Valdastri P.,Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies |
Susilo E.,Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies |
Forster T.,Fraunhofer EMFT |
Strohhofer C.,Fraunhofer EMFT |
And 2 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering | Year: 2011
The development of a long-term wireless implantable biosensor based on fluorescence intensity measurement poses a number of technical challenges, ranging from biocompatibility to sensor stability over time. One of these challenges is the design of a power efficient and miniaturized electronics, enabling the biosensor to move from bench testing to long term validation, up to its final application in human beings. In this spirit, we present a wireless programmable electronic platform for implantable chronic monitoring of fluorescent-based autonomous biosensors. This system is able to achieve extremely low power operation with bidirectional telemetry, based on the IEEE802.15.4-2003 protocol, thus enabling over three-year battery lifetime and wireless networking of multiple sensors. During the performance of single fluorescent-based sensor measurements, the circuit drives a laser diode, for sensor excitation, and acquires the amplified signals from four different photodetectors. In vitro functionality was preliminarily tested for both glucose and calcium monitoring, simply by changing the analyte-binding protein of the biosensor. Electronics performance was assessed in terms of timing, power consumption, tissue exposure to electromagnetic fields, and in vivo wireless connectivity. The final goal of the presented platform is to be integrated in a complete system for blood glucose level monitoring that may be implanted for at least one year under the skin of diabetic patients. Results reported in this paper may be applied to a wide variety of biosensors based on fluorescence intensity measurement. © 2010 IEEE.
Ohlander A.,Fraunhofer EMFT |
Zilio C.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience |
Hammerle T.,Fraunhofer EMFT |
Zelenin S.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology |
And 5 more authors.
Lab on a Chip - Miniaturisation for Chemistry and Biology | Year: 2013
The recent technological advances in micro/nanotechnology present new opportunities to combine microfluidics with microarray technology for the development of small, sensitive, single-use, point-of-care molecular diagnostic devices. As such, the integration of microarray and plastic microfluidic systems is an attractive low-cost alternative to glass based microarray systems. This paper presents the integration of a DNA microarray and an all-polymer microfluidic foil system with integrated thin film heaters, which demonstrate DNA analysis based on melting curve analysis (MCA). A novel micro-heater concept using semi-transparent copper heaters manufactured by roll-to-roll and lift-off on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) foil has been developed. Using a mesh structure, heater surfaces have been realized in only one single metallization step, providing more efficient and homogenous heating characteristics than conventional meander heaters. A robust DNA microarray spotting protocol was adapted on Parylene C coated heater-foils, using co-polymer poly(DMA-NAS-MAPS) to enable covalent immobilization of DNA. The heaters were integrated in a microfluidic channel using lamination foils and MCA of the spotted DNA duplexes showed single based discrimination of mismatched over matched target DNA-probes. Finally, as a proof of principle, we perform MCA on PCR products to detect the Leu7Pro polymorphism of the neutropeptide Y related to increased risk of Type II diabetes, BMI and depression. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Ramm P.,Fraunhofer EMFT |
Klumpp A.,Fraunhofer EMFT |
Weber J.,Fraunhofer EMFT |
Lietaer N.,Sintef |
And 4 more authors.
ESSCIRC 2010 - 36th European Solid State Circuits Conference | Year: 2010
As predicted by the ITRS roadmap, semiconductor industry development dominated by shrinking transistor gate dimensions alone will not be able to overcome the performance and cost problems of future IC fabrication. Today 3D integration based on through silicon vias (TSV) is a well-accepted approach to overcome the performance bottleneck and simultaneously shrink the form factor. Several full 3D process flows have been demonstrated, however there are still no microelectronic products based on 3D TSV technologies in the market - except CMOS image sensors. 3D chip stacking of memory and logic devices without TSVs is already widely introduced in the market. Applying TSV technology for memory on logic will increase the performance of these advanced products and simultaneously shrink the form factor. In addition to the enabling of further improvement of transistor integration densities, 3D integration is a key technology for integration of heterogeneous technologies. Miniaturized MEMS/IC products represent a typical example for such heterogeneous systems demanding for smart system integration rather than extremely high transistor integration densities. The European 3D technology platform that has been established within the EC funded e-CUBES project is focusing on the requirements coming from heterogeneous systems. The selected 3D integration technologies are optimized concerning the availability of devices (packaged dies, bare dies or wafers) and the requirements of performance and form factor. There are specific technology requirements for the integration of MEMS/NEMS devices which differ from 3D integrated ICs (3D-IC). While 3D-ICs typically show a need for high interconnect densities and conductivities, TSV technologies for the integration of MEMS to ICs may result in lower electrical performance but have to fulfill other requirements, e. g. mechanical stability issues. 3D integration of multiple MEMS/IC stacks was successfully demonstrated for the fabrication of miniaturized sensor systems (e-CUBES), as for automotive, health & fitness and aeronautic applications. ©2010 IEEE.
