Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Solid State Physics
Freiburg, Germany

The Fraunhofer Society is a German research organization with 67 institutes spread throughout Germany, each focusing on different fields of applied science . It employs around 23,000 people, mainly scientists and engineers, with an annual research budget of about €1.7 billion. Some basic funding for the Fraunhofer Society is provided by the state , but more than 70% of the funding is earned through contract work, either for government-sponsored projects or from industry.It is named after Joseph von Fraunhofer who, as a scientist, an engineer, and an entrepreneur, is said to have superbly exemplified the goals of the society.The organization has seven centers in the United States, under the name “Fraunhofer USA”, and three in Asia. In October 2010, Fraunhofer announced that it would open its first research center in South America.Fraunhofer UK Research Ltd was established along with the Fraunhofer Centre for Applied Photonics, in Glasgow, Scotland, in March 2012. Wikipedia.

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Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2007.1.5 | Award Amount: 5.81M | Year: 2008

At its core, collaboration in most business endeavors is ultimately about presence and the face-to-face contact that is needed to establish a human atmosphere that increases the teams performance, mutual understanding and trust. Traditional camera-on-top-of-a-TV-set-on-a-cart videoconferencing systems have failed to meet the telepresence challenge of providing a viable alternative for physical business travel, which is nowadays characterized by unacceptable delays, costs, inconvenience, and an increasingly large ecological footprint. Even recent high-end commercial solutions such as Ciscos TelePresence, Polycoms RPX, and HPs HALO, while partially removing some of these traditional shortcomings, still present the problems of not scaling easily, are expensive to implement, do not utilize 3D life-sized representations of the remote participants and only address eye contact and gesture-based interactions in very limited ways. As a result, none of them is able to convey a natural impression to the remote conferees. The 3D Presence project proposes a research and development agenda that is both timely and necessary. It is born from the realization that effective communication and collaboration with geographically dispersed co-workers, partners, and customers requires a natural, comfortable, and easy-to-use experience that utilizes the full bandwidth of non-verbal communication. With this goal in mind, the 3D Presence project will implement a multi-party, high-end 3D videoconferencing concept that will tackle the problem of transmitting the feeling of physical presence in real-time to multiple remote locations in a transparent and natural way. In order to realize this objective, 3D Presence will go beyond the current state of the art by emphasizing the transmission, efficient coding and accurate representation of physical presence cues such as multiple user (auto) stereopsis, multi-party eye contact and multi-party gesture-based interaction.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2007.8.6 | Award Amount: 6.89M | Year: 2009

Software systems are central for the infrastructure of modern society. To justify the huge investments such systems need to live for decades. This requires software which is highly adaptable. Software systems must support a high degree of (spatial) variability to accommodate a range of requirements and operating conditions, and temporal evolvability to allow these parameters to change over time. Current approaches to reusability and maintenance are inadequate to cope with the dynamics and longevity of future software applications and infrastructures, e.g. for e-commerce, e-health and e-government. At the same time, we rely increasingly on systems that provide a high degree of trustworthiness. Thus, the major challenge facing software construction in the next decades is high adaptability combined with trustworthiness. A severe limitation of current development practices is the missing rigour of models and property specifications. Without a formal notation of distributed, component-based systems it is impossible to achieve automation for consistency checking, enforcement of security, generation of trustworthy code, etc. Furthermore, it does not suffice to simply extend current formal approaches. We propose to take an empirically successful, yet informal software development paradigm and put it on a formal basis. Specifically, we will turn software product family (SWPF) development into a rigorous approach. The technical core of the project is an Abstract Behavioural Specification language which will allow precise description of SWPF features and components and their instances. The main project outcome is a methodological and tool framework achieving not merely far-reaching automation in maintaining dynamically evolving software, but an unprecedented level of trust while informal processes are replaced with rigorous analyses based on formal semantics. This includes the perspective of designing self-adapting software systems.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2007.1.6 | Award Amount: 8.38M | Year: 2008

PII addresses the need for large-scale testing facilities in the communications area by implementing an infrastructure for federating testbeds. The central objective of PII is to create a testbed federation among regional innovation clusters in Europe. This will enable companies participating in these clusters to test new communication services and applications across Europe. The testbed federation includes four core innovation clusters and three satellite clusters. PII will develop and deploy effective mechanisms and technologies to enable a functioning federation of existing testbeds. This will provide added value to users of existing local testbeds, and it will prove that federation is a model for the establishment of a long-term sustainable, large-scale and diverse testing infrastructure for (tele-)communications technologies, services and applications in Europe. In particular PII will: - Develop mechanisms and tools to describe, store, locate and orchestrate testing services as well as means to automatically provide composite testbeds across multiple administrative domains. - Develop and elaborate mechanisms to combine and accommodate future clean-slate approaches and provide testing services in a network-agnostic manner. - Define a common abstract control framework, which enables the interconnection of diverse testbeds. - Establish trust across the federation by means of quality assurance processes and tools. - Integrate the concept of User Driven Innovation. - Execute a techno-socio-economic study to assess the long-term sustainability of the federation model. PIIs testbed federation infrastructure will build on the legal, operational, and technical framework developed by the Panlab SSA in FP6. 20 partners constitute a highly competent, well-balanced consortium of SMEs, associations, academic institutions as well as large manufacturers and network operators, to mobilise the critical mass at European level to achieve the project objectives.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2007.3.2 | Award Amount: 4.97M | Year: 2008

