Fraunhofer Project Center for Software and Systems Engineering

Brazil

Fraunhofer Project Center for Software and Systems Engineering

Brazil
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Souza I.S.,Federal University of Pernambuco | Souza I.S.,Reuse in Software Engineering Group RiSE | Da Silva Gomes G.S.,Federal University of Bahia | Da Mota Silveira Neto P.A.,Federal University of Pernambuco | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Systems and Software | Year: 2013

In software product lines (SPL), scoping is a phase responsible for capturing, specifying and modeling features, and also their constraints, interactions and variations. The feature specification task, performed in this phase, is usually based on natural language, which may lead to lack of clarity, non-conformities and defects. Consequently, scoping analysts may introduce ambiguity, inconsistency, omissions and non-conformities. In this sense, this paper aims at gathering evidence about the effects of applying an inspection approach to feature specification for SPL. Data from a SPL reengineering project were analyzed in this work and the analysis indicated that the correction activity demanded more effort. Also, Pareto's principle showed that incompleteness and ambiguity reported higher non-conformity occurrences. Finally, the Poisson regression analysis showed that sub-domain risk information can be a good indicator for prioritization of sub-domains in the inspection activity.© 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Da Silva I.F.,Federal University of Pernambuco | Da Silva I.F.,West Parana State University | Da Mota Silveira Neto P.A.,Reuse in Software Engineering RiSE | O'Leary P.,Lero the Irish Software Engineering Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Systems and Software | Year: 2014

Software product line (SPL) engineering has been applied in several domains, especially in large-scale software development. Given the benefits experienced and reported, SPL engineering has increasingly garnered interest from small to medium-sized companies. It is possible to find a wide range of studies reporting on the challenges of running a SPL project in large companies. However, very little reports exist that consider the situation for small to medium-sized enterprises and these studies try develop universal truths for SPL without lessons learned from empirical evidence need to be contextualized. This study is a step towards bridging this gap in contextual evidence by characterizing the weaknesses discovered in the scoping (SC) and requirements (RE) disciplines of SPL. Moreover, in this study we conducted a case study in a small to medium sized enterprises (SMEs) to justify the use of agile methods when introducing the SPL SC and RE disciplines through the characterization of their bottlenecks. The results of the characterization indicated that ineffective communication and collaboration, long iteration cycles, and the absence of adaptability and flexibility can increase the effort and reduce motivation during project development. These issues can be mitigated by agile methods. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Soares L.R.,Federal University of Bahia | Potena P.,University of Alcalá | Machado I.D.C.,Federal University of Bahia | Crnkovic I.,Mälardalen University | And 2 more authors.
Proceedings - 40th Euromicro Conference Series on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2014 | Year: 2014

Software Product Lines (SPL) approach has been widely developed in academia and successfully applied in industry. Based on the selection of features, stakeholders can efficiently derive tailor-made programs satisfying different requirements. While SPL was very successful at building products based on identified features, achievements and preservation of many nonfunctional properties (NFPs) remain challenging. A knowledge how to deal with NFPs is still not fully obtained. In this paper, we present a systematic literature review of NFPs analysis for SPL products, focusing on runtime NFPs. The goal of the paper is twofold: (i) to present an holistic overview of SPL approaches that have been reported regarding the analysis of runtime NFPs, and (ii) to categorize NFPs treated in the scientific literature regarding development of SPLs. We analyzed 36 research papers, and identified that system performance attributes are typically the most considered. The results also aid future research studies in NFPs analysis by providing an unbiased view of the body of empirical evidence and by guiding future research directions. © 2014 IEEE.


