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A recent study supported by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) used SWOT analysis to assess the food and nutrition sector in the academic world and industry and to derive recommendations for future developments to enhance Germany's scientific strength and competitiveness. Academic education and research at universities and technical colleges were analysed for their abilities to match expected market needs and to meet scientific challenges. Although numerous programs are offered, a scientific critical mass is rarely found, as almost all activities are defined by teaching needs but not scientific excellence. In addition, only very few governmental research centres have research programs in place for nutrition and food science. Bearing in mind the economic significance of food and nutrition, their importance in the job market, the growing demand for foods in world markets and the new requirements in food production (sustainability, ecology, diversification and consumer demands), Germany seems to be inadequately prepared for future research demands in food and nutrition sciences. However, expert panels emphasised that the variety and multi-disciplinarity in the numerous academic programs offered by German universities is a unique strength. Nevertheless, the more specialised sciences become, the more difficult it is to provide both skills for specialisation and interdisciplinarity. Growing student numbers, a major increase in teaching needs initiated by the Bologna reforms and the insufficient financial and human resources jeopardize to an even greater extent the future development of academic research in universities and, in particular, the career perspectives of PhD students and gifted post-docs. It was accepted that more dedicated programs should be offered at technical colleges for the food and nutrition sector. In contrast, research universities should sharpen their profile, with the early integration of students into research projects, fostering creativity and developing coherent career perspectives, especially for the large number of female students. If this is not accomplished, academic research at German universities may disappear. A concerted effort from all stakeholders is needed to prevent this. Source


Sirtori E.,Laboratorio Of Chimica Degli Alimenti E Spettrometria Of Massa | Resta D.,HPF Nutraceutics | Brambilla F.,Laboratorio Of Chimica Degli Alimenti E Spettrometria Of Massa | Zacherl C.,Fraunhofer Institute For Verfahrenstechnik Und Verpackung | Arnoldi A.,Laboratorio Of Chimica Degli Alimenti E Spettrometria Of Massa
Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Lupin protein is a promising ingredient in functional foods because of its purported hypocholesterolaemic and hypotensive activities. In this study a lupin protein isolate from Lupinus angustifolius was thermally and mechanically treated and the effects on its protein profile were determined. As a preliminary step, the main protein components of L. angustifolius were identified, using the canonical proteomic approach, including 2D-separation and mass spectrometry and, whenever necessary, also "de novo peptide sequencing". Most of the main spots were assigned to the major lupin storage proteins: α-conglutin, β-conglutin, γ-conglutin, and δ-conglutin. The protein degradation induced by the different treatments was studied via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), 2D-electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry, in order to get the fingerprint of the intact peptides after processing. The results indicate that, even after harsh industrial processing, α-, β- and δ-conglutin are still able to release stable peptides, although they are completely or partially degraded, as shown by the 2D protein profiles and the DSC graphs. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Marwede M.,TU Berlin | Berger W.,BAM Federal Institute of Materials Research and Testing | Schlummer M.,Fraunhofer Institute For Verfahrenstechnik Und Verpackung | Maurer A.,Fraunhofer Institute For Verfahrenstechnik Und Verpackung | Reller A.,Universitatsstr 1a
Renewable Energy | Year: 2013

Thin film chalcogenide photovoltaic technologies (CIGS, CdTe) make use of critical and toxic materials. Therefore a sound recycling of production waste and of end-of-life PV modules is essential to increase the availability of critical materials and to decrease the environmental impact of the products. Several processes to recover metals and semiconductors from thin-film PV modules have been developed, with some being operated at pilot scale. This paper presents an overview of proven recycling concepts. The approaches were divided into three steps: "delamination of the modules", "decoating of the substrate" and "extraction and refining of the metals and semiconductors" to illustrate possible recycling paths. For each step feasible mechanical or chemical processes are presented and their advantages and drawbacks are described. The results show that recycling technologies for chalcogenide photovoltaic modules are sufficiently explored and commercially available. However, the responsibility to set up efficient collection and recycling systems is in the hands of the PV producers and must be supported by appropriate policies. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Zacherl C.,Fraunhofer Institute For Verfahrenstechnik Und Verpackung | Eisner P.,Fraunhofer Institute For Verfahrenstechnik Und Verpackung | Engel K.-H.,TU Munich
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Binding and excretion of bile acids in the small intestine by water-soluble and insoluble dietary fibres is one of the main mechanisms for their cholesterol-lowering effects. A model for the determination of the bile acid-binding capacity of dietary fibres was developed. The experimental set-up allowed to correlate the bile acid-binding capacities of different fibres with their viscosities after in vitro digestion. For cellulose, native oat fibre and psyllium fibres clear correlations between viscosity and bile acid-binding capacity could be observed, whereas for water-insoluble lupin fibre such a correlation did not exist. Heat-damaged oat fibre also showed bile acid-binding despite of significantly decreased viscosity. The data demonstrated that bile acid-binding of digested dietary fibres may not be solely based on their viscosity but may be influenced by additional binding forces. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Schindler S.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Zelena K.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Krings U.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Bez J.,Fraunhofer Institute For Verfahrenstechnik Und Verpackung | And 2 more authors.
Food Biotechnology | Year: 2012

The formation of a green or beany off-flavor during storage of legume protein extracts limits their application in foods. Pea protein extracts were submitted to lactic acid fermentations to improve the flavor by either reducing off-flavor formation or by masking undesirable green notes. The aroma profiles of untreated pea protein extract (PPE) and fermented pea protein extract (PPEF) were compared to each other and to a commercial whey protein as a benchmark. Kinetic measurements of n-hexanal and n-hexanol formation were used as an indicator for progressing lipid oxidation and storage stability. The nonfermented and fermented pea protein extracts showed a shelf-life comparable to the commercial whey protein reference. Volatiles were identified and quantified using dynamic headspace sampling with subsequent coupled TDS-GC-MS and TDS-GC-olfactometry flavor dilution analysis. A total of 18 odorants with dilution factors equal to or higher than 100 were determined in PPE and 17 in PPEF. Altogether, 23 highly odor-active compounds were identified according to their mass spectra, odor impressions, linear retention indices, and standard substances in PPE and PPEF, among them n-hexanal, 1-pyrroline, dimethyl trisulfide, 1-octen-3-one, 2,5-dimethyl pyrazine, 3-octen-2-one, β-damascenone, and guaiacol. The fermentation considerably amended the aroma profile of pea protein preparations resulting in a reduction or a masking of undesirable flavors. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

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