Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research

Karlsruhe, Germany

Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research

Karlsruhe, Germany
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Klingler A.-L.,Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research
Applied Energy | Year: 2017

The market diffusion of self-consumption technologies, such as photovoltaic and battery systems, is an important aspect in the transition towards a sustainable energy system. Most studies, which address this issue, focus solely on economic aspects and neglect the influence of individual electricity consumption behaviour and consumer preferences on the individual benefit of a self-consumption system. Yet, preferences and behaviour have a significant impact in the market uptake of new technologies, as can be seen in the current sales figures of batteries for the purpose of self-consumption enhancement. The technology is purchased, even though it is still far from economically viable. In this study, a market diffusion model is proposed that is based on 415 individual electricity load profiles, which define the homeowners' consumption behaviour. Additionally, the results of a market survey are included to explicitly model different user groups and map their varying willingness to pay. The results show that homeowners who are likely to adopt a self-consumption technology are on average characterised by higher annual electricity consumption. The consumption behaviour, and therefore the load profiles are heterogeneous within each user group and therefore, also the individual utility of a battery for self-consumption enhancement differs significantly. The results show that the suggested modelling approach is able to explain the past development of battery installations in private households in Germany. Up until 2030, the model simulations suggest a moderate development of battery enhanced self-consumption, resulting in a battery of 2. GW. h in private households in 2030. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.

Dutschke E.,Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research | Paetz A.-G.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Energy Policy | Year: 2013

Dynamic pricing is being discussed as one method of demand side management (DSM) which could be crucial for integrating more renewable energy sources into the electricity system. At the same time, there have been very few analyses of consumer preferences in this regard: Which type of pricing program are consumers most likely to choose and why? This paper sheds some light on these issues based on two empirical studies from Germany: (1) A questionnaire study including a conjoint analysis-design and (2) A field experiment with test-residents of a smart home laboratory. The results show that consumers are open to dynamic pricing, but prefer simple programs to complex and highly dynamic ones; smart home technologies including demand automation are seen as a prerequisite for DSM. The study provides some indications that consumers might be more willing to accept more dynamic pricing programs if they have the chance to experience in practice how these can be managed in everyday life. At the same time, the individual and societal advantages of such programs are not obvious to consumers. For this reason, any market roll-out will need to be accompanied by convincing communication and information campaigns to ensure that these advantages are perceived. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Walz R.,Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2011

In order to come up with a sound assessment of the effects of material efficiency innovations on growth, employment and competitiveness, different economic mechanisms have to be considered. From a methodological point of view, the analysis must be able to account for technology specific aspects. The employment impacts of five innovations are analyzed: plastic and paper recycling, increased life span of automobiles, car sharing, and bio-based products. Time horizons for all strategies are scenarios until 2020. The economic impacts are context specific with regard to innovation, technology and country. The economic impacts highlight substantial structural adjustments. The overall economic net impact on employment tends to be neutral to positive. Stronger positive economic impacts result if first mover advantages can be established. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Klobasa M.,Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research
IET Renewable Power Generation | Year: 2010

Demand response represents an additional option for reserve capacity as first market experiences have demonstrated. An analysis for Germany shows capacities up to 3GW and costs starting at 30euro/MWh in the industrial sector, 8GW in the commercial sector and more than 20GW in the residential sector including night storage heating. Simulations of the German power system showed that using these potentials together with improved wind power predictions can limit the additional balancing costs in Germany to below 2 euro/MWh feed-in by wind turbines with 48GW wind power in 2020. © 2009 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.