Farias M.A.D.F.,Federal University of Bahia | Farias M.A.D.F.,Federal Institute of Sergipe | Ortins P.,Federal University of Bahia | Novais R.,Federal Institute of Bahia | And 3 more authors.
Proceedings of the International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering, SEKE | Year: 2014

Context. Distributed software development is currently a modern practice in software industry. This is especially true in Open Source Software (OSS) development community. Understanding how developers' practices are on those projects may guide communities to successfully manage their projects. Goal. We mined two repositories of the Apache Httpd project in order to gather information about its developers' behavior. Methods. We developed an approach to cross data gathered from mail list and source code repository through mining techniques. The approach uses software visualization to analyze the mined data. We conducted an experimental evaluation of the approach to assess the behavioral patterns from OSS development community. Results. The collected data built a rich set of information. The results highlight Apache developers' behavior patterns. We perceived that there is a correlation over time between emails and commits of the Apache Project developers. Conclusion. The use of data mining and software visualization to analyze crossing data sources can spot important properties of the development process. Copyright © 2014 by Knowledge Systems Institute Graduate School.


Magnavita R.,Fraunhofer Project Center for Software and Systems Engineering | Magnavita R.,Federal University of Bahia | Novais R.,Federal Institute of Bahia | Mendonca M.,Federal University of Bahia
ICEIS 2015 - 17th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems, Proceedings | Year: 2015

Software evolution produces large amounts of data which software engineers need to understand for their daily activities. The use of software visualization constitutes a promising approach to help them comprehend multiple aspects of the evolving software. However, portraying all the data is not an easy task as there are many dimensions to the data (e.g. time, files, properties) to be considered. This paper presents a new software visualization metaphor inspired by concentric waves, which gives information about the software evolution in different levels of detail. This new metaphor is able to portray large amount of data and may also be used to consider different dimensions of the data. It uses the concepts of the formation of concentric waves to map software evolution data generated during the waves formation life cycle. The metaphor is useful for exploring and identifying certain patterns in the software evolution. To evaluate its applicability, we conducted an exploratory study to show how the visualization can quickly answer different questions asked by software engineers when evolving their software. Copyright © 2015 SCITEPRESS - Science and Technology Publications.


Novais R.L.,Federal University of Bahia | Novais R.L.,Federal Institute of Bahia | Torres A.,Federal University of Bahia | Mendes T.S.,Federal University of Bahia | And 4 more authors.
Information and Software Technology | Year: 2013

Background Software evolution is an important topic in software engineering. It generally deals with large amounts of data, as one must look at whole project histories as opposed to their current snapshot. Software visualization is the field of software engineering that aims to help people to understand software through the use of visual resources. It can be effectively used to analyze and understand the large amount of data produced during software evolution. Objective This study investigates Software Evolution Visualization (SEV) approaches, collecting evidence about how SEV research is structured, synthesizing current evidence on the goals of the proposed approaches and identifying key challenges for its use in practice. Methods A mapping study was conducted to analyze how the SEV area is structured. Selected primary studies were classified and analyzed with respect to nine research questions. Results SEV has been used for many different purposes, especially for change comprehension, change prediction and contribution analysis. The analysis identified gaps in the studies with respect to their goals, strategies and approaches. It also pointed out to a widespread lack of empirical studies in the area. Conclusion Researchers have proposed many SEV approaches during the past years, but some have failed to clearly state their goals, tie them back to concrete problems, or formally validate their usefulness. The identified gaps indicate that there still are many opportunities to be explored in the area. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Soares L.R.,Federal University of Bahia | Do Carmo Machado I.,Federal University of Bahia | De Almeida E.S.,Federal University of Bahia | De Almeida E.S.,Fraunhofer Project Center for Software and Systems Engineering
ACM International Conference Proceeding Series | Year: 2015

Software Product Line Engineering (SPLE) emerges for software organizations interested in customized products at reasonable costs. Based on the selection of features, stakeholders can derive programs satisfying a range of functional properties and non-functional ones. The explicit definition of Non-Functional Properties (NFP) during software configuration has been considered a challenging task. Dealing with them is not well established yet, neither in theory nor in practice. In this sense, we present a framework to specify NFP for SPLE and we also propose a reuse approach that promotes the reuse of NFP values during the product configuration. We discuss the results of a case study aimed to evaluate the applicability of the proposed work. Copyright 2015 ACM.


