Fraunhofer Institute For Optronik

Ettlingen, Germany

Fraunhofer Institute For Optronik

Ettlingen, Germany
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Gunter W.H.,Institute for Maritime Technology | February F.,Institute for Maritime Technology | Seiffer D.P.,Fraunhofer Institute For Optronik | Eisele C.,Fraunhofer Institute For Optronik
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2016

The First European South African Experiment (FESTER) was conducted over about a 10 month period at the Institute of Maritime Technology (IMT) in False Bay, South Africa. One of the principal goals was recording of static and dynamic thermal infrared signatures under different environmental conditions for both validations of existing thermal equilibrium signature prediction codes, but also to aid development of dynamic thermal signature models. A small scientific work boat (called Sea Lab) was used as the principal target and sensor platform. Painted metal plates of different thicknesses were also used as infrared targets on-board Sea Lab to study static/dynamic thermal signatures and were also fitted with pyrgeometers, pyrometers and iButton temperature sensors/loggers. First results focused on the variable of thermal signatures as function of environmental conditions and the accuracy of calculated source temperatures (from measured radiometric temperatures) compared to the physical temperature measurements of the plates. © 2016 SPIE.

Irgenfried S.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Worn H.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Bergmann S.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Mohammadikaji M.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | And 2 more authors.
At-Automatisierungstechnik | Year: 2017

While computer aided inspection planning is state of the art for mechanical inspection planning (CAIP), it is rarely used to plan optical inspection systems for industrial machine vision. In this article a concept and prototype implementation is presented for the use of STEP CAD data enriched with optical material properties and tolerance information for parts and assemblies as a basis for semi-automatic design and optimization of system configuration for optical inspection systems. © 2017 Walter de Gruyter Berlin/Boston.

Bursing H.,Fraunhofer Institute For Optronik | Gross W.,Fraunhofer Institute For Optronik
Advanced Optical Technologies | Year: 2017

The idea behind hyperspectral imagers (HSI) is to generate an image with hundreds of contiguous narrow channels, the so-called spectral bands. As each material has a specific spectral signature, robust detection and classification of specific materials is now achievable. Spectra can be characterized by narrow features in their signatures that broadband and multispectral cameras cannot resolve. As a result of technical progress, new HSI with higher spatial resolution and better signal-To-noise ratios have been developed. Additionally, it is possible to buy small HSI that weigh less than 1 kg, which opens up new applications in surveillance and monitoring with unmanned aerial systems (UAS). Despite the capabilities of hyperspectral data evaluation, HSI is applied to surprisingly few tasks. This is a result of the sheer amount of recorded data that needs to be analyzed and the complex data pre-processing when the sensors are not used in a controlled environment. Also, extensive research is required to find the most efficient solution for a given task. The goal of this letter is to introduce and compare the different sensor techniques, discuss potential use for applications in civil security and give an outlook of future challenges. © 2017 THOSS Media & De Gruyter 2017.

Pestel-Schiller U.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Vogt K.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Ostermann J.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Gross W.,Fraunhofer Institute For Optronik
2016 Picture Coding Symposium, PCS 2016 | Year: 2017

Four lossy hyperspectral image data coding schemes are compared with regard to their aptitude for subpixel detection use. The coding standards H.265/HEVC and JPEG2000 are investigated with and without a PCA preprocessing. As evaluation criteria, both the 'Area under Receiver Operation Curve' as well as the 'Peak Signal to Noise Ratio' are calculated. The 'Area under Reiceiver Operation Curve' is based on the 'Spectral Angle Mapper'. Under both criteria, the two coding schemes with PCA preprocessing are the best while the JPEG2000 coding scheme works significantly less efficient. Furthermore, it was shown why the classification is not monotonically improving over increasing data rate. The PCA&HEVC and PCA&JPEG2000 schemes are stable at data rates of 0.1 bit per pixel per band [bpppb] and above while achieving an 'Area under ROC' of at least 0.99. If a data link of 0.3 bpppb is available, even the HEVC coding scheme reaches an 'Area under ROC' of 0.99 or more. Thus, it depends on the available data link, whether the HEVC coding scheme can be applied or if one of the more complex coding schemes with PCA preprocessing is required. © 2016 IEEE.

Michaelsen E.,Fraunhofer Institute For Optronik | Schwan G.,Fraunhofer Institute For Optronik | Scherer-Negenborn N.,Fraunhofer Institute For Optronik
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2017

Multisensor image fusion (e.g. IR with visual) is the process of combining relevant information from two or more images into a single image. The aim is to find an objective quality measure, which can be used in automatic applications, that correlates best with subjective observer trials. Not all combinations of image, algorithm, and test observer can be worked out. In this paper R. Fisher's Design of Experiments approach based on Latin Squares is used for thinning out the number of experiments for each observer in such observer trials while preserving exactness and reliability of the result. © 2017 SPIE.

