Fraunhofer Center for Experimental Software Engineering

MD, United States

Fraunhofer Center for Experimental Software Engineering

MD, United States

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Ray A.,Fraunhofer Center for Experimental Software Engineering | Cleaveland R.,University of Maryland College Park
2013 1st International Workshop on Assurance Cases for Software-Intensive Systems, ASSURE 2013 - Proceedings | Year: 2013

This paper lays out a approach for safety assurance case argumentation. The approach links together in a principled manner a device's highest-level safety claims, operating environments and hazards; and its safety requirements, final implementation, and test and other validation results. This approach is intended for the creation of safety assurance cases for pre-market submissions to a regulatory authority like the Food and Drug Administration. © 2013 IEEE.


Shull F.,Fraunhofer Center for Experimental Software Engineering
IEEE Software | Year: 2011

The metaphor of "technical debt" is useful for reasoning about trading off software development activities: An exclusive focus on implementing functionality can lead to code decay. Since this deterioration of the system usually reflects a lack of activity spent on refactoring, documentation, and other aspects of the project infrastructure, it can be viewed as a kind of debt that the developers owe the system. Meaningful forms and indications of technical debt tend to be driven by project-specific quality concerns. Work with several organizations indicates that it is a healthy thing for projects to take a bit of time for reflection on what kinds of technical debt they are most concerned aboutand think of ways to keep an eye on how much debt is accumulating. © 2011 IEEE.


Shull F.,Fraunhofer Center for Experimental Software Engineering
IEEE Software | Year: 2013

IEEE Software Editor-in-Chief Forrest Shull discusses the importance of building reliable systems to interpret big data. In addition, he discusses the IBM Impact 2013 Unconference; the Software Engineering Institute's SATURN 2013 conference in which the IEEE Software Architecture in Practice Award went to Simon Brown of Coding the Architecture, for his presentation titled 'The Conflict between Agile and Architecture: Myth or Reality' and the IEEE Software New Directions Award went to Darryl Nelson of Raytheon for his presentation titled, 'Next-Gen Web Architecture for the Cloud Era.' He also welcomes Professor Rafael Prikladnicki of the Computer Science School at PUCRS, Brazil, and Chief Software Economist Walker Royce of IBM's Software Group to the IEEE Software Advisory Board. The first Web extra at http://youtu.be/JrQorWS5m6w is a video interview in which IEEE Software editor in chief Forrest Shull speaks with Paul Zikopoulos, Director - IBM Information Management Technical Professionals, Competitive Database, and Big Data at IBM, about the potentials of mining big data. Zikopoulos will deliver a keynote at Software Experts Summit 2013 on 17 July in Redmond, Washington. The second Web extra at http://youtu.be/NHHThAeONv8 is a video interview in which IEEE Software editor in chief Forrest Shull speaks with Catherine Plaisant and Megan Monroe of the University of Maryland Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory about big data information visualization and its applications to software development. The third Web extra at http://youtu.be/NqXE0ewoTKA is a video overview of the IBM Impact 2013 Unconference, sponsored by IEEE Software magazine, an event specifically designed for developers that featured Grady Booch and Tim O'Reilly as keynote speakers. © 1984-2012 IEEE.


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: COMPUTER SYSTEMS | Award Amount: 79.99K | Year: 2010

Since software is easier to configure, modify and re-use than hardware, an increasingly large portion of a medical device?s functionality is now being implemented in code. This presents considerable engineering challenges for both device regulators and manufacturers in terms of ensuring the safety and effectiveness of the deployed software. This NSF-FDA Scholar in Residence project focuses on the use of generic software architecture specifications for medical devices as a path to reducing the complexity of engineering medical device software. For manufacturers, generic device specifications can serve as a base artifact from which concrete implementations may be constructed. For regulators, they represent an artifact that can be modeled and used in evaluating implementations for adherence to a base set of safety requirements. The primary goals of this project are to explore a generic infusion pump architecture that can be extended to different infusion pump classes while preserving the requisite safety properties in a trustable, verifiable manner. The project explores challenges for developing usable generic device software architecture specifications and for applying them: producing concrete device instances, constructing extended subclasses from the generic architecture while verifying that properties are preserved, and supporting regulators and manufacturers as they evaluate device software conformance to safety architectures. The research employs model-checking, assertion-based verification, static analysis and reverse engineering to support assurance of safety-critical devices such as the Patient-Controlled Analgesia (PCA) infusion pump. The aim of the research is to provide an informative pilot study towards adoption of such techniques in device manufacturing workflows and regulatory regimes. One of the driving goals of this project is to create techniques and approaches that will benefit patients (by increasing device safety), device manufacturers (by helping them cut development costs) and regulators (by enabling them to automate and formalize their regulatory activities).


