Free Radical Research Facility

Inverness, United Kingdom

Free Radical Research Facility

Inverness, United Kingdom
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Cho W.-S.,University of Edinburgh | Cho W.-S.,Dong - A University | Duffin R.,University of Edinburgh | Thielbeer F.,University of Edinburgh | And 6 more authors.
Toxicological Sciences | Year: 2012

The toxicology of nanoparticles (NPs) is an area of intense investigation that would be greatly aided by improved understanding of the relationship between NP structure and inflammogenicity. To evaluate how their physicochemical parameters influence toxicity, we assembled a panel of 15 metal/metal oxide NPs and attempted to relate various physicochemical parameters, including zeta potential (ζP) and solubility, to lung inflammogenicity. The acute pulmonary inflammogenicity of the 15 NPs showed a significant correlation with one of two structural parameters-ζP under acid conditions for low-solubility NPs and solubility to toxic species for high-solubility NPs. ζP is the electrical potential created between the surface of a particle, with its associated ions, and the medium it exists in and provides information concerning the particle surface charge. We suggest that inside the phagolysosome under acid conditions, a high positive ζP may allow NPs to damage the integrity of the phagolysosomal membrane leading to inflammation. In the case of high-solubility NPs, inflammogenicity depends on the ions that are produced during dissolution of NP inside the acidic phagolysosomes; if the ions are toxic, then phagolysosomes will be destabilized and cause inflammation. These two parameters may have utility in preliminary assessment of the potential lung inflammation hazard of the large number of NPs that require testing. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved.

Cho W.-S.,University of Edinburgh | Duffin R.,University of Edinburgh | Howie S.E.M.,University of Edinburgh | Scotton C.J.,University College London | And 5 more authors.
Particle and Fibre Toxicology | Year: 2011

Background: Large production volumes of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP) might be anticipated to pose risks, of accidental inhalation in occupational and even in consumer settings. Herein, we further investigated the pathological changes induced by ZnONP and their possible mechanism of action.Methods: Two doses of ZnONP (50 and 150 cm2/rat) were intratracheally instilled into the lungs of rats with assessments made at 24 h, 1 wk, and 4 wks after instillation to evaluate dose- and time-course responses. Assessments included bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid analysis, histological analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and IgE and IgA measurement in the serum and BAL fluid. To evaluate the mechanism, alternative ZnONP, ZnONP-free bronchoalveolar lavage exudate, and dissolved Zn2+(92.5 μg/rat) were also instilled to rats. Acridine orange staining was utilized in macrophages in culture to evaluate the lysosomal membrane destabilization by NP.Results: ZnONP induced eosinophilia, proliferation of airway epithelial cells, goblet cell hyperplasia, and pulmonary fibrosis. Bronchocentric interstitial pulmonary fibrosis at the chronic phase was associated with increased myofibroblast accumulation and transforming growth factor-β positivity. Serum IgE levels were up-regulated by ZnONP along with the eosinophilia whilst serum IgA levels were down-regulated by ZnONP. ZnONP are rapidly dissolved under acidic conditions (pH 4.5) whilst they remained intact around neutrality (pH 7.4). The instillation of dissolved Zn2+into rat lungs showed similar pathologies (eg., eosinophilia, bronchocentric interstitial fibrosis) as were elicited by ZnONP. Lysosomal stability was decreased and cell death resulted following treatment of macrophages with ZnONP in vitro.Conclusions: We hypothesise that rapid, pH-dependent dissolution of ZnONP inside of phagosomes is the main cause of ZnONP-induced diverse progressive severe lung injuries. © 2011 Cho et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Cho W.-S.,University of Edinburgh | Cho W.-S.,Dong - A University | Duffin R.,University of Edinburgh | Bradley M.,University of Edinburgh | And 4 more authors.
European Respiratory Journal | Year: 2012