Vitale W.A.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne |
Fernandez-Bolanos M.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne |
Klumpp A.,Fraunhofer EMFT |
Weber J.,Fraunhofer EMFT |
And 2 more authors.
Digest of Technical Papers - Symposium on VLSI Technology | Year: 2015
We demonstrate that fine-pitch TSV technology can be exploited to fabricate micro-inductors on high resistivity substrate, with record-high inductance per area and preserving their performance at GHz frequencies. We report an extensive experimental study on the effects of dimensional scaling and passive device density on RF performance of out-of-plane inductors exploiting W-based TSVs, with pitches down to 10 μm. We show wideband RF inductors with an unprecedented combination of a quality factor peak of 7.8 at 13 GHz, self-resonance frequency of 29.2 GHz, and inductance density of 124.4 nH/mm2. The reported technology also includes low loss interconnects, fixed capacitors and LC tanks, design to serving high performance 3D-integrated RF functionalities. © 2015 JSAP.
Bose I.,Fraunhofer EMFT |
Tetzner K.,TU Berlin |
Borner K.,Fraunhofer EMFT |
Borner K.,Munich University of Applied Sciences |
And 2 more authors.
Microelectronics Reliability | Year: 2014
We report on long-term air-stable organic rectifying diodes (ORD) on flexible substrates based on a solution deposited amorphous organic semiconductor (OSC) material, consisting of a co-polymer of arylamine and a fused aromatic species, reaching charge-carrier mobilities of μ = 0.05 cm2/V s (space charge limited current region) and current densities of up to 100 A/cm2 at 10 V levels with rectification ratios of 104 operating in the 10 kHz range. The ORDs exhibit a high degree of air-stability without any passivation with extremely reliable reproducibility. ORDs were fabricated on polyethylene naphthalate foils in a vertical sandwich structure with gold and aluminium as the injecting and blocking electrodes respectively via evaporation with the OSC spin-coated in between (Type1). In order to improve device performance of the ORDs, poly(ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) was μ-dispensed as a hole-injection layer (Type2). The results for Type1-diodes show a really narrow spread of the diode characteristics, whereas for Type2 diodes the spread is slightly more but still acceptable. These ORDs prove themselves better than conventional pentacene diodes both in terms of reliability/repeatability of the diode performance and air-stability without an encapsulation layer, and goes towards the enabling of a viable and reliable low-cost fabrication method of radio frequency identification-tags using organic semiconductors. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lorenz E.,Robert Bosch GmbH |
Niemann N.,Robert Bosch GmbH |
Koyuncu M.,Robert Bosch GmbH |
Bock K.,Fraunhofer EMFT
Proceedings of the 5th Electronics System-Integration Technology Conference, ESTC 2014 | Year: 2014
In this study the bending reliability of an isotropic conductive adhesive (ICA) filled between two printed circuit foils (PCF) as interconnection for a System-in-Foil is evaluated. The filling is realized by a Jet-Dispense process on oxygen plasma treated, as well as non-plasma treated foils. The samples are tested on a bending test setup capable of real-time electrical measurements during bending. A significant improvement of the bending stability is achieved with the plasma treatment process, while the main failure mechanism for the non-plasma treated samples is delamination at the pad-adhesive interface. © 2014 IEEE.
Wolf H.,Fraunhofer EMFT |
Gieser H.,Fraunhofer EMFT
Electrical Overstress/Electrostatic Discharge Symposium Proceedings | Year: 2015
By means of a floating handheld electronic product this work describes the influence of secondary discharge events during system level ESD testing on the failure threshold of the involved electronic circuit. In order to increase the robustness it was necessary to determine the discharge current target levels by a dedicated test set-up which was also used to verify the success of system modifications. This was a prerequisite for identifying the sensitive pins and for increasing the ESD robustness of the system.
