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Fitzpatrick C.,University of Limerick | Hickey S.,University of Limerick | Schischke K.,Fraunhofer Institute for Reliability and Microintegration | Maher P.,MicroPro Multimedia Computers
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2014

This paper describes the life cycle engineering of an integrated desktop computer system from the perspective of a small to medium enterprise (SME). Using a novel approach which considers the motivations of actors at various stages during the life cycle of the PC it attempts to engineer the lifecycle through design features which have been chosen to influence these critical decision points leading to more desirable pathways from an environmental perspective. Using these motivations it extracts design principles and ultimately design and service features to (1) promote long lifetime with the original user (2) facilitate refurbishment and reuse (3) be easy to disassemble and (4) contain minimal valueless fractions at end of life. This has been achieved largely through two specific design features and supported by post-sale services to the consumer. The first of these features is a high quality finish using a solid hardwood chassis to create an emotionally durable product that is easy to refurbish and eliminates negative value plastic fractions at end of life. The second feature is a strong focus on ease of disassembly to facilitate upgrade, refurbishment and deep disassembly at end of life. The service offering is also crucial and upgrade services and buy back are available. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Moro A.J.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Cywinski P.J.,University of Potsdam | Korsten S.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Mohr G.J.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Mohr G.J.,Fraunhofer Institute for Reliability and Microintegration
Chemical Communications | Year: 2010

A fluorescent naphthalimide chemosensor for ATP bearing a dipicolylamine group complexed with a Zn(ii) metal as a receptor moiety was synthesized and its sensing properties regarding ATP and other related phosphate species were evaluated. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Schulz A.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Schulz A.,Dublin City University | Wotschadlo J.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Heinze T.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Materials Chemistry | Year: 2010

This article describes the synthesis and characterisation of poly(acrylamide) nanoparticles (NPs) with a covalently immobilised pH-sensitive fluorophore. With a pKa of 6.7, good photostability, emission in the visible spectral range and large Stokes' shift the naphthalimide-based pH-indicator is well suited for bio-analytical applications. Additionally, the nanosensors contain a pH-insensitive reference fluorophore that allows the ratiometric monitoring of pH e.g. inside living cells. In order to enhance the cellular uptake and endosomal escape of the beads, novel core-shell nanoparticles bearing a positive ζ-potential are synthesised and evaluated. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2010.

Rotter V.S.,TU Berlin | Chancerel P.,Fraunhofer Institute for Reliability and Microintegration | Schill W.-P.,German Institute for Economic Research
Waste Management and Research | Year: 2011

In theory, individual producer responsibility (IPR) creates incentives for 'design-for-recycling'. Yet in practice, implementing IPR is challenging, particularly if applied to waste electric and electronic equipment. This article discusses different options for implementing IPR schemes under German WEEE legislation. In addition, practical aspects of a German 'return share' brand sampling scheme are examined. Concerning 'new' WEEE put on the market after 13 August 2006, producers in Germany can choose between two different methods of calculating take-back obligations. These can be determined on the basis of 'return shares' or 'market shares'. While market shares are regularly monitored by a national clearing house, the 'return share' option requires sampling and sorting of WEEE. Herein it is shown that the specifics of the German WEEE take-back scheme require high sample sizes and multi-step test procedures to ensure a statistically sound sampling approach. Since the market share allocation continues to apply for historic waste, producers lack incentives for choosing the costly brand sampling option. However, even return share allocation might not imply a decisive step towards IPR, as it merely represents an alternative calculation of market shares. Yet the fundamental characteristics of the German take-back system remain unchanged: the same anonymous mix of WEEE goes to the same treatment operations. © The Author(s) 2011.

Schneider-Ramelow M.,Fraunhofer Institute for Reliability and Microintegration | Geissler U.,TU Berlin | Schmitz S.,Fraunhofer Institute for Reliability and Microintegration | Grubl W.,Conti Temic Microelectronics GmbH | Schuch B.,Conti Temic Microelectronics GmbH
Journal of Electronic Materials | Year: 2013

Starting in the 1980s and continuing right into the last decade, a great deal of research has been published on Cu ball/wedge (Cu B/W) wire bonding. Despite this, the technology has not been established in industrial manufacturing to any meaningful extent. Only spikes in the price of Au, improvements in equipment and techniques, and better understanding of the Cu wire-bonding process have seen Cu B/W bonding become more widespread - initially primarily for consumer goods manufacturing. Cu wire bonding is now expected to soon be used for at least 20% of all ball/wedge-bonded components, and its utilization in more sophisticated applications is around the corner. In light of this progress, the present paper comprehensively reviews the existing literature on this topic and discusses wire-bonding materials, equipment, and tools in the ongoing development of Cu B/W bonding technology. Key bonding techniques, such as flame-off, how to prevent damage to the chip (cratering), and bond formation on various common chip and substrate finishes are also described. Furthermore, apart from discussing quality assessment of Cu wire bonds in the initial state, the paper also provides an overview of Cu bonding reliability, in particular regarding Cu balls on Al metalization at high temperatures and in humidity (including under the influence of halide ions). © 2013 TMS.

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