Lung exposure to metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) comprising soluble metal haptens may produce T-helper cell type 1 (Th1)- and Th17-associated delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). In order to study this, haptenic metal oxide NPs (NiO, Co3O4, Cr2O3 and CuO) were instilled into the lungs of female Wistar rats, and the immunoinflammatory responses were assessed at 24 h and 4 weeks post-instillation. Primary culture of alveolar macrophages from Wistar rats was used to evaluate the effect of the NPs on the ability to clear surfactant. NiO NPs induced chronic interstitial inflammation and pro-inflammatory Th1 and Th17 immune responses characterised by increases in the cytokines monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1/CCL2, interleukin (IL)-12 p40, interferon-γ and IL-17A, whilst similar pathological responses induced by Co3O4 NPs were associated with increases in MCP-1/CCL2 and IL-12 p40. However, neither Cr2O3 nor CuO NPs elicited immunoinflammatory reactions. PAP was induced by both NiO and Co3O4 NPs during the chronic phase. PAP was associated with over-production of surfactant by proliferation of type II cells and impaired clearance of surfactant by macrophages. These findings have implications for the risk management of occupational NP exposure and provide evidence that haptenic metal oxide NPs can induce chronic progressive lung immune responses via a DTH-like mechanism. Copyright©ERS 2012.

Fox S.,Queens Medical Research Institute | Wilkinson T.S.,Queens Medical Research Institute | Wheatley P.S.,University of St. Andrews | Xiao B.,University of St. Andrews | And 7 more authors.
Acta Biomaterialia | Year: 2010

Nitric oxide (NO) is important for the regulation of a number of diverse biological processes, including vascular tone, neurotransmission, inflammatory cell responsiveness, defence against invading pathogens and wound healing. Transition metal exchanged zeolites are nanoporous materials with high-capacity storage properties for gases such as NO. The NO stores are liberated upon contact with aqueous environments, thereby making them ideal candidates for use in biological and clinical settings. Here, we demonstrate the NO release capacity and powerful bactericidal properties of a novel NO-storing Zn2+-exchanged zeolite material at a 50 wt.% composition in a polytetrafluoroethylene polymer. Further to our published data showing the anti-thrombotic effects of a similar NO-loaded zeolite, this study demonstrates the anti-bacterial properties of NO-releasing zeolites against clinically relevant strains of bacteria, namely Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile. Thus our study highlights the potential of NO-loaded zeolites as biocompatible medical device coatings with anti-infective properties. © 2009 Acta Materialia Inc.

Cho W.-S.,University of Edinburgh | Cho W.-S.,Dong - A University | Thielbeer F.,University of Edinburgh | Duffin R.,University of Edinburgh | And 5 more authors.
Nanotoxicology | Year: 2014

Nano materials are commonly functionalized to boost their physicochemical properties. However, there is little known about the impact of these modifications on cellular systems. Herein, we synthesized eight types of polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) bearing different functional groups, and investigated their effects on interactions with cellular membranes. As models for particle membrane interactions, hemolysis assays using human red blood cells and culture with A549 cells were utilized. Under protein-free conditions, the NPs showed a wide distribution of zeta potentials (ζPs) which showed a good correlation with their hemolytic potential. However, in the presence of serum or lung lining fluid, the ζPs of all NPs coalesced towards a single common negative value and showed neither hemolytic activity nor cytotoxicity to A549 cells. Lipase and protease treatment of the coronated particles did not restore their reactivity. These result simply proves that particle functionalization influences the stability of the particle corona which, if intact, prevents hemolytic activity and membrane disrupture. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd.

Cho W.-S.,University of Edinburgh | Duffin R.,University of Edinburgh | Poland C.A.,University of Edinburgh | Duschl A.,University of Salzburg | And 5 more authors.
Nanotoxicology | Year: 2012

Nickel, zinc, and copper oxide nanoparticles (NiONP, ZnONP, and CuONP) and their aqueous extracts (AEs) were applied to A549 lung epithelial cells to determine the cytotoxicity, IL-8 production, and activation of transcription factors. Nanoparticles (NPs) and their AEs were also instilled into rat lungs to evaluate acute and chronic inflammatory effects. In vitro AEs had specific effects; for example NiOAE had no effect and ZnOAE affected all parameters measured. NPs themselves all had cytotoxic effects but only ZnONP and CuONP impacted pro-inflammatory endpoints. The inflammatory cells in the BAL were also different from AEs and NPs with ZnONP and CuONP recruiting eosinophils and neutrophils whilst ZnOAE and CuOAE elicited only mild neutrophilic inflammation that had resolved by four weeks. NiONP recruited neutrophils only whilst NiOAE did not cause any inflammation. Understanding differences in the toxic role of the ionic components of metal oxide NPs will contribute to full hazard identification and characterisation. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd.

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