An essential part of high-end optical microscopes is the ability to control various apertures and stops in both the illumination and imaging paths of these microscopes, in order to maximize the visualization of the objects under observation. Traditionally, these controls are implemented by mechanical apertures, irises and pinholes in such applications as coherence control, darkfield microscopy and confocal microscopy. Modern applications of optical microscopy in such diverse areas as semiconductor metrology and imaging of living organisms will require more flexible and dynamic controls for these apertures: - Semiconductor metrology requires structured illumination and spatial frequency filtering for enhancing the visual qualities of metrology targets. - Live cell fluorescence microscopy is looking for a better definition of the illumination conditions to reduce photo-bleaching and light induced toxicity, in order to lengthen observation times. MEMS-based Micromirror Arrays (MMA) are today widely used in large-scale display devices. Their configurability and dynamic control characteristics are also eminently suitable for visualization enhancement and new applications in optical microscopy. We are proposing a development project for adapting and integrating the MMA-technology into modern optical microscopes. The project will start at the device level, customizing the MMAs for visualization enhancement of optical microscopes, and then dealing with the issues of optical and opto-mechanical compatibility between the MMAs and microscopes, enhancement of current capabilities, and definition of new applications. Our team consists of an institute developing high-end MMAs, an optical system design and integration company, and end-users from the areas of semiconductor metrology and life-sciences.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2007.1.5 | Award Amount: 15.21M | Year: 2008

Film or cinema has been the driving force for the entertainment industry, setting the standards of quality, providing the most compelling experience, and feeding the distribution chains of other media (broadcast TV, cable and satellite channels, DVD, video, games et cetera). The creation of a complete `3-D capable chain is expected to follow a similar path. The media industry knows that astonishing the public is still a route to large audiences and financial success. 2020 3D Media proposes to research, develop, and demonstrate novel forms of compelling entertainment experience based on technologies for the capture, production, networked distribution and display of sounds and images in three-dimensions. 2020 3D Media will add extra dimensions to Digital Cinema and create new forms of stereoscopic and immersive networked media for the home and public spaces. The goal is to research and develop technologies to support the acquisition, coding, editing, networked distribution, and display of stereoscopic and immersive audiovisual content to provide novel forms of compelling entertainment experience in the home or public spaces. The users of the resulting technologies will be media industry professionals across the current film, TV and `new media sectors to make programme material addressing the general public. The key will be the creation of technologies for creating and presenting surround video as a viable system, based on recognised standards. This will require innovations and knew knowledge in: - Technologies and formats for 3D sound and image capture and coding, including novel high-resolution cameras - Technologies and methods for 3-D postproduction of sound and images - Technologies for the distribution and display of spatial media - The creative application of spatial media technologies

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2007.3.6 | Award Amount: 14.37M | Year: 2008

The proposed HERMES project wants to initiate a new mainstream packaging concept not bound by the existing supply chain, and by large-scale manufacturing technology. The project is aiming at further developing the concept of embedded thin chips into electronic boards, as a base for an integrated manufacturing of electronic circuits. The project consortium will develop a technology for embedding active and passive components, allowing more functional integration and higher density. The technology will be based on printed circuit board manufacturing and assembly practice, and on standard available silicon dies, highlighting fine pitch interconnection, high power capability and high frequency compatibility. Apart from research necessary for the technological advances towards fine pitch, new materials, multilevel stacking, high reliability, essential developments are needed for setting up an integrated manufacturing. Key issues are testability of the circuits during and after manufacturing, yield and cost of the processes, and organizing the supply chain. The benefits of HERMES will be very large: - Technologically: Higher density because some borders (the packaging/soldering interface) have disappeared, a smaller form factor and even possibility for 3D stacking - Low cost: Large-scale production will be possible, with still high accuracy due to innovative equipment and processes (placement, LDI, etc.), and by using cheap PCB processes to a large extent. Even for a smaller number of modules to be made, the embedded component technology in a PCB manufacturing will be interesting, by the flexibility of PCB layout, and component placement. - Time-to-market of complex and hybrid systems: By bringing the production and assembly of a module to one place, very short times-to-market will be possible, especially when compared to traditional solutions with advanced (e.g. WLP) packages (with long delivery times), and system-on-chip solutions.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2007.1.6 | Award Amount: 4.90M | Year: 2008