Henriksson M.,Swedish Defence Research Agency | Sjoqvist L.,Swedish Defence Research Agency | Seiffer D.,Fraunhofer Institute For Optronik
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2015

The hot exhaust gases from engines on helicopters are pushed down by the rotor in a turbulent flow. When the optical path of a laser beam or optical sensor passes through this region severe aberrations of the optical field may result. These perturbations will lead to beam wander and beam distortions that can limit the performance of optical countermeasure systems. To quantify these effects the Italian Air Force Flight Test Centre hosted a trial for the "Airborne platform effects on lasers and warning sensors" (ALWS) EDA-project. Laser beams were propagated from the airport control tower to a target screen in a slant path with the helicopter hovering over this path. Collimated laser beams at 1.55-, 2- and 4.6-μm wavelength were imaged with high speed cameras. Large increases in beam wander and beam divergence were found, with beam wander up to 200 μrad root-mean-square and increases in beam divergence up to 1 mrad. To allow scaling to other laser beam parameters and geometries formulas for propagation in atmospheric turbulence were used even though the turbulence may not follow Kolmogorov statistics. By assuming that the plume is short compared to the total propagation distance the integrated structure parameter through the plume could be calculated. Values in the range 10-10 to 10-8 m1/3 were found when the laser beams passed through the exhaust gases below the helicopter tail. The integrated structure parameter values calculated from beam wander were consistently lower than those calculated from long term spot size, indicating that the method is not perfect but provides information about order of magnitudes. The measured results show that the engine exhaust for worst case beam directions will dominate over atmospheric turbulence even for kilometer path lengths from a helicopter at low altitude. How severe the effect is on system performance will depend on beam and target parameters. © 2015 COPYRIGHT SPIE.

Schatz V.,Fraunhofer Institute For Optronik
Journal of Real-Time Image Processing | Year: 2013

This work describes a hardware implementation of the contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization algorithm (CLAHE). The intended application is the processing of image sequences from high-dynamic-range infrared cameras. The variant of histogram equalization implemented is the one most commonly used today. It involves dividing the image into tiles, computing a transformation function on each of them, and interpolating between them. The contrast-limiting is modified to facilitate the hardware implementation, and it is shown that the error introduced by this modification is negligible. The latency of the design is minimized by performing its successive steps simultaneously on the same frame and by exploiting the vertical blank pause between frames. The resource usage of the histogram equalization module and how it depends on its parameters has been determined by synthesis. The design has been synthesized and tested on a Xilinx FPGA. The implementation supports substituting other dynamic range reduction modules for the histogram equalization component by partial dynamic reconfiguration. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Baena Galle R.,University of Barcelona | Nunez J.,University of Barcelona | Gladysz S.,Fraunhofer Institute For Optronik
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2013

Aims. We propose the application of multiresolution transforms, such as wavelets and curvelets, to reconstruct images of extended objects that have been acquired with adaptive-optics (AO) systems. Such multichannel approaches normally make use of probabilistic tools to distinguish significant structures from noise and reconstruction residuals. We aim to check the prevailing assumption that image-reconstruction algorithms using static point spread functions (PSF) are not suitable for AO imaging. Methods. We convolved two images, one of Saturn and one of galaxy M100, taken with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) with AO PSFs from the 5-m Hale telescope at the Palomar Observatory and added shot and readout noise. Subsequently, we applied different approaches to the blurred and noisy data to recover the original object. The approaches included multiframe blind deconvolution (with the algorithm IDAC), myopic deconvolution with regularization (with MISTRAL) and wavelet- or curvelet-based static PSF deconvolution (AWMLE and ACMLE algorithms). We used the mean squared error (MSE) to compare the results. Results. We found that multichannel deconvolution with a static PSF produces generally better results than the results obtained with the myopic/blind approaches (for the images we tested), thus showing that the ability of a method to suppress the noise and track the underlying iterative process is just as critical as the capability of the myopic/blind approaches to update the PSF. Furthermore, for these images, the curvelet transform (CT) produces better results than the wavelet transform (WT), as measured in terms of MSE. © ESO, 2013.

Menze M.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Klinger T.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Muhle D.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Metzler J.,Fraunhofer Institute For Optronik | Heipke C.,Leibniz University of Hanover
Photogrammetrie, Fernerkundung, Geoinformation | Year: 2013

This article describes the application of stereoscopic analysis to typical image pairs from a surveillance camera network. An approach is presented that establishes correspondences between people detections across adjacent views and derives an estimation of body height for each person in the overlapping parts of the camera views. Dense image matching is applied to short stereoscopic sequences and the results are incorporated in a subsequent monocular tracking to improve the positioning accuracy. The method does not depend on a dedicated stereo setup of the camera network but is applicable to suitable image pairs in addition to monocular people detection and tracking. Based on realistic image sequences, the performance of the proposed approach is evaluated and compared to a current method for appearance-based data association. © 2013 E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.

Manger D.,Fraunhofer Institute For Optronik | Metzler J.,Fraunhofer Institute For Optronik
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2014

Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) require the capability to perceive and to analyze the situation around a patrol in order to recognize potential threats. A permanent monitoring of the surrounding area is essential in order to appropriately react to the given situation, where one relevant task is the detection of objects that can pose a threat. Especially the robust detection of persons is important, as in MOUT scenarios threats usually arise from persons. This task can be supported by image processing systems. However, depending on the scenario, person detection in MOUT can be challenging, e.g. persons are often occluded in complex outdoor scenes and the person detection also suffers from low image resolution. Furthermore, there are several requirements on person detection systems for MOUT such as the detection of non-moving persons, as they can be a part of an ambush. Existing detectors therefore have to operate on single images with low thresholds for detection in order to not miss any person. This, in turn, leads to a comparatively high number of false positive detections which renders an automatic vision-based threat detection system ineffective. In this paper, a hybrid detection approach is presented. A combination of a discriminative and a generative model is examined. The objective is to increase the accuracy of existing detectors by integrating a separate hypotheses confirmation and rejection step which is built by a discriminative and generative model. This enables the overall detection system to make use of both the discriminative power and the capability to detect partly hidden objects with the models. The approach is evaluated on benchmark data sets generated from real-world image sequences captured during MOUT exercises. The extension shows a significant improvement of the false positive detection rate.

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