Souza I.S.,Federal University of Bahia | Fiaccone R.,Federal University of Bahia | De Oliveira R.P.,Federal University of Bahia | De Almeida E.S.,Federal University of Bahia | De Almeida E.S.,Fraunhofer Project Center for Software and Systems Engineering
Proceedings - 2013 27th Brazilian Symposium on Software Engineering, SBES 2013 | Year: 2013

Within Software Product Lines (SPL) features are well understood and facilitate the communication among SPL developers and domain experts. However, the feature specification task is usually based on natural language, which can present lack of clarity, non-conformities and defects. In order to understand the feature non-conformity in SPL, this paper presents an empirical study to investigate the possible correlation between feature granularity and feature non-conformity, based on an SPL industrial project in the medical domain. The investigation aims at exploring the features non-conformities and their likely root causes using results from a previous study, which captured and classified 137 features non-conformities, identified in 92 features. The findings indicated that there is significant association between the variables feature interaction and feature granularity. From predictive models to estimate feature non-conformities based on feature granularity and feature interaction values, the variable feature interaction presented positive influence on the feature non-conformity and the variable feature granularity presented negative influence on the variable feature non-conformity. © 2013 IEEE.


Dusse F.,Federal University of Bahia | Junior P.S.,Fraunhofer Project Center for Software and Systems Engineering | Junior P.S.,Federal University of Bahia | Alves A.T.,Federal University of Bahia | And 6 more authors.
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2016

Background: Emergency management (EM) refers to the ability to deal with emergency tasks in different phases and iterations. To do this, each task requires many and different types of information coming from several sources related to the incident. As people working in an emergency situation are generally under stress and have to make quick and effective decisions, they need to assimilate the received information in an easy and intuitive way. Information visualization (InfoVis) is the study of visual representations of abstract data to reinforce human cognition to understand these data through 2D computer screens. It is frequently used to analyze and understand the huge amount of multidimensional data produced in an emergency. Objective: This study analyzes how researchers use information visualization tools to improve emergency management. Our general objective is to map the area examining both the scientific community and the contributions that have been published in the literature, aiming to provide information, such as: understanding how the area is structured, common practices in existing works, and research gaps. Methods: A systematic mapping study was conducted to analyze the available information visualization tools and their applications in EM activities. A thorough search was carried out and a formal selection process was applied to gather all relevant articles on the subject. Selected primary studies were classified and analyzed with respect to their metadata and to answer eight research questions related to our mapping goal. In total, 196 studies were analyzed in depth. Results: The mapping study identified the most common visualization techniques applied in emergency management, the common environments and phases where they are applied, identifying gaps and also possible trends in the subject. We found out that particular issues concerning emergency management are not fully covered by existing visualization approaches, and when covered, existing literature provides only partial solutions. Conclusion: Our results provide a deep analysis on the application of InfoVis in the EM area, supporting researchers and developers in EM systems with insightful information on trending techniques in use, command practices and existing research gaps. We expect that these findings can support them on proposing new approaches to solve open problems in the area. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


De Oliveira R.P.,Federal University of Bahia | Insfran E.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Abrahao S.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Gonzalez-Huerta J.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | And 4 more authors.
Proceedings - 7th Brazilian Symposium on Software Components, Architectures and Reuse, SBCARs 2013 - In Conjunction with CBSoft 2013 - 4th Brazilian Conference on Software: Theory and Practice | Year: 2013

The importance of Requirements Engineering within software development has long been established and recognized by researchers and practitioners. Within Software Product Lines (SPL), this activity is even more critical because it needs to cope with common, variable, and product-specific requirements not only for a single product but for the whole set of products in the family. In this paper, we present a Feature-Driven Requirements Engineering approach (FeDRE) that provides support to the requirements specification of software product lines. The approach follows a strategy where features are realized into functional requirements considering the variability captured in a feature model. It also provides guidelines on how to associate chunks of features from a feature model and to consider them as the context for the Use Case specification. The feasibility of the approach is illustrated in a case study for developing an SPL of mobile applications for emergency notifications. Preliminary evaluations on the perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness of requirements analysts using the approach are also presented. © 2013 IEEE.

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