Francisco de Vitoria University
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Jara Rascon J.,Francisco de Vitoria University
Cuadernos de bioetica : revista oficial de la Asociacion Espanola de Bioetica y Etica Medica | Year: 2014

Introduction. The concept of person-based medicine may be transmitted to undergraduate studies and the subject of History of Medicine can be a good chance for it, if we engage the students to confront them with the characters, values and actions of those personalities who achieved the principal scientific advances in biomedicine area. Material and Method. In this work, it is described a methodological experience in the transmission of knowledge of History of Medicine following a teaching model which was lead on 130 students who performed analysis on circumstances, actions and ethical values of physicians and scientists that led to significant advances in the field of biomedicine through history. Thus, each student was assigned the subject of one character for study and every one was asked to make an oral presentation with a brief written work including a personal reflection. Results. Oral presentations and written works showed how students were able to do a balance of ethical implications in 77% of the cases. Only 23% of students were not able to see ethical perspectives of the studied characters. The most frequently refered values were the attitudes of perseverance in the study, the selfless dedication to patients and the passionate effort on continuous learning. Conclussions. Undergraduate training in Health Sciences and Medicine offers an excellent training opportunities in ethics and transmission of values through humanistic subjects such as the History of Medicine. The self-reflection by students on the main characters of scientific advances seems to be a good education proposal to promote ethical awareness.

Ibanez de Aldecoa A.L.,CSIC - National Institute of Aerospace Technology | Zafra O.,Francisco de Vitoria University | Gonzalez-Pastor J.E.,CSIC - National Institute of Aerospace Technology
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2017

The capacity to release genetic material into the extracellular medium has been reported in cultures of numerous species of bacteria, archaea, and fungi, and also in the context of multicellular microbial communities such as biofilms. Moreover, extracellular DNA (eDNA) of microbial origin is widespread in natural aquatic and terrestrial environments. Different specific mechanisms are involved in eDNA release, such as autolysis and active secretion, as well as through its association with membrane vesicles. It is noteworthy that in microorganisms, in which DNA release has been studied in detail, the production of eDNA is coordinated by the population when it reaches a certain cell density, and is induced in a subpopulation in response to the accumulation of quorum sensing signals. Interestingly, in several bacteria there is also a relationship between eDNA release and the development of natural competence (the ability to take up DNA from the environment), which is also controlled by quorum sensing. Then, what is the biological function of eDNA? A common biological role has not been proposed, since different functions have been reported depending on the microorganism. However, it seems to be important in biofilm formation, can be used as a nutrient source, and could be involved in DNA damage repair and gene transfer. This review covers several aspects of eDNA research: (i) its occurrence and distribution in natural environments, (ii) the mechanisms and regulation of its release in cultured microorganisms, and (iii) its biological roles. In addition, we propose that eDNA release could be considered a social behavior, based on its quorum sensing-dependent regulation and on the described functions of eDNA in the context of microbial communities. © 2017 Ibáñez de Aldecoa, Zafra and González-Pastor.

Mouronte-Lopez M.L.,Francisco de Vitoria University
Journal of Network and Systems Management | Year: 2017

In this paper we describe how to improve the spare parts management process in a telecommunications’ operator. Several techniques such as: neural networks, analytic hierarchy process, and software agents are used to implement a software prototype that has been validated in an operational environment with a concept trial. Better working conditions were reached by freeing up the technicians for other functions, given that they should not carry out the tedious and stressful activities included in the spare parts process. Such tasks were completed according to the time that was established in the customers’ service level agreements to avoid penalties. Operating expenditure was cut in a significant way. An increase of the overall industrial process performance was also accomplished as the spare parts management time dropped. This is, as far as we know, the first time that a combination of these techniques was applied to manage a spare parts inventory and prioritize incidents in such a complex scenario as the optical transmission network of a major telecommunications’ operator. The framework might be used in other domains such as: the hardware replacements that are required in some critical operational environments. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Zafra O.,Francisco de Vitoria University | Perez de Ayala L.,CSIC - National Center for Metallurgical Research
DNA Repair | Year: 2017

