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Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom

Wald D.S.,Queen Mary, University of London | Morris J.K.,Queen Mary, University of London | Wald N.J.,Queen Mary, University of London | Chase A.J.,Morriston Hospital | And 4 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: In acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), the use of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to treat the artery responsible for the infarct (infarct, or culprit, artery) improves prognosis. The value of PCI in noninfarct coronary arteries with major stenoses (preventive PCI) is unknown. METHODS: From 2008 through 2013, at five centers in the United Kingdom, we enrolled 465 patients with acute STEMI (including 3 patients with left bundle-branch block) who were undergoing infarct-artery PCI and randomly assigned them to either preventive PCI (234 patients) or no preventive PCI (231 patients). Subsequent PCI for angina was recommended only for refractory angina with objective evidence of ischemia. The primary outcome was a composite of death from cardiac causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or refractory angina. An intention-to-treat analysis was used. RESULTS: By January 2013, the results were considered conclusive by the data and safety monitoring committee, which recommended that the trial be stopped early. During a mean follow-up of 23 months, the primary outcome occurred in 21 patients assigned to preventive PCI and in 53 patients assigned to no preventive PCI (infarct-artery- only PCI), which translated into rates of 9 events per 100 patients and 23 per 100, respectively (hazard ratio in the preventive-PCI group, 0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.21 to 0.58; P<0.001). Hazard ratios for the three components of the primary outcome were 0.34 (95% CI, 0.11 to 1.08) for death from cardiac causes, 0.32 (95% CI, 0.13 to 0.75) for nonfatal myocardial infarction, and 0.35 (95% CI, 0.18 to 0.69) for refractory angina. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with STEMI and multivessel coronary artery disease undergoing infarctartery PCI, preventive PCI in noninfarct coronary arteries with major stenoses significantly reduced the risk of adverse cardiovascular events, as compared with PCI limited to the infarct artery. Copyright © 2013 Massachusetts Medical Society. Source

Andras A.,Freeman Hospital
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

People with venous thromboembolism (VTE) are generally treated for five days with intravenous unfractionated heparin or subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) followed by three months of vitamin K antagonist treatment. Treatment with vitamin K antagonists requires regular laboratory measurements and some patients have contraindications to treatment. This is an update of a review first published in 2000 and updated in 2002. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of long term treatment of VTE with LMWH compared to vitamin K antagonists. For this update the Cochrane Peripheral Vascular Diseases Group Trials Search Co-ordinator searched their Specialised Register (last searched February 2012) and CENTRAL (2012, Issue 1). Two authors evaluated trials independently for methodological quality. The review authors extracted data independently. Primary analysis included all trial participants randomised to the allocated treatment groups. Separate analyses were performed according to the quality of the trials and for subgroups such as trials initially using similar treatments in both trial arms and those that did not, trials concerning deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) and the different periods of follow-up. All 15 trials, with a combined total of 3197 patients, fulfilling our criteria were combined in a meta-analysis. We found a non-statistically significant reduction in the risk of recurrent VTE between the two treatments (odds ratio (OR) 0.82, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.13). Analysis of pooled data for category I trials (those with a high methodological quality) showed a non-significant reduction in the odds of recurrent VTE favouring LMWH treatment (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.18).For all trials combined, the difference in bleeding significantly favoured treatment with LMWH (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.79). Considering only category I trials, a non-significant trend favouring LMWH remained (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.36 to 1.07). No difference was observed in mortality (OR 1.06, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.54). LMWHs are possibly as effective as vitamin K antagonists in preventing symptomatic VTE after an episode of symptomatic deep venous thrombosis, but are much more expensive. Treatment with LMWH is significantly safer than treatment with vitamin K antagonists. LMWH may result in fewer episodes of bleeding and is possibly a safe alternative in some patients, especially those in geographically inaccessible areas, are reluctant to visit the thrombosis service regularly, or with contraindications to vitamin K antagonists. However, treatment with vitamin K antagonists remains the treatment of choice for the majority of patients. Source

