Frederick National Laboratory

Frederick, MD, United States

Frederick National Laboratory

Frederick, MD, United States
SEARCH FILTERS
Time filter
Source Type

Haso W.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Lee D.W.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Shah N.N.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Stetler-Stevenson M.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | And 10 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2013

Immune targeting of B-cell malignancies using chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) is a promising new approach, but critical factors impacting CAR efficacy remain unclear. To test the suitability of targeting CD22 on precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL), lymphoblasts from 111 patients with BCP-ALL were assayed for CD22 expression and all were found to be CD22-positive, with median CD22 expression levels of 3500 sites/cell. Three distinct binding domains targeting CD22 were fused to various TCR signaling domains ± an IgG heavy chain constant domain (CH2CH3) to create a series of vector constructs suitable to delineate optimal CAR configuration. CARs derived from the m971 anti-CD22 mAb, which targets a proximal CD22 epitope demonstrated superior antileukemic activity compared with those incorporating other binding domains, and addition of a 4-1BB signaling domain to CD28.CD3l constructs diminished potency, whereas increasing affinity of the anti-CD22 binding motif, and extending the CD22 binding domain away from the membrane via CH2CH3 had no effect. We conclude that second-generation m971 mAb-derived anti-CD22 CARs are promising novel therapeutics that should be tested in BCP-ALL. © 2013 by The American Society of Hematology.


PubMed | University of Barcelona, Frederick National Laboratory, University of Alabama at Birmingham, ECOFAC and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PLoS neglected tropical diseases | Year: 2014

Central Africa is a hotspot for emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) of global and local importance, and a current outbreak of ebolavirus is affecting multiple countries simultaneously. Ebolavirus is suspected to have caused recent declines in resident great apes. While ebolavirus vaccines have been proposed as an intervention to protect apes, their effectiveness would be improved if we could diagnostically confirm Ebola virus disease (EVD) as the cause of die-offs, establish ebolavirus geographical distribution, identify immunologically nave populations, and determine whether apes survive virus exposure.Here we report the first successful noninvasive detection of antibodies against Ebola virus (EBOV) from wild ape feces. Using this method, we have been able to identify gorillas with antibodies to EBOV with an overall prevalence rate reaching 10% on average, demonstrating that EBOV exposure or infection is not uniformly lethal in this species. Furthermore, evidence of antibodies was identified in gorillas thought previously to be unexposed to EBOV (protected from exposure by rivers as topological barriers of transmission).Our new approach will contribute to a strategy to protect apes from future EBOV infections by early detection of increased incidence of exposure, by identifying immunologically nave at-risk populations as potential targets for vaccination, and by providing a means to track vaccine efficacy if such intervention is deemed appropriate. Finally, since human EVD is linked to contact with infected wildlife carcasses, efforts aimed at identifying great ape outbreaks could have a profound impact on public health in local communities, where EBOV causes case-fatality rates of up to 88%.


Goode D.,Center for Biomedical Research | Truong R.,Center for Biomedical Research | Villegas G.,Center for Biomedical Research | Calenda G.,Center for Biomedical Research | And 7 more authors.
PLoS pathogens | Year: 2014

The availability of highly susceptible HIV target cells that can rapidly reach the mucosal lymphoid tissues may increase the chances of an otherwise rare transmission event to occur. Expression of α4β7 is required for trafficking of immune cells to gut inductive sites where HIV can expand and it is expressed at high level on cells particularly susceptible to HIV infection. We hypothesized that HSV-2 modulates the expression of α4β7 and other homing receptors in the vaginal tissue and that this correlates with the increased risk of HIV acquisition in HSV-2 positive individuals. To test this hypothesis we used an in vivo rhesus macaque (RM) model of HSV-2 vaginal infection and a new ex vivo model of macaque vaginal explants. In vivo we found that HSV-2 latently infected RMs appeared to be more susceptible to vaginal SHIVSF162P3 infection, had higher frequency of α4β7high CD4+ T cells in the vaginal tissue and higher expression of α4β7 and CD11c on vaginal DCs. Similarly, ex vivo HSV-2 infection increased the susceptibility of the vaginal tissue to SHIVSF162P3. HSV-2 infection increased the frequencies of α4β7high CD4+ T cells and this directly correlated with HSV-2 replication. A higher amount of inflammatory cytokines in vaginal fluids of the HSV-2 infected animals was similar to those found in the supernatants of the infected explants. Remarkably, the HSV-2-driven increase in the frequency of α4β7high CD4+ T cells directly correlated with SHIV replication in the HSV-2 infected tissues. Our results suggest that the HSV-2-driven increase in availability of CD4+ T cells and DCs that express high levels of α4β7 is associated with the increase in susceptibility to SHIV due to HSV-2. This may persists in absence of HSV-2 shedding. Hence, higher availability of α4β7 positive HIV target cells in the vaginal tissue may constitute a risk factor for HIV transmission.


