Fraunhofer Center Nanoelektronische Technologien

Dresden, Germany

Fraunhofer Center Nanoelektronische Technologien

Dresden, Germany

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Schulz M.,Synopsys Inc. | Stock H.-J.,Synopsys Inc. | Klostermann U.,Synopsys Inc. | Hoppe W.,Synopsys Inc. | And 6 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2010

With the constantly improving maturity of e-beam direct write exposure tools and processes for applications in high volume manufacturing, new challenges with regard to speed, throughput, correction and verification have to be faced. One objective of the MAGIC high-throughput maskless lithography project [1] is the application of the physics-based simulation in a virtual e-beam direct write environment to investigate proximity effects and develop comprehensive correction methodologies [2]. To support this, a rigorous e-beam lithography simulator for the feature scale has been developed [3]. The patterning behavior is determined by modeling electron scattering, exposure, and resist processing inside the film stack, in analogy with corresponding simulation capabilities for the optical and EUV case. Some model parameters, in particular for the resist modeling cannot be derived from first principles or direct measurements but need to be determined through a calibration process. To gain experience with the calibration of chemically amplified resists (CAR) for e-beam lithography, test pattern exposures have been performed for a negative tone CAR using a variable-shaped beam writer operating at 50kV. A recently implemented model calibration methodology has been applied to determine the optimum set of resist model parameters. While the calibration is based on 1D (lines & spaces) patterns only, the model results are compared to 2D test structures for verification. © 2010 SPIE.


Endler I.,Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems | Hohn M.,Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems | Herrmann M.,Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems | Holzschuh H.,SuCoTec AG | And 5 more authors.
Surface and Coatings Technology | Year: 2010

Ti1-xAlxN is a well established material for cutting tool applications exhibiting a high hardness and an excellent oxidation resistance. A main route for increasing the performance of Ti1-xAlxN is the incorporation of further elements. Therefore the main objective of this work is to improve the properties and wear resistance of aluminum-rich CVD-TiAlN coatings by incorporating carbon. A new Low Pressure CVD process was employed for the deposition of a very aluminum-rich TiAlCN layers. The process works with a gas mixture of TiCl4, AlCl3, NH3, H2, N2, Ar and ethylene as carbon source. In this work microstructure, composition, properties and cutting performance of CVD-TiAlCN coatings were investigated.Hard aluminum-rich TiAlCN coatings were obtained at 800°C and 850°C consisting of a composite of fcc-Ti1-xAlxN and minor phases of TiN, h-AlN and amorphous carbon. WDX analysis indicates only a low carbon content <2at.%. Lattice constant calculations suggest that carbon atoms should not be incorporated in the Ti1-xAlxN lattice. From TEM analysis and Raman spectroscopy it is evident that carbon is mainly located at the grain boundaries as a-C phase. Therefore these fcc-Ti1-xAlxN(C) coatings with low carbon content are rather a composite of fcc-Ti1-xAlxN and an amorphous carbon phase (a-C). At 900°C the metastable fcc-Ti1-xAlxN nearly disappears and co-deposition of TiN and h-AlN occurs. The layers deposited at 800°C and 850°C possess a high hardness around 3000 HV and compressive stress. CVD-TiAlCN coatings prepared at 850°C shows also an amazing thermal stability under high vacuum conditions up to 1200°C. Aluminum-rich composites fcc-Ti1-xAlxN/a-C with x>0.8 exhibit a superior cutting performance in different milling tests. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Thomas O.,Fraunhofer Center Nanoelektronische Technologien | Schaller M.,Globalfoundries | Gerlich L.,Fraunhofer Center Nanoelektronische Technologien | Fischer D.,Globalfoundries | And 3 more authors.
2011 IEEE International Interconnect Technology Conference and 2011 Materials for Advanced Metallization, IITC/MAM 2011 | Year: 2011

In this paper the effect of a vapor phase based silylation process on patterned test structures using ULK based ILD's was investigated. It was found that the resistance to capacitance (RC) behavior can be improved. This improvement was found to be scalable, meaning with decreasing metal pitch the RC improvement increases. The silylation process provides in addition a decrease of the leakage current and was found to have adequate defectivity. As the process is feasible for production and the improvement of the electrical properties increases with smaller feature size, it can be assumed that extra costs of the restoration process will be paid out for future technology nodes, if ULK as an ILD is used. © 2011 IEEE.


Naumann A.,Fraunhofer Center Nanoelektronische Technologien | Sundqvist J.,Fraunhofer Center Nanoelektronische Technologien | Ogiewa M.,Fraunhofer Center Nanoelektronische Technologien | Boitier L.,Fraunhofer Center Nanoelektronische Technologien | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology | Year: 2011

This work reports the feasibility of silicon and silicon germanium epitaxy using an ASM A412 TMa LPCVD all quartz, hot wall, vertical batch furnace reactor using 100 wafer product loads. The very same furnace can be used for 25 wafer and 200 wafer load size, without any hardware changes, dependant on production needs. Following this approach a significant cost reduction for epitaxy in 300 mm high volume manufacturing is possible and enables new applications. The native oxide of the substrate was removed by wet chemical cleaning with time coupling of less than 1 h and subsequent in-situ low pressure hydrogen anneal prior to Si or SiGe deposition. The epitaxial layers were grown using silane and germane. The Si and SiGe layers have been characterized with ToFSIMS, XRD, Raman, AFM and TEM confirming excellent crystalline quality, layer thickness and within wafer SiGe stoichiometry uniformity. Copyright © 2011 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.


