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Ressource- and cost efficiency of low pressure plasma processes Two aspects have to be taken into consideration if new processes for surface treatment are to be introduced. The first one regards the costs for each part to be treated. To get a general idea some suppliers of plasma reactors and job coater were asked for the basis used for calculation of treatment or coating of polymer parts. The second aspect is related to resource efficiency, meaning how much material and energy is needed to treat the different components. This aspect will attract much more attention in the future. Both aspects also are crucial for dissemination of plasma technology and are in the focus of this paper. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Vohrer U.,Fraunhofer Institute For Grenzflachen Und Bioverfahrenstechnik
Keramische Zeitschrift | Year: 2012

Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) are still considered the material of the 21st century, despite a manageable amount of products already released on the market and the new carbon based material graphene which arouses the curiosity of the scientists. Due to their extraordinary properties, applications and products in almost every industrial sector have been postulated shortly after their discovery and improvements in their production techniques. Meanwhile some industrial production facilities enable the production of carbon nanotubes with constant qualities and sufficient yields. However, various open questions are still to be answered before results, gained in the laboratory scale, can be transferred to an industrial production. Not a least, the still remaining discussion on risk assessment and toxicological evaluation is an obstacle in the way to a broad introduction of CNT based products on the market. Source


Bucher J.,University of Stuttgart | Bucher J.,Insilico Biotechnology AG | Riedmaier S.,University of Tubingen | Schnabel A.,Ruhr University Bochum | And 8 more authors.
BMC Systems Biology | Year: 2011

Background: The individual character of pharmacokinetics is of great importance in the risk assessment of new drug leads in pharmacological research. Amongst others, it is severely influenced by the properties and inter-individual variability of the enzymes and transporters of the drug detoxification system of the liver. Predicting individual drug biotransformation capacity requires quantitative and detailed models.Results: In this contribution we present the de novo deterministic modeling of atorvastatin biotransformation based on comprehensive published knowledge on involved metabolic and transport pathways as well as physicochemical properties. The model was evaluated on primary human hepatocytes and parameter identifiability analysis was performed under multiple experimental constraints. Dynamic simulations of atorvastatin biotransformation considering the inter-individual variability of the two major involved enzymes CYP3A4 and UGT1A3 based on quantitative protein expression data in a large human liver bank (n = 150) highlighted the variability in the individual biotransformation profiles and therefore also points to the individuality of pharmacokinetics.Conclusions: A dynamic model for the biotransformation of atorvastatin has been developed using quantitative metabolite measurements in primary human hepatocytes. The model comprises kinetics for transport processes and metabolic enzymes as well as population liver expression data allowing us to assess the impact of inter-individual variability of concentrations of key proteins. Application of computational tools for parameter sensitivity analysis enabled us to considerably improve the validity of the model and to create a consistent framework for precise computer-aided simulations in toxicology. © 2011 Bucher et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Kotzur M.,Fraunhofer Institute For Grenzflachen Und Bioverfahrenstechnik | Konig L.,University of Stuttgart | Egner S.,Fraunhofer Institute For Grenzflachen Und Bioverfahrenstechnik
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik | Year: 2015

Recycling of metals becomes more and more important. Within the recycling and beneficiation process the separation of metal ions is one of the most challenging process steps as high-tech metals are often existent in complex mixtures. Free flow electrophoresis using different mobility of ions in an electric field is a promising alternative to established separation processes. Very good results in separating metal ions could be obtained and even improved to a purity of up to 100% by using complexing agents. The focus of this work was on mixtures of Fe, Cu, Dy and Yb. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Aurand B.,Lund University | Aurand B.,Helmholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung GmbH | Elkin B.,Fraunhofer Institute For Grenzflachen Und Bioverfahrenstechnik | Heim L.-O.,Center for Smart Interfaces | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Polymer Science, Part B: Polymer Physics | Year: 2013

We report on the production and characterization of polymer-based ultra-thin (sub 10 nm) foils suited for experiments on laser-ion acceleration in the regime of radiation pressure acceleration. Beside the remarkable mechanical stability compared with commonly used diamond-like-carbon foils, a very homogeneous layer thickness and a small surface roughness have been achieved. We describe the technical issues of the production process as well as detailed studies of the mechanical stability and surface roughness tests. The capability of producing uniform targets of large area is essential for advanced laser-ion acceleration projects which are dealing with high repetition rate and extended measurement series, but might also be useful for other applications which require ultra-thin and freestanding substrates of high quality. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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