each shower, finding charts are presented based on 230,000 meteors observed up to March of 2015, calculated by re-projecting the drift-corrected Sun-centered ecliptic coordinates into more familiar equatorial coordinates. Showers that are not detected, but should have, and duplicate showers that project to the same Sun-centered ecliptic coordinates, are recommended for removal from the Working List. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source


Jenniskens P.,Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute | Jenniskens P.,NASA | Nenon Q.,Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute | Albers J.,Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute | And 8 more authors.
Icarus | Year: 2016

Orbital elements are presented for 70 of the 95 meteor showers considered "established" by the International Astronomical Union. From 2010 October 21 until 2013 March 31, the low-light-video based Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance project (CAMS) measured a total of 110,367 meteoroid trajectories and pre-atmospheric orbits from mostly -2 to +4 magnitude meteors with a precision of <2° (median 0.4°) in apparent radiant direction and <10% (median 0.9%) in speed. This paper discusses how the already established showers manifest in this data. Newly resolved components in the radiant distribution shed light on the dynamics and physical lifetime of parent bodies and their meteoroids. Many multi-component showers have associated parent bodies with nodal lines not much rotated from that of their meteoroids (Encke Complex, Machholz Complex, Phaethon Complex, and now also the 169P/NEAT Complex). These may result from a parent body disruption cascade, with the disruption-generated meteoroids fading on the short timescale of a few hundred to a few thousand years. In particular, the Northern and Southern Taurids of the Encke Complex are decomposed here into 19 individual streams. Seven of these streams can be paired with mostly sub-km sized potential parent body asteroids that move in 2P/Encke-like orbits that span the narrow semi-major axis range of 2.20-2.35. AU. The meteoroids in these Taurid streams do not survive long enough for the nodal line to fully rotate relative to that of their parent body. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

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