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Brussels, Belgium

The Free University of Brussels was a university in Brussels, Belgium established in 1834. The university, founded on the principle of secularism by Pierre-Théodore Verhaegen and Auguste Baron in 1834, formed part of a reaction to Catholic dominance in Belgian education. In 1969, during the Linguistic Wars, it split into two separate universities: the French-speaking Université Libre de Bruxelles and the Dutch-speaking Vrije Universiteit Brussel .The two universities continue to collaborate, and are together referred to as the Brussels Free Universities. Wikipedia.

Tournaye H.,Free University of Brussels | Dohle G.R.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Barratt C.L.R.,University of Dundee
The Lancet | Year: 2014

During the past decade, advances in cancer treatment have increased survival rates of both boys and men. However, cancer treatment itself can compromise fertility, especially exposure to alkylating agents and whole body irradiation, which cause substantial germ cell loss. Children and adolescents with testicular cancer, leukaemia, and Ewing sarcomas are at the highest risk of developing permanent sterility from cancer treatment. Consequently, various strategies to preserve fertility are necessary. Sperm cryopreservation is an effective but underused method to safeguard spermatozoa. In the past few years, large advances have been made in prepubertal germ cell storage aimed at subsequent transplantation of testicular tissue and associated stem cells. Although still experimental, these approaches off er hope to many men in whom germ cell loss is associated with sterility. The derivation of male gametes from stem cells also holds much promise; however, data are only available in animals, and the use of this method in human beings is probably many years away. Source

Van Gossum A.,Free University of Brussels
Current Opinion in Gastroenterology | Year: 2014

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Video capsule endoscopy, which was initially developed for exploring the small bowel, has been adapted for investigating the colon. This review summarizes recent developments in colon capsule technology as well as indications for its use. RECENT FINDINGS: Second-generation PillCam colon capsule endoscopy (CCE-2) has been recently developed and has significantly improved the sensitivity and specificity of colon capsules for detecting polyps and/or tumors in patients with suspected or known colonic lesions. The use of CCE-2 has been shown to be of value in patients with incomplete standard colonoscopy. The use of CCE-2 has also been investigated in patients with ulcerative colitis and in outpatient settings. Several trials have tried to simplify the colon preparation regimen. SUMMARY: Colon capsule endoscopy is a novel technique for exploring the colon. CCE-2 has improved the diagnostic capability of this noninvasive method. There is still room for improvement and simplification of colon preparation regimens. Apart from detection of polyps or neoplasms, colon capsule endoscopy has also been assessed in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health. Source

Faraoni D.,Free University of Brussels | Goobie S.M.,Perioperative and Pain Medicine
Anesthesia and Analgesia | Year: 2014

Children undergoing major surgery are frequently exposed to a high risk of blood loss often requiring transfusion. Although the risks associated with blood product transfusion have considerably decreased over the last decade, transfusion is still associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Thus, rigorous efforts should be made to decrease surgical bleeding and the need for blood product transfusion. Antifibrinolytic drugs have been shown to be effective when used in both adult and pediatric surgical patients. While there are data in adults to support safety, data remain limited for pediatric patients. Since the restriction of aprotinin use in 2008, the most commonly used antifibrinolytic drugs have been the lysine analogs, tranexamic acid (TXA), and ε-aminocaproic acid, which inhibit the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin and decrease the degree of fibrinolysis. We performed a systematic review of the literature pertaining to the efficacy of antifibrinolytic drugs in children undergoing noncardiac surgery. During spine surgery, both TXA and ε-aminocaproic acid decrease blood loss and transfusion requirements; however, this information comes from small, mainly retrospective trials. Two prospective, randomized, controlled trials have tested the efficacy of TXA in children undergoing craniofacial surgery and have reported that TXA decreases transfusion requirements. Two pharmacokinetic trials were also recently published and are summarized in this review. No data have been published regarding the efficacy of TXA administration in the pediatric trauma population. Further data are still needed in this field of study, and we discuss some perspectives for future research. © 2013 International Anesthesia Research Society. Source

Vauquelin G.,Free University of Brussels
Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery | Year: 2015

Introduction: Optimal drug therapy often requires continuing high levels of target occupancy. Besides the traditional pharmacokinetic (PK) contribution thereto, drug-target interactions that comprise successive microscopic steps as well as the intervention of the cell membrane and other micro-anatomical structures nearby may help attaining this objective. Areas covered: This article reviews the micro-pharmacodynamic (PD) and PK mechanisms that may increase a drugs residence time. Special focus is on induced-fit- and bivalent ligand binding models as well as on the ability of the plasma membrane surrounding the target to act as a repository for the drug (e.g., microkinetic model), to actively participate in the binding process (e.g., exosite model) and, along with microanatomical elements like synapses and interstitial spaces, to act on the drugs diffusion properties (reduction in dimensionality and drug-rebinding models). Expert opinion: The PK profile, as well as the target dissociation kinetics of a drug, may fail to account for its long-lasting efficiency in intact tissues and in vivo. This lacuna could potentially be alleviated by incorporating some of the enumerated microscopic mechanisms and, to unveil them, dedicated experiments on sufficiently physiologically relevant biological material like cell monolayers can already be implemented early on in the lead optimization process. © 2015 Informa UK, Ltd. Source

Naeije R.,Free University of Brussels
Current Hypertension Reports | Year: 2013

The pulmonary circulation is a high-flow and low-pressure circuit. The functional state of the pulmonary circulation is defined by pulmonary vascular pressure-flow relationships conforming to distensible vessel models with a correction for hematocrit. The product of pulmonary arterial compliance and resistance is constant, but with a slight decrease as a result of increased pulsatile hydraulic load in the presence of increased venous pressure or proximal pulmonary arterial obstruction. An increase in left atrial pressure is transmitted upstream with a ratio ≥1 for mean pulmonary artery pressure and ≤1 the diastolic pulmonary pressure. Therefore, the diastolic pressure gradient is more appropriate than the transpulmonary pressure gradient to identify pulmonary vascular disease in left heart conditions. Exercise is associated with a decrease in pulmonary vascular resistance and an increase in pulmonary arterial compliance. Right ventricular function is coupled to the pulmonary circulation with an optimal ratio of end-systolic to arterial elastances of 1.5-2. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

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