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The Fraunhofer Society is a German research organization with 67 institutes spread throughout Germany, each focusing on different fields of applied science . It employs around 23,000 people, mainly scientists and engineers, with an annual research budget of about €1.7 billion. Some basic funding for the Fraunhofer Society is provided by the state , but more than 70% of the funding is earned through contract work, either for government-sponsored projects or from industry.It is named after Joseph von Fraunhofer who, as a scientist, an engineer, and an entrepreneur, is said to have superbly exemplified the goals of the society.The organization has seven centers in the United States, under the name “Fraunhofer USA”, and three in Asia. In October 2010, Fraunhofer announced that it would open its first research center in South America.Fraunhofer UK Research Ltd was established along with the Fraunhofer Centre for Applied Photonics, in Glasgow, Scotland, in March 2012. Wikipedia.


Green M.A.,University of New South Wales | Emery K.,National Renewable Energy Laboratory | Hishikawa Y.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Warta W.,Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems | Dunlop E.D.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra
Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications | Year: 2014

Consolidated tables showing an extensive listing of the highest independently confirmed efficiencies for solar cells and modules are presented. Guidelines for inclusion of results into these tables are outlined and new entries since January 2014 are reviewed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Green M.A.,University of New South Wales | Emery K.,National Renewable Energy Laboratory | Hishikawa Y.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Warta W.,Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems | Dunlop E.D.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra
Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications | Year: 2014

Consolidated tables showing an extensive listing of the highest independently confirmed efficiencies for solar cells and modules are presented. Guidelines for inclusion of results into these tables are outlined, and new entries since July 2013 are reviewed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Kuhn T.E.,Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2014

The paper describes procedures for the direct calorimetric measurement of the solar heat gain coefficient g in detail. g is also called SHGC, solar factor, g-value or total solar energy transmittance TSET. All these terms are used synonymously in this document although there are some differences in the details of the definitions of these properties (e.g. different reference wind conditions or reference solar spectra). The document aims to summarize more than 25 years of experience in g-value testing at Fraunhofer ISE, Freiburg, Germany, which includes many different transparent and translucent building materials ranging from transparent insulation materials to daylighting and solar control systems and active solar energy harvesting facade components like building-integrated PV systems (BIPV) or building-integrated solar thermal collectors (BIST). The document focuses on methods for the calorimetric measurement of g under steady-state laboratory conditions. Transient outdoor measurements are beyond the scope of this paper. It also describes the corresponding error analysis and methods to correct experimentally determined values gexp to reference conditions, if it is not possible to reproduce the reference boundary conditions exactly in the laboratory. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Gerteisen D.,Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2010

The present dynamic model is developed to investigate the coupled reaction mechanisms in a DMFC and therein associated voltage losses in the catalyst layers. The model describes a complete five-layer membrane electrode assembly (MEA), with gas diffusion layers, catalyst layers and membrane. The analysis of the performance losses are mainly focused on the electrochemical processes. The model accounts for the crossover of both, methanol from anode to cathode and oxygen from cathode to anode. The reactant crossover results in parasitic internal currents that are finally responsible for high overpotentials in both electrodes, so-called mixed potentials. A simplified and general reaction mechanism for the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) was selected, that accounts for the coverage of active sites by intermediate species occurring during the MOR. The simulation of the anode potential relaxation after current interruption shows an undershoot behavior like it was measured in the experiment [1]. The model gives an explanation of this phenomenon by the transients of reactant crossover in combination with the change of CO and OH coverages on Pt and Ru, respectively. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Green M.A.,University of New South Wales | Emery K.,National Renewable Energy Laboratory | Hishikawa Y.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Warta W.,Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems | Dunlop E.D.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra
Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications | Year: 2015

Consolidated tables showing an extensive listing of the highest independently confirmed efficiencies for solar cells and modules are presented. Guidelines for inclusion of results into these tables are outlined and new entries since July 2014 are reviewed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

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