Wieland R.,Fraunhofer EMFT |
Nguyen K.,Fraunhofer EMFT |
Seidelmann U.,Fraunhofer EMFT |
Scholz M.,TU Munich |
Schrag G.,TU Munich
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2015
A new proceb kit for a SPTS Pegasus DRIE Si-Etch tool has been developed and tested for several different proceb regimes, e.g. bulk-Si cavity etching and TSV (through-Silicon-Via) etching with high aspect ratios <10:1, using the socalled Bosch proceb. Additionally, Si-etch back (receb etching) with a single step proceb has been tested as well. The especially developed "edge protection kit", consisting of Al2O3 material and optionally of PEEK material, covers the edge of a wafer, preventing it from being etched or even being etched away. However, placing such a part on top of the cathode, results in changes of the electric field distribution and the gas flow behavior compared to the standard proceb kit supplied by SPTS. The consequences may be altered Si-etch rates combined with changes of the tilt and side wall taper of the etched structures, mainly near the outside regions of the wafer. To this end, extensive investigations on the mask and bulk-Si etch rates, the tilt and taper angle of various MEMS test structures and their respective uniformity over the wafer surface have been performed. Additionally, simulations applying Comsol Multiphysics have been carried out to visualize the potential impact of the new proceb kit on the electrical field distribution. A simplex-optimization was carried out, varying the platen power and source power, in order to improve the tilt and to maintain the proper taper angle. One major advantage of the new proceb kit design compared to the original one is the reduction of movable parts to a minimum. © COPYRIGHT 2015 SPIE.
Gossner U.,University of Federal Defense Munich |
Hoeftmann T.,Plan Optik AG |
Wieland R.,Fraunhofer EMFT |
Hansch W.,University of Federal Defense Munich
Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing | Year: 2014
In high-tech products, there is an increasing demand to integrate glass lenses into complex micro systems. Especially in the lighting industry LEDs and laser diodes used for automotive applications require encapsulated micro lenses. To enable low-cost production, manufacturing of micro lenses on wafer level base using a replication technology is a key technology. This requires accurate forming of thousands of lenses with a diameter of 1-2 mm on a 200 mm wafer compliant with mass production. The article will discuss the technical aspects of a lens manufacturing replication process and the challenges, which need to be solved: choice of an appropriate master for replication, thermally robust interlayer coating, choice of replica glass, bonding and separation procedure. A promising approach for the master substrate material is based on a lens structured high-quality glass wafer with high melting point covered by a coating layer of amorphous silicon or germanium. This layer serves as an interlayer for the glass bonding process. Low pressure chemical vapor deposition and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition processes allow a deposition of layer coatings with different hydrogen and doping content influencing their chemical and physical behavior. A time reduced molding process using a float glass enables the formation of high quality lenses while preserving the recyclability of the mother substrate. The challenge is the separation of the replica from the master mold. An overview of chemical methods based on optimized etching of coating layer through small channels will be given and the impact of glass etching on surface roughness is discussed. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
PubMed | Fraunhofer EMFT
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Lab on a chip | Year: 2013
The recent technological advances in micro/nanotechnology present new opportunities to combine microfluidics with microarray technology for the development of small, sensitive, single-use, point-of-care molecular diagnostic devices. As such, the integration of microarray and plastic microfluidic systems is an attractive low-cost alternative to glass based microarray systems. This paper presents the integration of a DNA microarray and an all-polymer microfluidic foil system with integrated thin film heaters, which demonstrate DNA analysis based on melting curve analysis (MCA). A novel micro-heater concept using semi-transparent copper heaters manufactured by roll-to-roll and lift-off on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) foil has been developed. Using a mesh structure, heater surfaces have been realized in only one single metallization step, providing more efficient and homogenous heating characteristics than conventional meander heaters. A robust DNA microarray spotting protocol was adapted on Parylene C coated heater-foils, using co-polymer poly(DMA-NAS-MAPS) to enable covalent immobilization of DNA. The heaters were integrated in a microfluidic channel using lamination foils and MCA of the spotted DNA duplexes showed single based discrimination of mismatched over matched target DNA-probes. Finally, as a proof of principle, we perform MCA on PCR products to detect the Leu7Pro polymorphism of the neutropeptide Y related to increased risk of Type II diabetes, BMI and depression.