Goode D.,Center for Biomedical Research | Truong R.,Center for Biomedical Research | Villegas G.,Center for Biomedical Research | Calenda G.,Center for Biomedical Research | And 8 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2014

The availability of highly susceptible HIV target cells that can rapidly reach the mucosal lymphoid tissues may increase the chances of an otherwise rare transmission event to occur. Expression of α4β7 is required for trafficking of immune cells to gut inductive sites where HIV can expand and it is expressed at high level on cells particularly susceptible to HIV infection. We hypothesized that HSV-2 modulates the expression of α4β7 and other homing receptors in the vaginal tissue and that this correlates with the increased risk of HIV acquisition in HSV-2 positive individuals. To test this hypothesis we used an in vivo rhesus macaque (RM) model of HSV-2 vaginal infection and a new ex vivo model of macaque vaginal explants. In vivo we found that HSV-2 latently infected RMs appeared to be more susceptible to vaginal SHIVSF162P3 infection, had higher frequency of α4β7 high CD4+ T cells in the vaginal tissue and higher expression of α4β7 and CD11c on vaginal DCs. Similarly, ex vivo HSV-2 infection increased the susceptibility of the vaginal tissue to SHIVSF162P3. HSV-2 infection increased the frequencies of α4β7 high CD4+ T cells and this directly correlated with HSV-2 replication. A higher amount of inflammatory cytokines in vaginal fluids of the HSV-2 infected animals was similar to those found in the supernatants of the infected explants. Remarkably, the HSV-2-driven increase in the frequency of α4β7 high CD4+ T cells directly correlated with SHIV replication in the HSV-2 infected tissues. Our results suggest that the HSV-2-driven increase in availability of CD4+ T cells and DCs that express high levels of α4β7 is associated with the increase in susceptibility to SHIV due to HSV-2. This may persists in absence of HSV-2 shedding. Hence, higher availability of α4β7 positive HIV target cells in the vaginal tissue may constitute a risk factor for HIV transmission. © 2014.


Nowak E.,International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology | Miller J.T.,Frederick National Laboratory | Bona M.K.,Frederick National Laboratory | Studnicka J.,International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology | And 4 more authors.
Nature Structural and Molecular Biology | Year: 2014

Retrotransposons are a class of mobile genetic elements that replicate by converting their single-stranded RNA intermediate to double-stranded DNA through the combined DNA polymerase and ribonuclease H (RNase H) activities of the element-encoded reverse transcriptase (RT). Although a wealth of structural information is available for lentiviral and gammaretroviral RTs, equivalent studies on counterpart enzymes of long terminal repeat (LTR)-containing retrotransposons, from which they are evolutionarily derived, is lacking. In this study, we report the first crystal structure of a complex of RT from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae LTR retrotransposon Ty3 in the presence of its polypurine tract-containing RNA-DNA hybrid. In contrast to its retroviral counterparts, Ty3 RT adopts an asymmetric homodimeric architecture whose assembly is substrate dependent. Moreover, our structure and biochemical data suggest that the RNase H and DNA polymerase activities are contributed by individual subunits of the homodimer. © 2014 Nature America, Inc.


Newman D.J.,Frederick National Laboratory | Giddings L.-A.,Frederick National Laboratory
Phytochemistry Reviews | Year: 2014

The discussion in this short review emphasizes that the main and future source of novel natural products as leads to antitumor agents is probably in the areas of biology that cannot be seen, i.e. the microbial world. The review discusses the role of microbes in the production of secondary metabolites that were initially thought to be from marine invertebrates and goes on to discuss the potential for a number of well-known anticancer agents isolated from plant sources to actually be the products of a microbe-plant interaction and finishes with a discussion of the potential of microbial "cryptic clusters" as sources of novel agents/leads to anti-tumor treatments. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media.