Westwood G.,Mallinckrodt Baker Inc. | Pigliucci A.,Mallinckrodt Baker B.V. | Oszinda T.,Fraunhofer Center Nanoelektronische Technologien | Leppack S.,Global Foundries Dresden Module Two GmbH and Co. KG | Schaller M.,Global Foundries Dresden Module Two GmbH and Co. KG
Solid State Phenomena | Year: 2012

Mallinckrodt Baker, Inc. (MBI) has developed an aqueous fluoride-based cleaner (AFC1) that shows improved ultra-low k (ULK) and cobalt tungsten phosphide (CoWP) compatibility over dilute hydrofluoric acid (dHF) and a simple solvent based cleaner (SFC1). Performance and compatibility testing was performed with beaker tests at MBI and on 45 nm wafers by GLOBALFOUNDRIES. Our results indicate that AFC1 may be a good alternative to dHF for future Cu technologies. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications.


Mutas S.,Fraunhofer Center Nanoelektronische Technologien | Klein C.,Globalfoundries | Gerstl S.S.A.,Imago Scientific Instruments
Ultramicroscopy | Year: 2011

In this paper we present depth profiles of a high-k layer consisting of HfO2 with an embedded sub-nm thick ZrO2 layer obtained with atom probe tomography (APT). In order to determine suitable measurement parameters for reliable, reproducible, and quantitative analysis, we have investigated the influence of the laser energy and the specimen temperature on the resulting elemental composition. In addition we devise a procedure for local background subtraction both for the composition and the depth scale that is crucial for gaining reproducible results. We find that the composition of the high-k material remains unaffected even for extreme laser energies and base temperatures, while higher laser energies lead to an accumulation of silicon at the upper interface of the high-k layer. Furthermore we show that APT is capable of providing sub-nm depth resolution for high-k materials with high reproducibility, good compositional accuracy, and high measurement yield. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Schumacher H.,TU Dresden | Kunzelmann U.,TU Dresden | Vasilev B.,TU Dresden | Vasilev B.,Fraunhofer Center Nanoelektronische Technologien | And 2 more authors.
Applied Spectroscopy | Year: 2010

A novel internal reflection element (IRE) for attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FT-IR) spectral acquisition is introduced and applied for several surface-sensitive measurements. It is based on microstructured double-side-polished (100) silicon wafers with v-shaped grooves of {111} facets on their backside. These facets of the so-called "microstructured single-reflection elements" (mSRE) are formed by a crystal-oriented anisotropic wet etching process within a conventional wafer structuring process. They are used to couple infrared radiation into and out of the IRE. In contrast to the application of the commonly used silicon multiple-reflection elements (MRE), the new elements provide single-reflection ATR measurements at the opposite wafer side by using simple reflection accessories without any special collimation. Due to the short light path, the spectral range covers the entire mid-infrared region with a high optical throughput, including the range of silicon lattice vibrations from 300 to 1500 cm-1. In addition to typical ATR applications, i.e., the measurement of bulk liquids and soft materials, the new reflection elements can be effectively used and customer-specifically designed for in situ and ex situ investigations of aqueous solutions, thin films, and monolayers on Si. Examples presented in this article are in situ etching of native as well as thermal SiO2 and characterization of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films on Si under various measuring conditions. © 2010 Society for Applied Spectroscopy.


PubMed | Fraunhofer Center Nanoelektronische Technologien
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of nanoscience and nanotechnology | Year: 2011

This work reports the feasibility of silicon and silicon germanium epitaxy using an ASM A412(TMa) LPCVD all quartz, hot wall, vertical batch furnace reactor using 100 wafer product loads. The very same furnace can be used for 25 wafer and 200 wafer load size, without any hardware changes, dependant on production needs. Following this approach a significant cost reduction for epitaxy in 300 mm high volume manufacturing is possible and enables new applications. The native oxide of the substrate was removed by wet chemical cleaning with time coupling of less than 1 h and subsequent in-situ low pressure hydrogen anneal prior to Si or SiGe deposition. The epitaxial layers were grown using silane and germane. The Si and SiGe layers have been characterized with ToFSIMS, XRD, Raman, AFM and TEM confirming excellent crystalline quality, layer thickness and within wafer SiGe stoichiometry uniformity.


PubMed | Fraunhofer Center Nanoelektronische Technologien
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Ultramicroscopy | Year: 2011

In this paper we present depth profiles of a high-k layer consisting of HfO(2) with an embedded sub-nm thick ZrO(2) layer obtained with atom probe tomography (APT). In order to determine suitable measurement parameters for reliable, reproducible, and quantitative analysis, we have investigated the influence of the laser energy and the specimen temperature on the resulting elemental composition. In addition we devise a procedure for local background subtraction both for the composition and the depth scale that is crucial for gaining reproducible results. We find that the composition of the high-k material remains unaffected even for extreme laser energies and base temperatures, while higher laser energies lead to an accumulation of silicon at the upper interface of the high-k layer. Furthermore we show that APT is capable of providing sub-nm depth resolution for high-k materials with high reproducibility, good compositional accuracy, and high measurement yield.

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