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Backstrom T.,Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing | Year: 2013

By deriving a factorization of Toeplitz matrices into the product of Vandermonde matrices, we demonstrate that the Euclidean norm of a filtered signal is equivalent with the Euclidean norm of the appropriately frequency-warped and scaled signal. In effect, we obtain an equivalence between the energy of frequency-warped and filtered signals. While the result does not provide tools for warping per se, it does show that the energy of the warped signal can be evaluated efficiently, without explicit and complex computation of the warped transform. The main result is closely related to the Vandermonde factorization of Hankel matrices. © 2013 IEEE.


Caulier Y.,Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits
Optics Express | Year: 2010

This paper addresses the generalization of a surface inspection methodology developed within an industrial context for the characterization of specular cylindrical surfaces. The principle relies on the interpretation of a stripe pattern, obtained after projecting a structured light onto the surface to be inspected. The main objective of this paper is to apply this technique to a broader range of surface geometries and types, i.e. to free-form rough and free-form specular shapes. One major purpose of this paper is to propose a general free-form stripe image interpretation approach on the basis of a four step procedure: (i) comparison of different feature-based image content description techniques, (ii) determination of optimal feature sub-groups, (iii) fusion of the most appropriate ones, and (iv) selection of the optimal features. The first part of this paper is dedicated to the general problem statement with the definition of different image data sets that correspond to various types of free-form rough and specular shapes recorded with a structured illumination. The second part deals with the definition and optimization of the most appropriate pattern recognition process. It is shown that this approach leads to an increase in the classification rates of more than 2 % between the initial fused set and the selected one. Then, it is demonstrated that with approximately a fourth of the initial features, similar high classification rates of free-form surfaces can be obtained. © 2010 Optical Society of America.


Caulier Y.,Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits | Bourennane S.,Ecole Centrale Marseille
IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence | Year: 2010

Image capturing and image content description can be regarded as the two major steps of a computer vision process. This paper focuses on both within the field of specular surface inspection, by generalizing a previously defined stripe-based inspection method to free-form surfaces on the basis of a specific stripe illumination technique and by outlining a general feature-based stripe image characterization approach by means of new theoretical concepts. One major purpose of this paper is to propose a general stripe image interpretation approach on the basis of a three-step procedure: 1) comparison of different image content description techniques, 2) fusion of the most appropriate ones, and 3) selection of the optimal features. It is shown that this approach leads to an increase in the classification rates of more than 2 percent between the initial fused set and the selected one. The new contributions encompass 1) the generalization of a cylindrical specular surface enhancement technique to more complex specular geometries, 2) the generalization of the previously defined stripe image description by using the same number of features for the bright and the dark stripes, and 3) the definition of an optimal, in terms of classification rates and computational costs, stripe feature set. © 2006 IEEE.


Landmann M.,Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits | Kaske M.,TU Ilmenau | Thoma R.S.,TU Ilmenau
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation | Year: 2012

Multidimensional channel sounding aims to estimate the geometrical structure of multi-path wave propagation in terms of directions of arrival/departure, Doppler shift, time delay, and complex polarimetric path weights. Maximum likelihood parameter estimation based upon an underlying data model is used to achieve high-resolution of the path parameters and, thus, renders possible an antenna independent channel characterization. However, any mismatch of the underlying data model to physical reality imposes limits to accuracy and reliability of the estimation. To cope with the limited resolution capability of the setup we are using a propagation data model that does not only contain discrete deterministic components but also a non-resolvable stochastic part. Joint estimation of both components considerably enhances the estimation quality and finally allows the interpretation as specular and diffuse contribution of multi-path propagation respectively. However, besides of noise influence, the achievable resolution is further limited by the accuracy of the data model that describes the measurement setup. Since the antenna characteristics are very susceptible to calibration and modeling errors, the directional estimates are most error-prone. We refer to the antenna array calibration procedure and discuss common pitfalls in highresolution multi-path direction estimation that are related to inaccurate and/or incomplete device data model. Depending on the type of the antenna array (linear, circular) this will inherently produce biased and artificially spread angular estimates. Only with precise knowledge of the model errors the stochastic part can be identified as diffuse propagation component vs. modeling error. © 2011 IEEE.


Einwich K.,Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits
Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE Symposium on Design and Diagnostics of Electronic Circuits and Systems, DDECS 2011 | Year: 2011

The SystemC AMS extensions standard was published nearly one year ago. The industrial adoption has been started. The tutorial will give a comprehensive overview about the motivation, the language and her usage for different application domains like telecommunication and automotive. © 2011 IEEE.

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