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Frankfurt am Main, Germany

Gauggel S.,RWTH Aachen | Heusinger A.,Center for Psychotherapy Ltd | Forkmann T.,RWTH Aachen | Boecker M.,RWTH Aachen | And 4 more authors.
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research | Year: 2010

Background: There is evidence that exerting self-control during alcohol craving can diminish performance on subsequent tasks that require self-control. Based on the resource depletion model (Muraven and Baumeister, 2000), we examined the influence of alcohol cue exposure on detoxified alcohol-dependent patients' ability to inhibit ongoing responses. Methods: Twenty alcohol-dependent patients were randomly assigned to an alcohol-cue exposure and a control-cue exposure condition and thereafter had to perform an inhibition task (i.e., stop-signal task). Results: Participants who sniffed alcohol before performing the inhibition task reported a stronger urge to drink alcohol than the control group that sniffed water. Participants who sniffed alcohol were also impaired in their inhibitory performance but not in their noninhibitory performance on the stop-signal task. Conclusions: The urge to drink presumably reduced participants' self-control, and this interfered with their ability to inhibit responding. © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

A number of remarkable observations such as an enormous kidney, grooved three-pointed teeth and a huge seasonally present penis are reported in the recent study, conducted by Adrienne Jochum, Naturhistorisches Museum der Burgergemeinde Bern, Switzerland, and her international team of researchers from University of Bern, Switzerland; Shinshu University, Japan; Universitaetsklinikum Giessen und Marburg GmbH, Germany; Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Germany; University of Ljubljana, Slovenia; University of Bern Goethe-University Frankfurt, Germany; Ruhr University Bochum, Germany; Croatian Biospeleological Society, Croatia and University Duisburg-Essen, Germany. The scientists describe these characteristics as adaptations the miniature creatures have acquired in order to survive austerity in the subterranean realm. Usually, adaptations to cave life can include blindness or lack of eyes, loss of pigmentation, sensitivity to changes in temperature and humidity, a high starvation tolerance, or anatomical compromises such as small size and transparent shells. The present study shows that miniscule carychiid subterranean snails have developed huge organs to tolerate the unique conditions of cave life. "Studying adaptations in extreme environments such as those found in snails of subterranean habitats can help us to understand mechanisms driving evolution in these unique habitats," explains the first author. Glassy cave-dwelling snails known only from Northern Spain, the southern Eastern Alpine Arc and the Dinarides might have tiny hearts, but their enormous kidney extends from one to two thirds of the total length of their minute shells. This phenomenon could be explained as an effective mechanism used to flush out large amounts of excess water during flooding seasons in caves. The same impressive creatures have also developed elaborate muscular plates, forming the girdle that surrounds the gastric mill (gizzard) in their digestive tract. The muscular gizzard grinds the grainy stew of microorganisms and fungi the snails find in moist cave mud. These mysterious creatures graze stealthily using an elastic ribbon (radula), aligned with seemingly endless rows of three-pointed, centrally-grooved teeth, as they glide through the depths of karst caves while searching for food and partners. Deprived from the hospitable aspects of life we have grown used to, some of the snails discussed in the present paper have evolved their reproductive system in order to be able to reproduce in the harshest of environments, even when they fail to find a partner for an extended period of time. As a result, not only are these snails protandric hermaphrodites, meaning that they possess male sexual features initially, which later disappear so that the female phase is present, but they have a large retractable, pinecone-shaped penis for instantaneous mating in the summer when mating is most probable. To guarantee offspring, a round sac, known as the receptaculum seminis, stocks sperm received from a partner during a previous mating and allows them to self-inseminate if necessary. Teeth in these cave snails are also described using histology for the first time. They bear a median groove on the characteristic cusps known for the Carychiidae. Sketchy, past dissections provide the current knowledge upon which the findings from this investigation are based. Otherwise, historical descriptions of these tiny snails are only known from empty shells found in samples of cave sediment. The genus Zospeum can only be found alive by inspecting cave walls using a magnifying glass. "Knowledge of their subterranean ecology as well as a "gut feeling" of where they might be gliding about in their glassy shells is necessary to find them," comments Adrienne Jochum. The authors also emphasize that this groundbreaking work is important for biodiversity studies, for biogeographical investigations and for conservation management strategies. Adrienne Jochum and her team investigated the insides of the shells using nanoCT to differentiate species in synchronization with molecular approaches for genetic delimitation. Four well-defined genetic lineages were determined from a total of sixteen Zospeum specimens found in the type locality region of the most common representative, Zospeum isselianum. This investigation is the first integrative study of live-collected Zospeum cave snails using multiple lines of data (molecular analyses, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nano-computer tomography (nanoCT), and histology. This work is dedicated to the industrious Slovenian malacologist Joze Bole, whose work greatly inspired the present research. Explore further: Life deep down: A new beautiful translucent snail from the deepest cave in Croatia More information: Jochum A, Slapnik R, Klussmann-Kolb A, Páll-Gergely B, Kampschulte M, Martels G, Vrabec M, Nesselhauf C, Weigand AM (2015) Groping through the black box of variability: An integrative taxonomic and nomenclatural re-evaluation of Zospeum isselianum Pollonera, 1887 and allied species using new imaging technology (Nano-CT, SEM), conchological, histological and molecular data (Ellobioidea, Carychiidae). Subterranean Biology 16: 123-165. DOI: 10.3897/subtbiol.16.5758