8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8oxodG) is a major lesion resulting from oxidative stress and found in both DNA and dNTP pools. Such a lesion is usually removed from DNA by the Base Excision Repair (BER), a universally conserved DNA repair pathway. 8oxodG usually adopts the favored and promutagenic syn-conformation at the active site of DNA polymerases, allowing the base to hydrogen bonding with adenine during DNA synthesis. Here, we study the structural determinants that affect the glycosidic torsion-angle of 8oxodGTP at the catalytic active site of the family X DNA polymerase from Bacillus subtilis (PolXBs). We show that, unlike most DNA polymerases, PolXBs exhibits a similar efficiency to stabilize the anti and syn conformation of 8oxodGTP at the catalytic site. Kinetic analyses indicate that at least two conserved residues of the nucleotide binding pocket play opposite roles in the anti/syn conformation selectivity, Asn263 and His255 that favor incorporation of 8oxodGMP opposite dA and dC, respectively. In addition, the presence in PolXBs of Mn2+-dependent 3'-phosphatase and 3'-phosphodiesterase activities is also shown. Those activities rely on the catalytic center of the C-terminal Polymerase and Histidinol Phosphatase (PHP) domain of PolXBs and, together with its 3'-5' exonuclease activity allows the enzyme to resume gap-filling after processing of damaged 3' termini. © 2017 The Authors.

Malmierca E.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Malmierca E.,Hospital Infanta Sofia | Martin Y.B.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Martin Y.B.,Francisco de Vitoria University | Nunez A.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Neuroscience | Year: 2012

The caudal division of the trigeminal spinal nucleus (Sp5C) is an important brainstem relay station of orofacial pain transmission. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of cortical electrical stimulation on nociceptive responses in Sp5C neurons. Extracellular recordings were performed in the Sp5C nucleus by tungsten microelectrodes in urethane-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. Nociceptive stimulation was produced by application of capsaicin cream on the whisker pad or by constriction of the infraorbital nerve. Capsaicin application evoked a long-lasting increase in the spontaneous firing rate from 1.4 ± 0.2 to 3.4 ± 0.6 spikes/s. Non-noxious tactile responses from stimuli delivered to the receptive field (RF) center decreased 5. min. after capsaicin application (from 2.3 ± 0.1 to 1.6 ± 0.1 spikes/stimulus) while responses from the whisker located at the RF periphery increased (from 1.3 ± 0.2 to 2.0 ± 0.1 spikes/stimulus under capsaicin). Electrical train stimulation of the primary (S1) or secondary (S2) somatosensory cortical areas reduced the increase in the firing rate evoked by capsaicin. Also, S1, but not S2, cortical stimulation reduced the increase in non-noxious tactile responses from the RF periphery. Inhibitory cortical effects were mediated by the activation of GABAergic and glycinergic neurons because they were blocked by bicuculline or strychnine. The S1 and S2 cortical stimulation also inhibited Sp5C neurons in animals with constriction of the infraorbital nerve. Consequently, the corticofugal projection from S1 and S2 cortical areas modulates nociceptive responses of Sp5C neurons and may control the transmission of nociceptive sensory stimulus. © 2012 IBRO.

Piedras M.J.,Francisco de Vitoria University | Saura M.,University of Alcalá | Zaragoza C.,Francisco de Vitoria University
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology | Year: 2014

Objective - Nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) prevents neointima hyperplasia by still unknown mechanisms. To demonstrate the significance of endothelial nitric oxide in the polarization of infiltrated macrophages through the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 in neointima formation. Approach And Results - After aortic endothelial denudation, NOS3 null mice show elevated neointima formation, detecting increased mobilization of LSK (lineage-negative [Lin]-stem-cell antigen 1 [SCA1]+KIT+) progenitor cells, and high ratios of M1 (proinflammatory) to M2 (resolving) macrophages, accompanied by high expression of interleukin-5, interleukin-6, MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein), VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor), interleukin-1β, and interferon-γ. In conditional c-Myc knockout mice, in which M2 polarization is defective, denuded aortas showed extensive wall thickening as well. Conditioned medium from NOS3-deficient endothelium induced extensive repolarization of M2 macrophages to an M1 phenotype, and vascular smooth muscle cells proliferated and migrated faster in conditioned medium from M1 macrophages. Among the different proteins participating in cell migration, MMP-13 was preferentially expressed by M1 macrophages. M1-mediated vascular smooth muscle cell migration was inhibited when macrophages were isolated from MMP-13-deficient mice, whereas exogenous administration of MMP-13 to vascular smooth muscle cell fully restored migration. Excess vessel wall thickening in mice lacking NOS3 was partially reversed by simultaneous deletion of MMP-13, indicating that NOS3 prevents neointimal hyperplasia by preventing MMP-13 activity. An excess of M1-polarized macrophages that coexpress MMP-13 was also detected in human carotid samples from endarterectomized patients. Conclusions - These findings indicate that at least M1 macrophage-mediated expression of MMP-13 in NOS3 null mice induces neointima formation after vascular injury, suggesting that MMP-13 may represent a new promising target in vascular disease. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

