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Columbus, OH, United States

Franklin University is a private university in Ohio. It was founded in 1902 to serve the needs of adult students. The university has five campuses in Ohio and Indiana as well as large selection of online courses. Wikipedia.


Korfel A.,Franklin University | Schlegel U.,Ruhr University Bochum
Nature Reviews Neurology | Year: 2013

Primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare lymphoma that is confined to the CNS, with low tendency for systemic dissemination and a relatively aggressive course. Outcome in patients with PCNSL is often poor. Owing to its low incidence, current knowledge about optimal treatment of PCNSL is fragmentary. Chemotherapy regimens based on high-dose methotrexate are currently standard treatment for all patients with PCNSL who can tolerate such drugs. Whole-brain radiotherapy alone can lead to remission in up to 90% of patients, but often results in poor long-term disease control when given alone, and in delayed neurotoxicity when given after high-dose methotrexate. In this Review, we describe current approaches to diagnosis and treatment of PCNSL, and discuss novel therapeutic approaches that are currently in development, such as the use of rituximab and high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem-cell transplantation. The possible use of intrathecal and intraventricular chemotherapy, optimal salvage treatment, and specific treatment approaches in elderly, paediatric and immunocompromised patients, are also considered. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source


Stutzmann G.E.,Franklin University | Mattson M.P.,U.S. National Institute on Aging
Pharmacological Reviews | Year: 2011

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a morphologically and functionally diverse organelle capable of integrating multiple extracellular and internal signals and generating adaptive cellular responses. It plays fundamental roles in protein synthesis and folding and in cellular responses to metabolic and proteotoxic stress. In addition, the ER stores and releases Ca 2+ in sophisticated scenarios that regulate a range of processes in excitable cells throughout the body, including muscle contraction and relaxation, endocrine regulation of metabolism, learning and memory, and cell death. One or more Ca 2+ ATPases and two types of ER membrane Ca 2+ channels (inositol trisphosphate and ryanodine receptors) are the major proteins involved in ER Ca 2+ uptake and release, respectively. There are also direct and indirect interactions of ER Ca 2+ stores with plasma membrane and mitochondrial Ca 2+-regulating systems. Pharmacological agents that selectively modify ER Ca 2+ release or uptake have enabled studies that revealed many different physiological roles for ER Ca 2+ signaling. Several inherited diseases are caused by mutations in ER Ca 2+-regulating proteins, and perturbed ER Ca 2+ homeostasis is implicated in a range of acquired disorders. Preclinical investigations suggest a therapeutic potential for use of agents that target ER Ca 2+ handling systems of excitable cells in disorders ranging from cardiac arrhythmias and skeletal muscle myopathies to Alzheimer disease. © 2011 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Source


Wingenfeld K.,Franklin University | Wolf O.T.,Ruhr University Bochum
Psychoneuroendocrinology | Year: 2015

Stress hormones influence a wide range of cognitive functions, including memory performance and executive function. It is well established that glucocorticoids enhance memory consolidation but impair memory retrieval. While most of the effects have been attributed to glucocorticoid receptors (GR), the importance of mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) has been also emphasized.Dysfunctions in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have been reported for several mental disorders. While major depressive disorder (MDD) as well as borderline personality disorder (BPD) seem to be characterized by enhanced cortisol release in concert with a reduced feedback sensitivity of the HPA axis, in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) a contrary picture has been reported. Despite the fact that altered GR function has been discussed for these disorders only very few studies have investigated the effects of glucocorticoids on cognitive performance in these patients so far.In a series of studies, we investigated the effects of glucocorticoids on cognition (i.e. declarative memory, working memory and response inhibition) in different mental disorders such as MDD, PTSD and BPD. While in patients with MDD cortisol administration failed to effect memory retrieval, patients with PTSD and BPD showed enhanced rather than impaired memory retrieval after cortisol administration. These results indicate an altered sensitivity to cortisol in these disorders. Results from one of our recent studies in the field of social cognition underline the importance of the MR. We found that emotional empathy was enhanced through stimulation of the MR via fludrocortisone in healthy participants and women with BPD. This review aims to integrate these findings and discuss potential mechanisms and implications. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Rudwaleit M.,Endokrinologikum Berlin | Sieper J.,Franklin University
Nature Reviews Rheumatology | Year: 2012

The spectrum of HLA-B27-associated inflammatory spine diseases is referred to as axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). AxSpA encompasses established ankylosing spondylitis (AS) but also nonradiographic axSpA, and can be classified according to the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society classification criteria for axSpA. Specific and effective therapy for axSpA includes education, physiotherapy, NSAIDs and biologic agents, as appropriate. Patients with axSpA, however, are often diagnosed late in the course of the disease. As specific therapy is available, the effective identification of those individuals who are likely to have axSpA among patients with chronic back pain in primary care and their subsequent referral to a rheumatologist for establishing a correct diagnosis is worth pursuing. Candidate referral parameters that can easily be applied to patients with chronic back pain and age at onset ĝ‰ Currency sign45 years (the target population) include inflammatory back pain (IBP) and positivity for HLA-B27. Following diagnostic work-up by a rheumatologist, these referral parameters, either alone or in combination, have led to the diagnosis of as many as 33-45% of patients within this target population with axSpA, 41-62% of whom had undiagnosed AS. Thus, educating primary care physicians on the value of IBP and HLA-B27 testing within this target population, and referral to a rheumatologist if one of these parameters is positive, is a promising approach to reduce the long delay in diagnosing patients with axSpA. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source


Paulus W.J.,VU University Amsterdam | Tschope C.,Franklin University
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2013

Over the past decade, myocardial structure, cardiomyocyte function, and intramyocardial signaling were shown to be specifically altered in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF). A new paradigm for HFPEF development is therefore proposed, which identifies a systemic proinflammatory state induced by comorbidities as the cause of myocardial structural and functional alterations. The new paradigm presumes the following sequence of events in HFPEF: 1) a high prevalence of comorbidities such as overweight/obesity, diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and salt-sensitive hypertension induce a systemic proinflammatory state; 2) a systemic proinflammatory state causes coronary microvascular endothelial inflammation; 3) coronary microvascular endothelial inflammation reduces nitric oxide bioavailability, cyclic guanosine monophosphate content, and protein kinase G (PKG) activity in adjacent cardiomyocytes; 4) low PKG activity favors hypertrophy development and increases resting tension because of hypophosphorylation of titin; and 5) both stiff cardiomyocytes and interstitial fibrosis contribute to high diastolic left ventricular (LV) stiffness and heart failure development. The new HFPEF paradigm shifts emphasis from LV afterload excess to coronary microvascular inflammation. This shift is supported by a favorable Laplace relationship in concentric LV hypertrophy and by all cardiac chambers showing similar remodeling and dysfunction. Myocardial remodeling in HFPEF differs from heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, in which remodeling is driven by loss of cardiomyocytes. The new HFPEF paradigm proposes comorbidities, plasma markers of inflammation, or vascular hyperemic responses to be included in diagnostic algorithms and aims at restoring myocardial PKG activity. © 2013 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation. Source

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