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Dieterle L.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Bockstaller P.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Gerthsen D.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Hayd J.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Advanced Energy Materials | Year: 2011

Nanocrystalline La 1-x Sr x CoO 3-δ (LSC) thin films with a nominal Sr-content of x= 0.4 were deposited on Ce 09Gd 0.1O 1.95 electrolyte substrates using a low temperature sol-gel process. The structural and chemical properties of the LSC thin films were studied after thermal treatment, which included a calcination step and a variable, extended annealing time at 700°C or 800°C. Transmission electron microscopy combined with selected-area electron diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, and scanning transmission electron microscopy tomography was applied for the investigation of grain size, porosity, microstructure, and analysis of the local chemical composition and element distribution on the nanoscale. The area specific resistance (ASR) values of the thin film LSC cathodes, which include the lowest ASR value reported so far (ASR chem = 0.023 Ωcm 2 at 600°C) can be interpreted on the basis of the structural and chemical characterization. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Source


Bose H.,Fraunhofer Institute For Silicatforschung | Uhl D.,Fraunhofer Institute For Silicatforschung
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2013

Beside the characteristics of the elastomer material itself, the performance of dielectric elastomers in actuator, sensor as well as generator applications depends also on the properties of the electrode material. Various electrode materials based on metallic particles dispersed in a silicone matrix were manufactured and investigated. Anisotropic particles such as silver-coated copper flakes and silver-coated glass flakes were used for the preparation of the electrodes. The concentration of the metallic particles and the thickness of the electrode layers were varied. Specific conductivities derived from resistance measurements reached about 100 S/cm and surmount those of the reference materials based on graphite and carbon black by up to three orders of magnitude. The high conductivities of the new electrode materials can be maintained even at very large stretch deformations up to 200 %. © 2013 SPIE. Source


Glaubitt W.,Fraunhofer Institute For Silicatforschung | Lobmann P.,Fraunhofer Institute For Silicatforschung
Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Thin films being composed of a nanoporous SiO2 network and silica nanoparticles were prepared on glass substrates by sol-gel processing. The surfaces combine anti-reflective (AR) and anti-soiling properties as demonstrated in laboratory testing and long term outdoor exposure. Films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is shown that both, the structure of the nanoporous matrix as well as the particle density, contribute to this effect, the influence of relative humidity (RH) during dust exposure was investigated. Due to their generally improved solar transmittance and dust-repellant properties the coatings are believed to have a vast potential for many photovoltaic and solar thermal applications. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Bose H.,Fraunhofer Institute For Silicatforschung | Fuss E.,Fraunhofer Institute For Silicatforschung
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2014

Beside their application in actuation and energy harvesting, dielectric elastomers (DE) have also strong capabilities for stretch-sensing based on capacitive measurements. However, for compression detection the simple state-of-the-art DE films are too insensitive. In order to close this gap, a novel class of DE sensors for compression measurements has been developed. The new sensor mats consist of two flexible elastomer profiles, between which an elastomer film is squeezed, converting the compression to a stretch load. With this mechanism, very high sensitivities of the capacitive measurement under compression load are achieved. Furthermore, various parameters which influence the characteristics of the sensor mat have been identified. Most relevant are the shape of the profiles, the number and design of the electrode layers as well as the hardness of the profiles and of the elastomer film. The high variability of the sensor mat design offers farreaching possibilities to tune the characteristics of the compressions sensor in terms of the dependence of capacitance on the load force. The basic principles of the design of the new compression sensor mats are outlined and various examples of such flexible sensors are introduced in this paper. © 2014 SPIE. Source


Glaubitt W.,Fraunhofer Institute For Silicatforschung | Lobmann P.,Fraunhofer Institute For Silicatforschung
Journal of the European Ceramic Society | Year: 2012

Sol-gel processing is a powerful tool to prepare antireflective (AR) coatings on optical surfaces. In this paper the different strategies to obtain antireflective properties are reviewed: porous λ/4 layers, multilayer interference-type films and index-gradient materials such as "moth eye" structures. The processing of the respective films is described and evaluated; references to respective commercial products on glass substrates are given. AR coatings may have a particularly high importance for transparent ceramics as their index of refraction is significantly higher than that of common glass types. Reflective losses therefore are higher which is especially unpleasant for materials with a yet improvable intrinsic transparency. Recent studies indicate that specific porous λ/4 layers may exhibit pronounced anti-soiling features. Laboratory experiments as well as outdoor exposure tests were used to demonstrate the dust-repellant properties. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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