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: Secure &Trustworthy Cyberspace | Award Amount: 309.30K | Year: 2016

Most of the worlds internet access occurs through mobile devices such as smart phones and tablets. While these devices are convenient, they also enable crimes that intersect the physical world and cyberspace. For example, a thief who steals a smartphone can gain access to a person?s sensitive email, or someone using a banking app on the train may reveal account numbers to someone looking over her shoulder. This research will study how, when, and where people use smartphones and the relationship between these usage patterns and the likelihood of being a victim of cybercrime. This research is the first step to a better scientific understanding how the physical world surrounding smartphone use enables cybercrime. Tired users may be less cautious in browsing to unsafe websites, or distracted users may miss a critical pop-up that a virus has been detected. Once these unsafe patterns of behavior are identified, new techniques, tools, and training can be developed to help prevent smartphone users from becoming victims of cybercrime.

This research expands existing theories of victimization in the domain of mobile devices, where both the criminal activity and the victimization occur online but may be affected by the offline environment. This research collects sensor data from the smartphones of 160 volunteers, such as GPS location, call frequency, and app usage. The smartphone sensor data is combined with questionnaires, demographic data from the U.S. Census, and neighborhood condition data from Google Street view. This research also provides a baseline of smartphone security threats stemming from behavioral and social factors, and applies new methods for social science research using mobile sensor data to unobtrusively observe the daily activities of subjects. Finally, this research adds to the body of knowledge on the fundamental limitations of sensor-based activity and context inferences, provides a unique corpus of smartphone sensor data that is freely available to the scientific community, and a set of open source tools for collecting and analyzing the data.


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: SPECIAL PROJECTS - CISE | Award Amount: 75.00K | Year: 2012

This project is a collaboration under the NSF-FDA Scholar-In-Residence (SIR) program. The project focuses on computer-aided methods to facilitate the analysis of software properties of real-time cyber physical systems (CPS) by reverse architecting structures present in the source code. The new idea of this project is to extract and use elements from the source code in order to build architecture analysis and design language (AADL) models. These models are used to systematically evaluate emerging properties (e.g., safety, schedulability, end-to-end latency, and security) using AADL?s capability to analyze the software?s architecture. In practice, AADL models have to be built manually, which is tedious. In this project, a new bridge between AADL models and reverse-engineered architectural structures is sought so that AADL models can be built in an automated fashion. Using these models, implementations of real-time systems can be systematically analyzed for emergent properties using AADL.

The broader impact of this project is that software-based CPS that leverage the contributions of this project are expected to be safer to use in our daily lives. From an engineering standpoint, the work enables organizations to evaluate software properties such as safety and security of real-time systems in less time due to new automation support. In addition, the project is developing a catalog of software structures that facilitate or impede real-time CPS systems safety. The catalog can be used by engineers to build in formally verified software structures at design time, thereby advancing the manner in which new CPS are built and analyzed.


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: SOFTWARE & HARDWARE FOUNDATION | Award Amount: 482.85K | Year: 2013

The goal of the research is to enable software engineers to find software development best practices from past empirical data. The increasing availability of software development project data, plus new machine learning techniques, make it possible for researchers to study the generalizability of results across projects using the concept of transfer learning. Using data from real software projects, the project will determine and validate best practices in three areas: predicting software development effort; isolating software detects; effective code inspection practices.

This research will deliver new data mining technologies in the form of transfer learning techniques and tools that overcome current limitations in the state-of-the-art to provide accurate learning within and across projects. It will design new empirical studies, which apply transfer learning to empirical data collected from industrial software projects. It will build an on-line model analysis service, making the techniques and tools available to other researchers who are investigating validity of principles for best practice.

