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Chen Y.,Fraunhofer Institute for Experimental Software Engineering | Han Vinck A.J.,University of Duisburg - Essen
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory | Year: 2010

In this paper, we give a lower bound for the optimum distance profiles of the second-order Reed-Muller code in the dictionary order and in the inverse dictionary order. In particular, we investigate the second-order Reed-Muller codes of length ≤256. We show that the bound is tight in both orders for the codes of length ≤128. © 2010 IEEE.


Riegel N.,Fraunhofer Institute for Experimental Software Engineering
2012 20th IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference, RE 2012 - Proceedings | Year: 2012

Requirements engineers in business-process-driven software development are faced with the challenge of letting stakeholders determine which requirements are actually relevant for early business success and should be considered first or even at all during the elicitation and analysis activities. In the area of requirements engineering (RE) and release planning, prioritization is an established strategy for achieving this goal. Available prioritization approaches, however, do not consider all idiosyncrasies of business-process- driven software development. This lack of appropriate prioritization leads to effort often being spent on (RE) activities of minor importance. To support the requirements engineer in overcoming this problem, the idea of applying different models during prioritization is introduced, which shall bring it to a more reliable basis. Through this notion it is expected to reduce unnecessary (RE) activities by focusing on the most important requirements. © 2012 IEEE.


John I.,Fraunhofer Institute for Experimental Software Engineering
IEEE Software | Year: 2010

Product line scoping is the process of determining which of an organization's products, features, and domains would find systematic reuse economically useful. Scoping is generally the first phase in product line engineering. For a decade, it has been recognized as its own discipline in product line engineering. Scoping, also called product line planning, is based on expert knowledge and information; in meetings and workshops, individuals must interactively elicit information on the features, products, and further plans in the expert's product line domain. But often, these domain experts don't have the time to really reproduce and formulate all the knowledge needed for scoping. They should be heavily integrated into the scoping knowledge elicitation process, but they're only minimally available. The CAVE (Commonality and Variability Extraction) approach and its industrial applications offer a solution to the problem of domain experts' availability. CAVE supports scoping and product line engineering in a development organization by systematically eliciting the needed information from user documentation of existing systems. This article describes the approach and its embedding in scoping, as well as results and lessons learned from three industrial applications of the approach. © 2010 IEEE.


Tanveer B.,Fraunhofer Institute for Experimental Software Engineering
Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing | Year: 2016

Unlike traditional software development approaches, Agile embraces change. The resulting dynamism of requirements makes it challenging to estimate effort accurately. Current practice relies on expertjudgment that can be biased, labor intensive and inaccurate. Therefore, a systematic yet lightweight effort estimation methodology is needed to support expert judgment and improve its effectiveness. Such an approach will utilize the quantification of the impact of a requirement on software artifacts potentially affected by it. It will further introduce an explicit consideration of effort drivers that contribute to effort overhead. The aim is to synthesize research from three often orthogonal areas of research: (1) change impact analysis, (2) effort estimation (model and expert driven) and (3) software visualization. Hence, resulting in a hybrid methodology with tool support that incorporates expert knowledge, change impact analysis and enables an explicit consideration of cost drivers by experts to improve the effectiveness of effort estimation process. © The Author(s) 2016.


Rost D.,Fraunhofer Institute for Experimental Software Engineering
WCOP'12 - Proceedings of the 17th International Doctoral Symposium on Components and Architecture | Year: 2012

To utilize the potential of software architecture it is essential to make it explicit. Architects produce architecture documentation when designing systems and provide it to developers who use it as the basis for their implementation tasks. However, the views of architects and developers on the system diverge: architects look at the system as a whole, developers have a more local perspective, focusing on the elements and context they are responsible for. The comprehensive architecture documentation produced by architects does not take this divergence into account. Although all needed information may be included, the information overhead and suboptimal representation render such generic architecture documentation inadequate to be used without adaptation for all implementation tasks. To overcome this deficiency, the doctoral thesis presented in this paper proposes an approach for the creation of architecture documentation that is tailored to specific implementation tasks. Such documentation shall contain all relevant, but only a minimum of overhead information and present it in a way that allows developers to perform their implementation tasks efficiently, with high-quality results. By using automated generation techniques that derive the task-specific architecture documentation from the general documentation, it is possible to largely avoid impacts on architects' normal way of working. To achieve applicability of the approach in practice, ideas for tool support, integrated into an existing modeling environment are highlighted. Finally, ideas for the validation of the expected benefits, the current status of the doctoral thesis, as well as next steps and possible future extensions are presented. Copyright © 2012 ACM.


