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Biggs D.,University of Queensland | Biggs D.,James Cook University | Ban N.C.,James Cook University | Hall C.M.,University of Canterbury | Hall C.M.,Freiburg Institute of Advanced Studies
Environmental Conservation

Innovative partnerships for conservation are required to stem the tide of continued ecosystem degradation. Nature-based tourism is one such partnership. Yet the natural attractions that nature-based tourism depends on are under increasing anthropogenic threat. Because of their dependence on international visitors, nature-based tourism enterprises are under additional pressure from socioeconomic and political crises in a globalized world. Recent research shows that lifestyle values, the motives that entice owners and staff of tourism enterprises to live and work in a chosen natural attraction, strengthen the resilience of enterprises to crises. This paper empirically explores the relationship between the lifestyle values of nature-based tourism enterprises, their resilience, and their support of and contribution to conservation of Australia's Great Barrier Reef. Semi-structured interviews with the owners and senior managers of 48 reef tourism enterprises showed that those that reported high lifestyle values had higher levels of conservation ethic and participated more extensively in conservation actions. The relationship between resilience and conservation ethic was not statistically significant. Bureaucratic, regulatory and cost constraints, and a lack of knowledge, limit enterprise participation in conservation. Conservation agencies can work to reduce some of these constraints to ensure that conservation benefits from nature-based tourism enterprises are maximized. © Foundation for Environmental Conservation 2012. Source

Natsuga K.,Hokkaido University | Nishie W.,Hokkaido University | Akiyama M.,Hokkaido University | Nakamura H.,Hokkaido University | And 12 more authors.
Human Mutation

Plectin is a cytoskeletal linker protein that has a dumbbell-like structure with a long central rod and N- and C-terminal globular domains. Mutations in the gene encoding plectin (PLEC1) cause two distinct autosomal recessive subtypes of epidermolysis bullosa (EB): EB simplex with muscular dystrophy (EBS-MD), and EB simplex with pyloric atresia (EBS-PA). Here, we demonstrate that normal human fibroblasts express two different plectin isoforms including full-length and rodless forms of plectin. We performed detailed analysis of plectin expression patterns in six EBS-MD and three EBS-PA patients. In EBS-PA, expression of all plectin domains was found to be markedly attenuated or completely lost; in EBS-MD, the expression of the N- and C-terminal domains of plectin remained detectable, although the expression of rod domains was absent or markedly reduced. Our data suggest that loss of the full-length plectin isoform with residual expression of the rodless plectin isoform leads to EBS-MD, and that complete loss or marked attenuation of full-length and rodless plectin expression underlies the more severe EBS-PA phenotype. These results also clearly account for the majority of EBS-MD PLEC1 mutation restriction within the large exon 31 that encodes the plectin rod domain, whereas EBS-PA PLEC1 mutations are generally outside exon 31. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source

Eming S.A.,University of Cologne | Koch M.,University of Cologne | Krieger A.,University of Cologne | Brachvogel B.,University of Cologne | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Proteome Research

Chronic wounds associated with vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, or aging are leading causes of morbidity in western countries and represent an unresolved clinical problem. The development of innovative strategies to promote tissue repair is therefore an important task that requires a more thorough analysis of the underlying molecular pathophysiology. We propose that the understanding of the complex biological events that control tissue repair or its failure largely benefits from a broad analytical approach as provided by novel proteomic methodologies. Here we present the first comparative proteome analysis of wound exudates obtained from normal healing or nonhealing (venous leg ulcer) human skin wounds. A total of 149 proteins were identified with high confidence. A minority of proteins was exclusively present in exudate of the healing wound (23 proteins) or the nonhealing wound (26 proteins). Of particular interest was the differential distribution of specific proteins among the two different healing phenotypes. Whereas in the exudate obtained from the healing wound mediators characteristic for tissue formation were abundantly present, in the exudate obtained from the nonhealing wound numerous mediators characteristic for a persistent inflammatory and tissue destructive response were identified. Furthermore, the study also revealed interesting results regarding the identification of new proteins with yet unknown functions in skin repair. This analysis therefore represents an important basis for the search for potential biomarkers, which give rise to a better understanding and monitoring of disease progression in chronic wounds. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

Montemagni S.,CNR Institute of Computational linguistics Antonio Zampolli | Wieling M.,University of Groningen | de Jonge B.,University of Groningen | Nerbonne J.,University of Groningen | Nerbonne J.,Freiburg Institute of Advanced Studies
Literary and Linguistic Computing

A careful investigation of synchronic patterns of linguistic variation with underlying linguistic features can lead to important insights into the comprehension of diachronic phonetic processes. In this article, we showed that the method of spectral partitioning of bipartite graphs applied to synchronic dialectal data can effectively and reliably be used to investigate diachronic processes, thus contributing to a deeper understanding of the relationship between synchronic variation and diachronic change. This was illustrated through a case study carried out on Tuscan dialects, focusing on so-called Tuscan 'gorgia', a lenition process consisting of the spirantization of stop consonants. In particular, from a quantitative analysis of the sound correspondences involving voiceless and voiced stops, we tracked the evolution of the spirantization phenomenon in several respects. First, we tracked spirantization geographically, across Tuscany from the influential center of Florence to the peripheral areas. Second, we tracked it phonologically, from voiceless to voiced stops, and within each voicing class from velars to dentals and then to bilabials. Finally, we tracked it demographically, with young speakers using the most innovative sound correspondences more than old speakers. The fact that these results are in line with the literature on the topic of Tuscan 'gorgia' demonstrates the potential of the method of spectral partitioning of bipartite graphs with respect to the reconstruction of diachronic processes starting from diatopically distributed synchronic dialectal data. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ALLC. All rights reserved. Source

Biggs D.,University of Queensland | Biggs D.,James Cook University | Hicks C.C.,James Cook University | Cinner J.E.,James Cook University | And 2 more authors.
Ocean and Coastal Management

Marine-oriented nature-based tourism plays an important socio-economic role, and provides an incentive for conservation in many coastal regions. However, accelerating global change, and the associated socio-economic and political change may have severe consequences for marine tourism at the local level. Thus, understanding the ability of sectors within marine tourism to cope with, and adapt to, change is paramount. Private sector enterprises are key players in marine tourism and their capacity to adapt to change will vary across socio-economic and governance contexts. Thus, the resilience of these enterprises (their ability to adapt to, and continue to function under changing pressures and circumstances) is critical for the future of the marine tourism sector more broadly. This paper examines how socioeconomic and governance contexts influence the resilience of coral reef tourism enterprises in three settings: the formal and informal sector in Phuket, Thailand and enterprises on Australia's Great Barrier Reef. Although there are differences between the three groups of enterprises, lifestyle factors, human capital, perceived reef condition, and government support are associated with the resilience of enterprises across all three groups. These findings suggest that policy-makers should consider enterprise lifestyle benefits, and that a nuanced understanding of marine tourism enterprises is required. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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