Ahmad Z.,University of Texas at Dallas | Lisauskas A.,University Frankfurt | Lisauskas A.,Vilnius University | Roskos H.G.,University Frankfurt | O K.K.,University of Texas at Dallas
Technical Digest - International Electron Devices Meeting, IEDM | Year: 2015

9.74-THz fundamental electronic detection of Far-Infrared (FIR) radiation is demonstrated. The detection along with that at 4.92THz was realized using Schottky-barrier diode detection structures formed without any process modifications in CMOS. Peak optical responsivity (Rv) of 383 and ∼14V/W at 4.92 and 9.74THz have been measured. The Rv at 9.74THz is 14X of that for the previously reported highest frequency electronic detection. The shot noise limited NEP at 4.92 and 9.74THz is ∼0.43 and ∼2nW/√Hz, respectively. © 2014 IEEE.

Bratkovskaya E.L.,University Frankfurt | Bratkovskaya E.L.,Frankfurt University | Cassing W.,Justus Liebig University | Konchakovski V.P.,Justus Liebig University | Linnyk O.,Frankfurt University
Nuclear Physics A | Year: 2011

The novel Parton-Hadron-String Dynamics (PHSD) transport approach is applied to nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC energies with respect to differential hadronic spectra in comparison to available data. The PHSD approach is based on a dynamical quasiparticle model for partons (DQPM) matched to reproduce recent lattice-QCD results from the Wuppertal-Budapest group in thermodynamic equilibrium. The transition from partonic to hadronic degrees of freedom is described by covariant transition rates for the fusion of quark-antiquark pairs or three quarks (antiquarks), respectively, obeying flavor current-conservation, color neutrality as well as energy-momentum conservation. Our dynamical studies for heavy-ion collisions at relativistic collider energies are compared to earlier results from the Hadron-String Dynamics (HSD) approach - incorporating no explicit dynamical partonic phase - as well as to experimental data from the STAR, PHENIX, BRAHMS and PHOBOS Collaborations for Au. +. Au collisions at the top RHIC energy of s=200 GeV. We find a reasonable reproduction of hadron rapidity distributions and transverse mass spectra and also a fair description of the elliptic flow of charged hadrons as a function of the centrality of the reaction and the transverse momentum pT. Furthermore, an approximate quark-number scaling of the elliptic flow v2 of hadrons is observed in the PHSD results, too. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Scherner T.,University Frankfurt | Fritsch L.,University Frankfurt
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2011

This chapter documents the experiences of assurance evaluation during the early stage of a large software development project. The PRIME project researches, contracts and integrates privacy-respecting software to business environments. There exist several approaches to ensure the quality of secure software. Some of these approaches have the focus of quality assurance at a very early stage of the development process and have weaknesses to ensure the quality of this process until the product is ready to enter the market. Other approaches, like the CC, focus on inspection, or more concrete evaluation, of ready-to-market products. © 2011 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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