Smith R.,Durham University |
Keiner E.,Freie University Bozen
Zeitschrift fur Padagogik | Year: 2015
Educational research, throughout the developed world but especially in the English-speaking countries, seems increasingly determined by adopting - or perhaps simply imitating - the methods of the natural sciences. One example is the current enthusiasm for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) which are often considered the 'gold standard' in medical research. Another example is the expectation, so far largely unfulfilled, that neuroscience will tell us all we need to know about how people learn and how they can come to learn better, that is more quickly and effectively. Sometimes it seems that educational research is simply in the grip of a new rhetoric, whose shibboleths are 'rigour' and 'robustness'. The assumption thus grows that proper research is essentially empirical. In the face of these tendencies it is important to re-emphasise the meanings of 'education'. The familiar distinction between erklären (scientific explanation) and verstehen (humane understanding of a less technical kind) is helpful to us here. The two perspectives are not mutually exclusive. But this framework is useful in reminding us that questions about the development and education often lead us towards philosophical problems about sense and meaning rather than towards quasi-scientific, empirical investigations.
Sensation seeking, traumatic stress and coping: An empirical investigation in rescue forces [Sensation Seeking, Traumaerleben und Bewältigungsstrategien: eine empirische Untersuchung an Einsatzkräften]
Tschiesner R.,Freie University Bozen
Neuropsychiatrie | Year: 2012
This investigation deals with sensation seeking in rescue forces. We are interested in the scores regarding this variable and relationship between these and other relevant variables. Aim of this research is to find connections between sensation seeking and traumatic stress and what is the role of coping in this connections. All in all we are going to exam Sensation Seeking as a protective factor for traumatic stress. The subjects in this investigation are firefighters and emergency-medical-technicians. We use the German Sensation-Seeking-Scale version 5 (SSS-V) and the Arnett-Inventory-of-Sensation- Seeking (AISS-D) to assess sensation seeking. To explore the traumatic stress symptoms in subjects, we use the Posttraumatic-Stress-Diagnostic-Scale (PDS) and for the coping strategies the short version of Janke and Erdmanns Coping-Questionnaire (SVF-78). We found differences between the rescue forces and the control group in reference to subscales "thrill and adventure seeking" (TAS) and "experience seeking" (ES) as well as no connections between the sensation seeking scales and subscales and traumatic stress symptoms. We found only a significance by trend correlation concerning experience seeking and avoidance. Furthermore we found correlations between AISS-scales as well as the SSS-V-subscales and coping strategies. Partial correlation showed very low coefficients regarding Experience Seeking and Avoidance if we insert coping strategies as a control variable. When we look at the reliability of the questionnaires to assess sensation seeking, we find out that values are very low. Therefore we have to keep in mind that the assessment of Sensation Seeking is defective through an error in measurement and to interpret results carefully. Nonetheless we found that rescue forces search more actively thrills and adventures and the control group more sensual and spiritual stimuli in our sample. We can't prove that sensation seeking is a personality trait which is able to protect form traumatic stress symptoms. However we found evidence that sensation seeking is associated with coping strategies which diminish successfully stress.© Springer-Verlag 2012.
Brande A.,Lenbachstrasse 3 |
Weichhardt-Kulessa K.,Ernst Thalmann Strasse 100 A |
Zerbe S.,Freie University Bozen
Telma | Year: 2011
Flora, mire vegetation, actual and fossil pollen precipitation of medieval fish ponds are investigated. At present days each pond shows different stages of mire development. Small sedge communities of Caricetum fuscae and Caricetum rostratae prevail, in open waters Potamogeton natans, Juncus bulbosus and at the pond margins Carex rostrata grow. The pollen precipitation is compared with the actual vegetation cover of the mire and its 500 m radius. Soil dependent mire formation in the brook valley starts in post-Roman times. After construction of the fish ponds and increasing forest clearance the mire development continues by increasing peat formation, and in the ponds limno-minerogenic sediments accumulate fastly. Mire desiccation at the valley margins and mesotrophic fen peat formation in the remnant ponds during the last 250 years by surrounding afforestation lead to the present day status of a protected area within the Nature 2000 fauna-flora-habitat system. Proposals for nature reserve management are applied to the lake and mire biotops as well as the surrounding forests.
Henrich K.,University of Marburg |
Wiese R.,University of Marburg |
Domahs U.,Freie University Bozen
Neuropsychologia | Year: 2015
This study explores the influence of focus and givenness on the cognitive processing of rhythmic irregularities occurring in natural speech. Previous ERP studies showed that even subtle rhythmic deviations are detected by the brain if attention is directed towards the rhythmic structure. By using question-answer pairs, it was investigated whether subtle rhythmic irregularities in form of stress clashes (two adjacent stressed syllables) and stress lapses (two adjacent unstressed syllables) are still perceived when presented in post-focus position in an answer sentence and attention is directed away from them, towards the meaning of the element in narrow focus position by the preceding wh-question. Moreover, by visually presenting the lexical-semantic input of the deviating structure in the question, the influence of rhythmical and lexical properties in these two forms of rhythmic deviations are disentangled. While words in the present stress clash condition do not deviate from lexical stress, stress lapses contain deviations from metrical and lexical stress. The data reveal an early negativity effect for stress clashes but not for stress lapses, supporting the assumption that they are processed differently. The absence of a negative component for stress lapses indicates that the metrical deviation alone is not salient enough to be registered in non-focus position. Moreover, the lack of a late positive component suggests that subtle rhythmic deviations are less perceivable and hence more acceptable when presented in non-focus position. Thus, these results show that attentional shift induced by information structure influences the degree of the processing of rhythm. © 2015 The Authors.
Propagation and management of ailanthus and black locust in coppice forests: Insights from a case study on invasive species in South Tyrol [Ausbreitung und management von götterbaum und robinie in niederwäldern: Erkenntnisse aus einer Fallstudie zu invasiven Baumarten in Südtirol]
Ambrass V.S.,Forstreferendar Stefan Ambrassss |
Radtke A.,Freie University Bozen |
Zerbe S.,Freie University Bozen |
Fontana V.,University of Innsbruck |
Ammer C.,University of Gottingen
Naturschutz und Landschaftsplanung | Year: 2014
Dispersal and Management of Heaven and Black Locust in Coppiced Forests - Results of a case study in Southern Tyrol Throughout Europe, both anthropogenic and near-natural habitats are invaded by black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) and tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle). However, their invasion into forests has been rarely studied, particularly the influence of coppice management, which is characterised through regular cut-backs. To retrace the invasion the study investigated the abundance in the canopy as well as the natural regeneration of these species in a coppice in South Tyrol which showed ideal conditions due to its patchy mosaic of different ages (time since last coppicing). Tree regeneration of the invasive and native species was compared among these forest age classes and correlated to environmental parameters. Apparently, R. pseudoacacia has established earlier than A. altissima but A. altissima has spread with higher speed during the last 30 years. Synchronously to the coppice cycle both species colonise fresh clearings where they establish and remain. Since current coppice management favors the spread of both invasive species an adaptation of the management system is necessary to avoid further invasion.