The broader impacts of the research will be to make empirical software engineering research results more transferable to practice, and to improve the research processes for the empirical software engineering community. By providing a means to test principles about software development, this work stands to transform empirical software engineering research and enable software managers to rely on scientifically obtained facts and conclusions rather than anecdotal evidence and one-off studies. Given the immense importance and cost of software in commercial and critical systems, the research has long-term economic impacts.


Shull F.,Fraunhofer Center for Experimental Software Engineering
IEEE Software | Year: 2013

IEEE Software editor-in-chief Forrest Shull discusses the software sustainability and his interview with Girish Seshagiri, the CEO of AIS, an organization that offers 'firm fixed-price contracting with performance guarantees, including a lifetime warranty on software defects' in government contracts. In addition, he discusses the best paper award at the 21st Annual IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference and the best research paper award at the Agile Conference. The first Web extra at http://youtu.be/ L1XN0R4koRk is an audio interview highlighting IEEE Software editor in chief Forrest Shull's discussion with Girish Seshagiri, the CEO of AIS, about the organization's philosophy of offering 'firm fixed-price contracting with performance guarantees, including a lifetime warranty on software defects' in government contracts. The second Web extra at http://youtu.be/iFsZlrhSM9E is the complete audio interview in which IEEE Software editor in chief Forrest Shull's speaks with Girish Seshagiri, the CEO of AIS, about the organization's philosophy of offering 'firm fixed-price contracting with performance guarantees, including a lifetime warranty on software defects' in government contracts. © 2013 IEEE.


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: CYBER-PHYSICAL SYSTEMS (CPS) | Award Amount: 99.03K | Year: 2015

This project represents a cross-disciplinary collaborative research effort on developing rigorous, closed-loop approaches for designing, simulating, and verifying medical devices. The work will open fundamental new approaches for radically accelerating the pace of medical device innovation, especially in the sphere of cardiac-device design. Specific attention will be devoted to developing advanced formal methods-based approaches for analyzing controller designs for safety and effectiveness; and devising methods for expediting regulatory and other third-party reviews of device designs. The project team includes members with research backgrounds in computer science, electrical engineering, biophysics, and cardiology; the PIs will use a coordinated approach that balances theoretical, experimental and practical concerns to yield results that are intended to transform the practice of device design while also facilitating the translation of new cardiac therapies into practice.

The proposed effort will lead to significant advances in the state of the art for system verification and cardiac therapies based on the use of formal methods and closed-loop control and verification. The animating vision for the work is to enable the development of a true in silico design methodology for medical devices that can be used to speed the development of new devices and to provide greater assurance that their behaviors match designers intentions, and to pass regulatory muster more quickly so that they can be used on patients needing their care. The scientific work being proposed will serve this vision by providing mathematically robust techniques for analyzing and verifying the behavior of medical devices, for modeling and simulating heart dynamics, and for conducting closed-loop verification of proposed therapeutic approaches.

The acceleration in medical device innovation achievable as a result of the proposed research will also have long-term and sustained societal benefits, as better diagnostic and therapeutic technologies enter into the practice of medicine more quickly. It will also yield a collection of tools and techniques that will be applicable in the design of other types of devices. Finally, it will contribute to the development of human resources and the further inclusion of under-represented groups via its extensive education and outreach programs, including intensive workshop experiences for undergraduates.


Shull F.,Fraunhofer Center for Experimental Software Engineering
IEEE Software | Year: 2012

Smart mobile devices have had a huge impact on the world today with new apps being produced at a prodigious rate. How we got to this point has a lot to do with the ease of use that manufacturers and app developers have achieved, which includes aspects such as quick response time, intuitive interfaces, and well-designed functionality. To explore how this came about, IEEE Software Editor-in-Chief Forrest Shull recently spoke with Ben Shneiderman and Ben Bederson, both of whom are former directors of the University of Maryland's Human-Computer Interaction Lab (HCIL), the oldest center in the US focusing on research in HCI. © 2012 IEEE.

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