The project proposes a radical solution to data hosting and delivery for the Internet of the future. The current data delivery architecture is network centric, with content stored in data centres connected directly to Internet backbones. This approach has multiple drawbacks among which complexity of deploying data centres, power consumption, and lack of scalability are the most critical. The ECHOS project takes a totally innovative and orthogonal approach to traditional data centres, through what we call nano data centres, which are deployed in boxes at the edge of the network (i.e. in home gateways, set-top-boxes, etc.) and accessed using a new peer-to-peer communication infrastructure. This disruptive evolution solves most of the inconveniences of current data centre based solutions, and allows for the deployment of next generation interactive applications. However, this creates a number of challenges as data has to be accessed and assembled dynamically on-demand, in real-time. ECHOS will design and develop the nano-data centre communication architecture with security and incentive mechanisms. We will demonstrate that ECHOS is a cheap and scalable alternative to the current data hosting and delivery model. The full ECHOS architecture will be implemented (i.e. an ECHOS box will be fully specified and implemented). Virtualization will be used to partition and manage box resources efficiently. Two interactive applications - multiplayer games and VoD - will be designed as a proof of concept. A large scale testbed will be deployed to evaluate the benefits and performance of ECHOS. We will contribute the ECHOS architecture to the relevant standardization bodies and to discussion groups on the design of the Internet of the Future. The project is in line with the Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) of the NEM initiative. The project is expected to lead to the commercialization of the ECHOS box. This will result in a competitive advantage for European industry and SMEs.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2007.1.4 | Award Amount: 5.30M | Year: 2008

Identity Management is considered key to private, legal and business transactions as in the European eIDM2010. IdM frameworks are however currently confined to the web services domain. SWIFT goes beyond this by including user centricity and network operators as additional interdependent domains with IdM at the core. This new view of user centricity provides a novel perspective: Identity as central for legal, business and network development trends. To enable this vision, SWIFT aims to build a cross-layer identity framework with emphasis on networks and services using identity also as key enabler to convergence. For the user, it will provide multiple personae and identity-based privacy across layers and a data model for new and dynamic business. Cross-layer usability features will be included, such as ubiquitous connectivity, user-centred mobility and single sign-on based on vertical and horizontal federation principles. SWIFT will develop a standards aligned model for user data linked to identities or personae with the user in control of the information exchanged. It will separate management from resolution of identities at all layers, i.e. from the service to link, considering both privacy and need-to-know concerns. SWIFTs user-centric Id approach addresses three views: 1) users have complete control over privacy and disclosed information dependent on the service accessed; 2) services can use a generic treatment of authentication, authorization, access control independent of the layer services managed by a unique identity; 3) commercial players can leverage new business solutions for operator, service provider or 3rd parties through its federation approach. As a STREP, SWIFT aims to primarily impact technology research and related standardization in the manufacturing and telecom operator domains. The consortium is balanced accordingly. The social and legal domain will be addressed by liaisons and cooperations.

Williams O.A.,Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Solid State Physics
Diamond and Related Materials | Year: 2011

Diamond properties are significantly affected by crystallite size. High surface to volume fractions result in enhanced disorder, sp 2 bonding, hydrogen content and scattering of electrons and phonons. Most of these properties are common to all low dimensional materials, but the addition of carbon allotropes introduces sp 2 bonding, a significant disadvantage over systems such as amorphous silicon. Increased sp 2 bonding results in enhanced disorder, a significantly more complex density of states within the bandgap, reduction of Young's modulus, increased optical absorption etc. At sizes below 10 nm, many diamond particle and film properties deviate substantially from that of bulk diamond, mostly due not only to the contribution of sp 2 bonding, but also at the extreme low dimensions due to size effects. Despite these drawbacks, nano-diamond films and particles are powerful systems for a variety of applications and the study of fundamental science. Knowledge of the fundamental properties of these materials allows a far greater exploitation of their attributes for specific applications. This review attempts to guide the reader between the various nanocrystalline diamond forms and applications, with a particular focus on thin films grown by chemical vapour deposition. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2007.3.2 | Award Amount: 4.20M | Year: 2008

HELIUM3D will create a 3D display that will extend the state of the art in autostereoscopic (glasses free) displays, and will address the efficiency and color limitations of the current and next generation of displays by developing a new display technology based on direct-view RGB laser projection via a low loss transparent display screen to push the technology beyond the next generation of 3D displays. The HELIUM3D display will accommodate multiple mobile viewers with no restriction on movement. A high accuracy, low latency pupil position tracker will be developed to direct the appropriate images to the viewers eyes in a similar manner to current head tracked displays and will facilitate various modes of operation. These include: motion parallax (the look around capability) to each viewer, privacy of viewing from other viewers, a different camera viewpoint to each viewer and also conventional 2D to all viewers providing backward compatibility when necessary. This gives a display with a very wide range of applications and modes of operation. In producing such an advanced display HELIUM3D will also address new viewer interaction techniques in the near-field (distances within arms reach of the display such as computing or medical imaging) and far-field (applications beyond arms reach, such as domestic television or video gaming) that will be made possible by the new technology. The project will manage 32 person-years of effort over 36 months at a cost to the EU of 3.034 MEuro. The first 3 months will validate the research agenda and conduct a design review. In the subsequent 18 months a prototype will be developed to provide a platform for demonstration and formative assessment. The final 15-month phase iterates the development and consolidates know-how to provide a fully evaluated demonstrator, together with dissemination of specific and generalisable knowledge.

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