Gotzhein R.,University of Kaiserslautern | Kuhn T.,Fraunhofer Institute for Experimental Software Engineering
Computer Networks | Year: 2011

In this paper, we present Black Burst Synchronization (BBS), a modular protocol for multi-hop tick and time synchronization in wireless ad hoc networks, located at MAC level. For the successful operation of BBS, it is crucial that collisions of synchronization messages that are sent (almost) simultaneously by two or more nodes are non-destructive. This is achieved by collision-protected bit encodings with black bursts, periods of transmission energy of defined length on the medium, starting at determined points in time. Under reasonable assumptions, BBS provides low and bounded tick and clock offsets, guarantees a very small and constant convergence delay, has low and bounded complexity regarding computation, storage, time, and structure, and is robust against topology changes at runtime. This makes it a candidate for user level applications such as data fusion and networked control systems, and especially for system level tasks such as duty cycling and multi-hop medium slotting. To validate its predicted behavior, we have implemented and deployed BBS on MICAz motes. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Gross A.,Fraunhofer Institute for Experimental Software Engineering | Doerr J.,Fraunhofer Institute for Experimental Software Engineering
2012 20th IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference, RE 2012 - Proceedings | Year: 2012

Software requirements specifications play a crucial role in software development projects. Especially in large projects, these specifications serve as a source of communication and information for a variety of roles involved in downstream activities like architecture, design, and testing. This vision paper argues that in order to create high-quality requirements specifications that fit the specific demands of successive document stakeholders, our research community needs to better understand the particular information needs of downstream development roles. In this paper, the authors introduce the idea of view-based requirements specifications. Two scenarios illustrate (1) current problems and challenges related to the research underlying the envisioned idea and (2) how these problems could be solved in the future. Based on these scenarios, challenges and research questions are outlined and supplemented with current results of exemplary user studies. Furthermore, potential future research is suggested, which the community should perform to answer the research questions as part of a research agenda. © 2012 IEEE.


Adler R.,Fraunhofer Institute for Experimental Software Engineering
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2013

A safety concept describes a plan for implementing safety. A bad safety concept compromises the achievement of safety or leads to unnecessarily high costs for implementing and proving safety. However, safety standards and research approaches do not provide any means for developing a good safety concept or for assessing the quality of a safety concept. Consequently, real-world safety concepts often lack information or have low quality. To overcome this practical problem, we systematically derive which fundamental information should be contained in a safety concept and introduce quality attributes for a safety concept. We also evaluate state-of-the-art approaches for developing a safety concept. Copyright © 2013 SAE International.


Adam S.,Fraunhofer Institute for Experimental Software Engineering
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2012

[Context & Motivation] Developing new software systems based on a software product line (SPL) in so-called application engineering (AE) projects is still a time-consuming and expensive task. Especially when a large number of customer-specific requirements exists, there is still no systematic support for efficiently aligning these non-anticipated requirements with SPL characteristics early on. [Question/problem] In order to improve this process significantly, sound knowledge about an SPL must be available when guiding the requirements elicitation during AE. Thus, an appropriate reflection of SPL characteristics in process-supporting artifacts is indispensable for actually supporting a requirements engineer in this task. [Principal ideas/results] In this paper, a validated template for elicitation instructions that aims at providing a requirements engineer with knowledge about an underlying SPL in an appropriate manner is presented. This template consists of predefined text blocks and algorithms that explain how SPL-relevant product and process knowledge can be systematically reflected into capability-aware elicitation instructions. [Contribution] By using such elicitation instructions, requirements engineers are enabled to elicit requirements in an AE project more effectively. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.


Weitzel B.,Fraunhofer Institute for Experimental Software Engineering
IEEE International Conference on Software Maintenance, ICSM | Year: 2012

The operation of large scale information systems requires investment into hardware infrastructure and causes running cost for keeping it in a productive state. This especially applies in an enterprise environment where also expenses for software licenses costs or penalties for downtime occur. The deployment of software influences these costs both in their amount and their composition. In order to optimize them a transparent view on these costs and the deployment is mandatory. In this paper, we present an approach for making deployment explicit on an architectural level. A conceptual model of deployment is defined that can be populated by reverse engineering of deployment descriptors, runtime traces and usage profiles. We envision fostering a comprehensive decision making and optimization of software deployment. © 2012 IEEE.

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