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Gordon T.F.,Fraunhofer Institute for Open Communication Systems
CEUR Workshop Proceedings | Year: 2011

The Carneades software system provides support for constructing, evaluating and visualizing arguments, using formal representations of facts, concepts, defeasible rules and argumentation schemes. This paper illustrates how rules and ontologies can be combined in Carneades with a prototype legal application for analyzing open source software license compatibility issues in particular cases. Source


Gordon T.F.,Fraunhofer Institute for Open Communication Systems
Proceedings of the International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law | Year: 2011

The Carneades software system provides support for constructing, evaluating and visualizing arguments, using formal representations of facts, concepts, defeasible rules and argumentation schemes. This paper illustrates features of Carneades with a prototype legal application for analyzing open source software license compatibility issues in particular cases. The Carneades system provides a unique combination of features that make to our knowledge applications of this kind possible for the first time. © 2011 Author. Source


Viehmann J.,Fraunhofer Institute for Open Communication Systems
Proceedings - 2012 ASE/IEEE International Conference on Privacy, Security, Risk and Trust and 2012 ASE/IEEE International Conference on Social Computing, SocialCom/PASSAT 2012 | Year: 2012

This paper shows how the results of CORAS risk analysis can be reused and combined. It introduces new models, diagram types and procedures as an extension of the CORAS method. Taking risk analysis artifacts generated for the individual base components as input, probability values for unwanted incidents of complex systems can be calculated if the relations between these artifacts are modeled correctly. Initially developed for the S Network, a trustworthy repository, this extension is predestined for analyzing large scale systems consisting of heterogeneous components, which no single analyst team could handle. © 2012 IEEE. Source


Neuhaus A.H.,Franklin University | Popescu F.C.,Fraunhofer Institute for Open Communication Systems | Rentzsch J.,Franklin University | Gallinat J.,Franklin University
Schizophrenia Bulletin | Year: 2014

Event-related potential (ERP) deficits associated with auditory oddball and click-conditioning paradigms are among the most consistent findings in schizophrenia and are discussed as potential biomarkers. However, it is unclear to what extend these ERP deficits distinguish between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls on a single-subject level, which is of high importance for potential translation to clinical routine. Here, we investigated 144 schizophrenia patients and 144 matched controls with an auditory click-conditioning/oddball paradigm. P50 and N1 gating ratios as well as target-locked N1 and P3 components were submitted to conventional general linear models and to explorative machine learning algorithms. Repeatedmeasures ANOVAs revealed significant between-group differences for the oddball-locked N1 and P3 components but not for any gating measure. Machine learning-assisted analysis achieved 77.7% balanced classification accuracy using a combination of target-locked N1 and P3 amplitudes as classifiers. The superiority of machine learning over repeated-measures analysis for classifying schizophrenia patients was in the range of about 10% as quantified by receiver operating characteristics. For the first time, our study provides large-scale single-subject classification data on auditory click-conditioning and oddball paradigms in schizophrenia. Although our study exemplifies how automated inference may substantially improve classification accuracy, our data also show that the investigated ERP measures show comparably poor discriminatory properties in single subjects, thus illustrating the need to establish either new analytical approaches for these paradigms or other paradigms to investigate the disorder. © The Author 2013. Source


Blind K.,TU Berlin | Blind K.,Fraunhofer Institute for Open Communication Systems | Blind K.,Erasmus University Rotterdam
Research Policy | Year: 2012

Regulatory framework conditions have been identified as important factors influencing the innovation activities of companies, industries and whole economies. However, in the empirical literature, the impacts of regulation have been assessed as rather ambivalent for innovation. Different types of regulations generate various impacts and even a single type of regulation can influence innovation in various ways depending on how the regulation is implemented. The endogenous growth approach developed by Carlin and Soskice (2006) and empirically applied by Crafts (2006), which determines endogenously the rate of technological progress and therefore innovation, allows a conceptual analysis of the influence of different types of regulation on innovation. In general, the negative effect of compliance costs should be compared with the more dynamic effect of regulations generating additional incentives for innovative activities. Based on this approach, we derive hypotheses on the impact of different specific regulations on innovation. We differentiate between economic, social and institutional regulations following the OECD taxonomy on regulations. Existing economic analyses are surveyed, which are characterised by rather heterogeneous approaches, data bases and results. The paper aims to apply a comprehensive and comparative approach to investigate quantitatively the innovation impacts in 21 OECD countries using panel data for the period between 1998 and 2004. In summary, the empirical results confirm the hypotheses derived from the conceptual theoretical framework determining technical progress and innovation endogenously and allowing a distinction between short-term and long-term effects. Consequently, the theoretical approach is an appropriate starting point for the empirical analysis of the influence of different regulations on innovation. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

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