Kohler J.,Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research
Journal of Environment and Development | Year: 2014

This article assesses the potential contribution for international shipping and long-haul aviation to contribute to sustainable development (SD). The trade literature shows that newly industrializing countries are benefitting from international trade for export-led growth. However, the least developed countries with limited access to international trade networks do not participate in the new global production networks. The World Trade Organization/General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change regimes do not have the development of more sustainable transport systems as a priority. In this sense, international transport remains on the fringes of the environment and development policy fields. Three transition pathways to SD have been developed: (a) information and telecommunications technologies leading to particip.ation of least developed countries in global production networks, (b) changes in social preferences toward a high priority for the environment, leading to an extensive growth in fair-trade networks and sustainable production and consumption, and (c) SD from economic growth in newly industrializing countries, with an increased priority placed on solving environmental problems. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions:

Mallig N.,Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research
Journal of Informetrics | Year: 2010

In this article a relational database schema for a bibliometric database is developed. After the introduction explaining the motivation to use relational databases in bibliometrics, an overview of the related literature is given. A review of typical bibliometric questions serves as an informal requirement analysis. The database schema is developed as an entity-relationship diagram using the structural information typically found in scientific articles. Several SQL queries for the tasks presented in the requirement analysis show the usefulness of the developed database schema. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Dallinger D.,Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research | Gerda S.,Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research | Wietschel M.,Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research
Applied Energy | Year: 2013

This paper describes a method to characterize the fluctuating electricity generation of renewable energy sources (RESs) in a power system and compares the different parameters for California and Germany. Based on this method describing the fluctuation and residual load, the potential contribution of grid-connected vehicles to balancing generation from renewable energy sources is analyzed for a 2030 scenario using the agent-based simulation model PowerACE. The analysis reveals that integrating fluctuating RES is possible with less effort in California because of a higher correlation between RES generation and the load curve here. In addition, RES capacity factors are higher for California and therefore the ratio of installed capacity to peak load is lower. Germany, on the other hand, faces extreme residual load changes between periods with and without supply from RES. In both power system scenarios, grid-connected vehicles play an important role in reducing residual load fluctuation if smart charging is used. Uncontrolled charging or static time-of-use tariffs do not significantly improve the grid integration of RES. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Graedel T.E.,Yale University | Erdmann L.,Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research
MRS Bulletin | Year: 2012

Materials scientists today employ essentially the entire periodic table in creating modern technology. In an age of sharply increasing usage, it is reasonable to wonder about the supplies of these elemental building blocks. In this article, we review current and prospective supply and demand for a variety of metals. Although data are often sparse, available information suggests that current practices are likely to lead to scarcity for some metals in the not-too-distant future. We conclude by discussing policies that, if adopted, might defuse some of these concerns. © 2012 Materials Research Society.

Dallinger D.,Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research | Wietschel M.,Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2012

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are expected to balance the fluctuation of renewable energy sources (RES). To investigate the contribution of PEVs, the availability of mobile battery storage and the control mechanism for load management are crucial. This study therefore combined the following: a stochastic model to determine mobility behavior, an optimization model to minimize vehicle charging costs and an agent-based electricity market equilibrium model to estimate variable electricity prices. The variable electricity prices are calculated based on marginal generation costs. Hence, because of the merit order effect, the electricity prices provide incentives to consume electricity when the supply of renewable generation is high. Depending on the price signals and mobility behavior, PEVs calculate a cost minimizing charging schedule and therefore balance the fluctuation of RES. The analysis shows that it is possible to limit the peak load using the applied control mechanism. The contribution of PEVs to improving the integration of intermittent renewable power generation into the grid depends on the characteristic of the RES generation profile. For the German 2030 scenario used here, the negative residual load was reduced by 15-22% and the additional consumption of negative residual load was between 34 and 52%. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Dutschke E.,Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research
Energy Procedia | Year: 2011

Local projects on carbon storage that have been started in Germany in recent years have induced positive to neutral reactions as well as strong opposition by the local public. In this paper, a comparative case study of two storage projects is presented: The first case under study is the CO 2Sink research project at Ketzin which has started to inject CO 2 in 2008 and has been well accepted by local politicians and the local public. It is compared to a project initiated by Vattenfall at Beeskow where Vattenfall wants to explore whether the region is suitable for large scale commercial on shore storage and has met strong local opposition by several societal stakeholders. Cases are compared regarding project properties, communication strategies and public perception, as well as local context and history in order to identify factors that contributed to the respective positive or negative reaction. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

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