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Ostash B.,Ivan Franko National University of Lviv | Ostash B.,Harvard University | Campbell J.,Harvard University | Campbell J.,Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Innovation | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Microbiology | Year: 2013

Summary: The biosynthesis of the phosphoglycolipid antibiotic moenomycin A attracts the attention of researchers hoping to develop new moenomycin-based antibiotics against multidrug resistant Gram-positive infections. There is detailed understanding of most steps of this biosynthetic pathway in Streptomyces ghanaensis (ATCC14672), except for the ultimate stage, where a single pentasaccharide intermediate is converted into a set of unusually modified final products. Here we report that only one gene, moeH5, encoding a homologue of the glutamine amidotransferase (GAT) enzyme superfamily, is responsible for the observed diversity of terminally decorated moenomycins. Genetic and biochemical evidence support the idea that MoeH5 is a novel member of the GAT superfamily, whose homologues are involved in the synthesis of various secondary metabolites as well as K and O antigens of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Our results provide insights into the mechanism of MoeH5 and its counterparts, and give us a new tool for the diversification of phosphoglycolipid antibiotics. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


Sauer-Budge A.F.,Boston University | Mirer P.L.,Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Innovation | Chatterjee A.,Boston University | Pollock N.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | And 2 more authors.
Nanotechnology 2010: Bio Sensors, Instruments, Medical, Environment and Energy - Technical Proceedings of the 2010 NSTI Nanotechnology Conference and Expo, NSTI-Nanotech 2010 | Year: 2010

In this paper we describe a completely integrated lab-on-a-chip for genetic analysis of bacteria or viruses. The chip was designed for low cost manufacturing in thermoplastics by choice of low cost materials (thermoplastics) and designing for injection molding and for minimal assembly. To reduce the complexity of the disposable chip, all active components were removed from the microfluidic chip and incorporated into an instrument. We present the integrated chip and associated instrument for detection of bacteria and viruses. In particular, here we demonstrate the on-chip RT-PCR and detection using the CDC proprietary assay for influenza A. Source


Keenan M.,University of Arizona | Howard C.,University of Arizona | Tate T.,University of Arizona | McGuiness I.,Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Innovation | And 5 more authors.
Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE | Year: 2016

The 5-year survival rate for ovarian cancer is only 45% largely due to lack of effective screening methods. Current methods include palpation, transvaginal ultrasound, and the CA-125 blood test. Finding disease reliably and at an early stage increase survival to 92%. We have designed and built a 0.7 mm endoscope for the early detection of ovarian cancer. Inserted transvaginally through the working channel of a hysteroscope, the falloposcope creates a minimally invasive procedure for the screening of high risk women. To improve the ease-of-use and safety of falloposcope deployment, we are working to create an everting balloon. Currently, the falloposcope would require a skilled user to operate due to the challenging anatomy of the fallopian tubes - a small opening from the uterus (< 1 mm), tortuous path, and delicate lumenal features. A balloon delivery system would gently open the fallopian tube and guide the falloposcope down the center of lumen. We show balloon design and discuss integration with the falloposcope prototype. We test possible mechanical damage to the tissue due to scraping, puncture, or overstretching. Successful introduction of the everting balloon to simplify falloposcope delivery could expand screening beyond specialized centers to smaller clinical locations. © 2016 SPIE. Source


Aizikov K.,Boston University | Smith D.F.,FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics | Chargin D.A.,Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Innovation | Ivanov S.,Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Innovation | And 4 more authors.
Review of Scientific Instruments | Year: 2011

The high mass accuracy and resolving power of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometers (FT-ICR MS) make them ideal mass detectors for mass spectrometry imaging (MSI), promising to provide unmatched molecular resolution capabilities. The intrinsic low tolerance of FT-ICR MS to RF interference, however, along with typically vertical positioning of the sample, and MSI acquisition speed requirements present numerous engineering challenges in creating robotics capable of achieving the spatial resolution to match. This work discusses a two-dimensional positioning stage designed to address these issues. The stage is capable of operating in ∼1 10 -8 mbar vacuum. The range of motion is set to 100 mm 100 mm to accommodate large samples, while the positioning accuracy is demonstrated to be less than 0.4 micron in both directions under vertical load over the entire range. This device was integrated into three different matrix assisted laser desorptionionization (MALDI) FT-ICR instruments and showed no detectable RF noise. The oversampling MALDI-MSI experiments, under which the sample is completely ablated at each position, followed by the target movement of the distance smaller than the laser beam, conducted on the custom-built 7T FT-ICR MS demonstrate the stability and positional accuracy of the stage robotics which delivers high spatial resolution mass spectral images at a fraction of the laser spot diameter. © 2011 American Institute of Physics. Source


Sharon A.,Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Innovation | Briggs J.,Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Innovation | Wirz H.,Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Innovation
Technical Proceedings of the 2011 NSTI Nanotechnology Conference and Expo, NSTI-Nanotech 2011 | Year: 2011

This paper presents an economically viable, alternative method of harvesting ocean wave energy, comprised of a boat with an on-board wave energy harvesting system, and on-board energy storage capacity. A typical system consists of 50 meter boat with 1 MW capacity of wave energy harvesting equipment and 20 MWH of energy storage capability. Operationally, the boat cruises to a favorable location off-shore, harvests energy for approximately 20 hours, cruises back to shore, connects to the electricity grid, and releases the stored energy during high demand periods. Preliminary calculations promise electricity cost of US$0.15/KWh. The system offers numerous advantages including no expensive undersea cables, no permanent sea structure, easy maintenance, simplified permitting, and better survivability. Source

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