O'Sullivan J.,Freeman Hospital
Current Hypertension Reports | Year: 2014

Coarctation of the aorta represents more than a simple obstructive lesion, as there is often evidence of hypertension and vascular dysfunction despite successful surgery at an early age. There are ample data showing that a large proportion of patients develop arterial hypertension, and this appears to increase with age. Our understanding of the pathogenesis of late hypertension is incomplete, and there is limited information on which drugs are most appropriate. Increased arterial rigidity is now well described in this patient group, although it is not known how this should influence therapy. The increase in afterload associated with this increased rigidity has been found to have an impact on the left ventricle at an early stage, and the interaction between the vascular dysfunction and the ventricle is an area of interest and active research. This article reviews some recent studies and highlights areas where research questions remain. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media. Source

Wong S.S.,Freeman Hospital
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Strictures of the urethra are the most common cause of obstructed micturition in younger men and frequently recur after initial treatment. Standard treatment comprises internal widening of the strictured area by simple dilatation or by telescope-guided internal cutting (optical urethrotomy), but these interventions are associated with a high failure rate requiring repeated treatment. The alternative option of open urethroplasty whereby the urethral lumen is permanently widened by removal or grafting of the strictured segment is less likely to fail but requires greater expertise. Findings of Improved choice of graft material and shortened hospital stay suggest that urethroplasty may be under utilised. The extent and quality of evidence guiding treatment choice for this condition are uncertain.   To determine which is the best surgical treatment for male urethral stricture disease taking into account relative efficacy, adverse event rates and cost-effectiveness.   We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialised Register (searched 21 June 2012), CENTRAL (2012, Issue 6), MEDLINE (January 1946 to week 2 June 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to week 25 2012), OpenSIGLE (searched 26 June 2012), clinical trials registries and reference lists of relevant articles. We included publications reporting data from randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing the effectiveness of dilatation, urethrotomy and urethroplasty in the treatment of adult men with urethral stricture disease. Two authors evaluated trials for appropriateness for inclusion and methodological quality. Data extraction was performed using predetermined criteria. Analyses were carried out using the Cochrane Review Manager software (RevMan 5). Two randomised trials were identified. One trial compared the outcomes of surgical urethral dilatation and optical urethrotomy in 210 adult men with urethral stricture disease. No significant difference was found in the proportion of men being stricture free at three years or in the median time to recurrence. The second trial compared the outcomes of urethrotomy and urethroplasty in 50 men with traumatic stricture of the posterior urethra following pelvic fracture injury. In the first six months, men were more likely to require further surgery in the urethrotomy group than in the primary urethroplasty group (RR 3.39, 95% CI 1.62 to 7.07). After two years, 16 of 25 (64%) men initially treated by urethrotomy required continued self-dilatation or further surgery for stricture recurrence compared to 6 of 25 (24%) men treated by primary urethroplasty. There were insufficient data to perform meta-analysis or to reliably determine effect size. There were insufficient data to determine which intervention is best for urethral stricture disease in terms of balancing efficacy, adverse effects and costs. Well designed, adequately powered multi-centre trials are needed to answer relevant clinical questions regarding treatment of men with urethral strictures. Source

The use of impaction grafting in revisions with larger acetabular bone defects has mixed outcomes and sometimes high failures rates. This prospective, single-center study involved a consecutive series of 24 patients who underwent complex reconstruction of the acetabulum using a trabecular metal augment, impaction bone grafting, and a cemented high-density polyethylene cup. Patients were followed for median 5 (3-7) years. The 2-year WOMAC pain, function, and stiffness scores improved, as did certain components (bodily pain, physical function, role physical, role emotional, physical component score, and social function) of the SF-36 (p < 0.05). 23 of the patients were very satisfied with the overall outcome of the surgery and would have undergone the surgery again for a similar problem, and 19 reported great improvement in their quality of life after surgery. Radiographs at the latest follow-up revealed incorporation of the augment with mean change in acetabular component inclination of less than 1 degree (p > 0.05) and cup migration of less than 5 mm in both horizontal and vertical axes (p > 0.05). 1 patient required further revision at 13 months and was found to have a fractured augment at re-revision. This study shows that trabecular metal augments are effective in filling the bone defect and provide a stable foundation for impaction bone grafting. We found satisfactory clinical and radiographic results using this technique, with low failure rate at a median follow-up time of 5 years. Source

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