Clinical communication is nowadays one of the core competencies of a clinician and so is being introduced into medical educational programs. Both, the strategy for introducing Communication Skills in health sciences curricula as how to teach and evaluate them is at present a topic for debate. In this process, an important drawback is lack of clarity about the theoretical constructs underlying the patient-centered communication model, as well as the still limited and sometimes contradictory scientific evidence about its relationship with relevant health outcomes. This article highlights two key dimensions of clinical communication: its own communicative nature and the person-centered orientation. In this paper some general principles and theories of human communication and a pragmatic approach to biopsychosocial model are used for presenting graphically a rational framework proposal that highlights the most relevant communicational components of clinical care. These components can be considered as an open and revisable framework to guide educators and clinicians in the selection, organization and structuring the specific competencies and communication skills to be taught in undergraduate and postgraduate medical education. © 2015.

Echavarren A.U.,Francisco de Vitoria University
International Journal of Human Capital and Information Technology Professionals | Year: 2011

Although a wide consensus exists about potential business benefits derived from Competency based HR management practices, reality shows that in practice, Competency Management deployment cases are scarce and difficult to implement. This HR business related problem directly affects IT Software industries, both in HRMS applications development and consultancy related services. Market indicators reflect 'unbalance' between potential organizational benefits and actual applications deployment. In this context, defining useful, business-oriented Competency Frameworks has become an important challenge for many organizations willing to progress along through continuous HRMimprovement processes. This paper addresses the major issues underlying this Competency Management unbalance. A new business-oriented approach proposing an alternative, scope extended methodology is outlined in this publication, after field validation and wide acceptance from experts in functional HR management and IT Systems professionals from various large size organizations. Therefore, the findings resulting from this research work have both theoretical and practical implications in helping IT management in defining efficient HRMS Competency based applications and deployment strategies. Copyright © 2011, IGI Global.

Garcia-Urena M.A.,Francisco de Vitoria University | Lopez-Monclus J.,Francisco de Vitoria University | Hernando L.A.B.,Francisco de Vitoria University | Montes D.M.,Francisco de Vitoria University | And 4 more authors.
Annals of Surgery | Year: 2015

Objective: To reduce the incidence of incisional hernia (IH) in colorectal surgery by implanting a mesh on the overlay position. Background: The incidence of IH in colorectal surgery may be as high as 40%. IH causes severe health and cosmetic problems, and its repair increases health care costs. Material and Methods: Randomized, controlled, prospective trial. Patients undergoing any colorectal procedure (both elective and emergency) through a midline laparotomy were divided into 2 groups. The abdomen was closed with an identical technique in both groups, except for the implantation of an overlay large-pore polypropylene mesh in the study group. Patients were followed up clinically and radiologically for 24 months. Results: A total of 107 patients were included: 53 in the study group and 54 in the control group. Both groups were homogeneous, except for a higher incidence of diabetes in the mesh group. There were 20 emergency procedures in the study group and 17 in the control group. There were no statistical differences in surgical site infections, seromas, or mortality between the groups (33.3%, 13.8%, and 3.7% in the control group and 18.9%, 13.2%, and 3.8% in the study group). No mesh rejection was reported. The incidence of IH was 17 of 54 (31.5%) in the control group and 6 of 53 (11.3%) in the study group (P = 0.011). Conclusions: The incidence of IH is high in patients undergoing elective or emergency surgery for colorectal diseases. The addition of a prophylactic large-pore polypropylene mesh on the overlay position decreases the incidence of IH without adding morbidity. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Iglesias M.T.,Francisco de Vitoria University
Lazaroa | Year: 2010

Fire is a dominant factor in the evolution and ecology of Mediterranean-type ecosystems. The effects of wildfires on the chemical properties of soils beneath the Aleppo pine forest, after recurrent and individual fires, have been studied. The burned area was located near Montpellier (south-eastern France) where the climate is Mediterrancan. In the burned area 30 plots of soils (10 burned in July 1981; 10 burned in September 1996; and 10 burned in July 1981 and reburned in September 1996) were selected and sampled. Ten soils were also sampled in an unburned part of the forest as control. All soils (burned and unburned) were sampled at 0-5 (layer 1 ) and 5-10 (layer 2) cm depth. The greatest differences were observed in soils burned in 1996 in comparison with the others; there were also increases of organic matter in the burned soils, as well as in total N and available P, particularly in layer 2. Levels of Ca were slightly higher in burned than in control soils, but exchangeable Mg and K did not differ significantly. The pH values did not change after wildfires; but electrical conductivity decreased slightly in layer 1 of the burned soils. Values for exchangeable cations of burned soils were always similar to mose in control soils.

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