Cragg G.M.,Frederick National Laboratory | Grothaus P.G.,Frederick National Laboratory | Newman D.J.,Frederick National Laboratory
Journal of Natural Products | Year: 2014

There is mounting urgency to find new drugs for the treatment of serious infectious diseases and cancer that are rapidly developing resistance to previously effective drugs. One approach to addressing this need is through drug repurposing, which refers to the discovery of new useful activities for "old" clinically used drugs through screening them against relevant disease targets. A large number of potential drug that, for various reasons, have failed to advance to clinical and commercial use can be added to the candidates available for such purposes. The application of new techniques and methodology developed through the impressive progress made in multidisciplinary, natural product-related research in recent years should aid substantially in expediting the discovery and development process. This review briefly outlines some of these developments as applied to a number of selected natural product examples, which may also include advances in chemical synthesis of derivatives with extended biological activities. © 2014 The American Chemical Society and American Society of Pharmacognosy.


Nowak E.,International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology | Potrzebowski W.,International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology | Konarev P.V.,German Electron Synchrotron | Rausch J.W.,Frederick National Laboratory | And 6 more authors.
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2013

A key step in proliferation of retroviruses is the conversion of their RNA genome to double-stranded DNA, a process catalysed by multifunctional reverse transcriptases (RTs). Dimeric and monomeric RTs have been described, the latter exemplified by the enzyme of Moloney murine leukaemia virus. However, structural information is lacking that describes the substrate binding mechanism for a monomeric RT. We report here the first crystal structure of a complex between an RNA/DNA hybrid substrate and polymerase-connection fragment of the single-subunit RT from xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus, a close relative of Moloney murine leukaemia virus. A comparison with p66/p51 human immunodeficiency virus-1 RT shows that substrate binding around the polymerase active site is conserved but differs in the thumb and connection subdomains. Small-angle X-ray scattering was used to model full-length xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus RT, demonstrating that its mobile RNase H domain becomes ordered in the presence of a substrate - a key difference between monomeric and dimeric RTs. © The Author(s) 2013. Published by Oxford University Press.


PubMed | Frederick National Laboratory
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Marine drugs | Year: 2014

The marine habitat has produced a significant number of very potent marine-derived agents that have the potential to inhibit the growth of human tumor cells in vitro and, in a number of cases, in both in vivo murine models and in humans. Although many agents have entered clinical trials in cancer, to date, only Cytarabine, Yondelis (ET743), Eribulin (a synthetic derivative based on the structure of halichondrin B), and the dolastatin 10 derivative, monomethylauristatin E (MMAE or vedotin) as a warhead, have been approved for use in humans (Adcetris). In this review, we show the compounds derived from marine sources that are currently in clinical trials against cancer. We have included brief discussions of the approved agents, where they are in trials to extend their initial approved activity (a common practice once an agent is approved), and have also included an extensive discussion of the use of auristatin derivatives as warheads, plus an area that has rarely been covered, the use of marine-derived agents to ameliorate the pain from cancers in humans, and to act as an adjuvant in immunological therapies.


PubMed | Frederick National Laboratory
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of natural products | Year: 2014

There is mounting urgency to find new drugs for the treatment of serious infectious diseases and cancer that are rapidly developing resistance to previously effective drugs. One approach to addressing this need is through drug repurposing, which refers to the discovery of new useful activities for old clinically used drugs through screening them against relevant disease targets. A large number of potential drug that, for various reasons, have failed to advance to clinical and commercial use can be added to the candidates available for such purposes. The application of new techniques and methodology developed through the impressive progress made in multidisciplinary, natural product-related research in recent years should aid substantially in expediting the discovery and development process. This review briefly outlines some of these developments as applied to a number of selected natural product examples, which may also include advances in chemical synthesis of derivatives with extended biological activities.

Loading Frederick National Laboratory collaborators
Loading Frederick National Laboratory collaborators