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Freiburg, Germany

The Fraunhofer Society is a German research organization with 67 institutes spread throughout Germany, each focusing on different fields of applied science . It employs around 23,000 people, mainly scientists and engineers, with an annual research budget of about €1.7 billion. Some basic funding for the Fraunhofer Society is provided by the state , but more than 70% of the funding is earned through contract work, either for government-sponsored projects or from industry.It is named after Joseph von Fraunhofer who, as a scientist, an engineer, and an entrepreneur, is said to have superbly exemplified the goals of the society.The organization has seven centers in the United States, under the name “Fraunhofer USA”, and three in Asia. In October 2010, Fraunhofer announced that it would open its first research center in South America.Fraunhofer UK Research Ltd was established along with the Fraunhofer Centre for Applied Photonics, in Glasgow, Scotland, in March 2012. Wikipedia.


Szunerits S.,Lille University of Science and Technology | Nebel C.E.,Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Solid State Physics | Hamers R.J.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
MRS Bulletin | Year: 2014

Recent advances in biotechnology have fueled a need for well-defined, highly stable interfaces modified with a variety of biomolecules. Diamond is a particularly attractive material for biological applications because of its chemical stability and good biocompatibility. Since diamond can be made conductive by doping, it is also of interest for a variety of electrically based biological sensing applications that achieve improved performance through selective biological modification. Recent developments of diamond growth by chemical vapor deposition have enabled the preparation of large-area synthetic diamond films on different substrates at a reasonable cost. An as-grown diamond film is terminated by hydrogen on the surface and shows hydrophobic wetting characteristics, besides chemical inertness. This has created problems for attachment of many biomolecules that are inherently hydrophilic. The challenge to make diamond useful for in vivo applications thus lies in covalently linking biomolecules to such surfaces. Several breakthroughs have been accomplished over the last decade, and attaching biomolecules to diamond in a controlled and reproducible way can nowadays be achieved in several different manners and is the focus of this article. © Materials Research Society 2014.


Williams O.A.,Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Solid State Physics
Diamond and Related Materials | Year: 2011

Diamond properties are significantly affected by crystallite size. High surface to volume fractions result in enhanced disorder, sp 2 bonding, hydrogen content and scattering of electrons and phonons. Most of these properties are common to all low dimensional materials, but the addition of carbon allotropes introduces sp 2 bonding, a significant disadvantage over systems such as amorphous silicon. Increased sp 2 bonding results in enhanced disorder, a significantly more complex density of states within the bandgap, reduction of Young's modulus, increased optical absorption etc. At sizes below 10 nm, many diamond particle and film properties deviate substantially from that of bulk diamond, mostly due not only to the contribution of sp 2 bonding, but also at the extreme low dimensions due to size effects. Despite these drawbacks, nano-diamond films and particles are powerful systems for a variety of applications and the study of fundamental science. Knowledge of the fundamental properties of these materials allows a far greater exploitation of their attributes for specific applications. This review attempts to guide the reader between the various nanocrystalline diamond forms and applications, with a particular focus on thin films grown by chemical vapour deposition. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Scheibenzuber W.G.,Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Solid State Physics | Schwarz U.T.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg
Physica Status Solidi (B) Basic Research | Year: 2011

We investigate the influence of polarization switching on the optical gain of semipolar InGaN quantum wells (QWs) depending on indium content and charge carrier concentration using self-consistent 6×6 k·p-band structure calculations. The semipolar planes considered here are the $(11\bar {2}2)$- and the $(20\bar {2}1)$-plane. In contrast to the $(20\bar {2}1)$-plane, the dominant polarization of the optical gain in a QW on the $(11\bar {2}2)$-plane can depend on both the indium content and the charge carrier concentration, as reported from experiments. These effects are explained by a detailed analysis of the wave function composition of the topmost valence bands in a semipolar QW. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2007.1.5 | Award Amount: 15.21M | Year: 2008

Film or cinema has been the driving force for the entertainment industry, setting the standards of quality, providing the most compelling experience, and feeding the distribution chains of other media (broadcast TV, cable and satellite channels, DVD, video, games et cetera). The creation of a complete `3-D capable chain is expected to follow a similar path. The media industry knows that astonishing the public is still a route to large audiences and financial success. 2020 3D Media proposes to research, develop, and demonstrate novel forms of compelling entertainment experience based on technologies for the capture, production, networked distribution and display of sounds and images in three-dimensions. 2020 3D Media will add extra dimensions to Digital Cinema and create new forms of stereoscopic and immersive networked media for the home and public spaces. The goal is to research and develop technologies to support the acquisition, coding, editing, networked distribution, and display of stereoscopic and immersive audiovisual content to provide novel forms of compelling entertainment experience in the home or public spaces. The users of the resulting technologies will be media industry professionals across the current film, TV and `new media sectors to make programme material addressing the general public. The key will be the creation of technologies for creating and presenting surround video as a viable system, based on recognised standards. This will require innovations and knew knowledge in: - Technologies and formats for 3D sound and image capture and coding, including novel high-resolution cameras - Technologies and methods for 3-D postproduction of sound and images - Technologies for the distribution and display of spatial media - The creative application of spatial media technologies


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2007.8.6 | Award Amount: 6.89M | Year: 2009

Software systems are central for the infrastructure of modern society. To justify the huge investments such systems need to live for decades. This requires software which is highly adaptable. Software systems must support a high degree of (spatial) variability to accommodate a range of requirements and operating conditions, and temporal evolvability to allow these parameters to change over time. Current approaches to reusability and maintenance are inadequate to cope with the dynamics and longevity of future software applications and infrastructures, e.g. for e-commerce, e-health and e-government. At the same time, we rely increasingly on systems that provide a high degree of trustworthiness. Thus, the major challenge facing software construction in the next decades is high adaptability combined with trustworthiness. A severe limitation of current development practices is the missing rigour of models and property specifications. Without a formal notation of distributed, component-based systems it is impossible to achieve automation for consistency checking, enforcement of security, generation of trustworthy code, etc. Furthermore, it does not suffice to simply extend current formal approaches. We propose to take an empirically successful, yet informal software development paradigm and put it on a formal basis. Specifically, we will turn software product family (SWPF) development into a rigorous approach. The technical core of the project is an Abstract Behavioural Specification language which will allow precise description of SWPF features and components and their instances. The main project outcome is a methodological and tool framework achieving not merely far-reaching automation in maintaining dynamically evolving software, but an unprecedented level of trust while informal processes are replaced with rigorous analyses based on formal semantics. This includes the perspective of designing self-adapting software systems.

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