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Saint-Jean-de-Luz, France

Bouquet J.,Laboratoire Of Sante Animale | Bouquet J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Bouquet J.,National Veterinary School of Alfort | Cherel P.,France Hybrides | And 3 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is present in different species and ecological niches. It has been divided into 4 major mammalian genotypes. In this study, 3 new full-length genomes of swine HEV were sequenced and the results did not reveal any particular host determinant in comparison with human isolates belonging to the same genotype. Nucleotide composition and codon usage bias were determined to characterize HEV host restriction and genome evolution. Peculiar nucleotide bias was observed for A and C nucleotides in all HEV genotypes. Apart from the ORF1 hypervariable region and the ORF2/3 overlapping region, no nucleotide bias was observed between the 3 codon positions. CpG dinucleotides were also shown to be under-represented in HEV as in most RNA viruses. The effective number of codon used in HEV genome was high, indicating a lack of codon bias. Correspondence analysis of the relative synonymous codon usage was performed and demonstrated that evolution of HEV is not driven by geographical or host factors, but is representative of HEV phylogeny. These results confirm that HEV genome evolution is mainly based on mutational pressure. Natural selection, for instance involving fine-tuning translation kinetics and escape from the host immune system, may also play a role in shaping the HEV genome, particularly in the ORF1 hypervariable region and the ORF2/3 overlapping region. These regions might be involved in host restriction. Finally this study revealed the need to re-evaluate the possible subtyping classification. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Cherel P.,France Hybrides | Glenisson J.,France Hybrides | Pires J.,France Hybrides
Animal Genetics

Summary Here, we report genotyping conditions for 434 new polymorphic pig microsatellite markers containing trinucleotide and tetranucleotide repeat motifs in pig. Microsatellite sequences were detected in silico from bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone end sequences and mapped to the pig genome. A set of 22 microsatellites is described, which can be separated in a simultaneous electrophoresis by multiplexing across a large size range, in combination with 4-colour labelling. Marker information content and false pedigree exclusion probabilities are documented in five purebred populations, allowing assessment of this panel in pig parentage testing applications. Combined exclusion probabilities >99.7% were achieved in all pedigree test cases. © 2011 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2011 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics. Source

Cherel P.,France Hybrides | Glenisson J.,France Hybrides | Figwer P.,Laboratoire Of Zootechnie | Pires J.,France Hybrides | And 3 more authors.
Meat Science

A 1000-pig F2 intercross QTL detection experimental population was generated using two commercial sire lines. Independent carriers of HAL n and RN- mutations (10% and 14%, respectively) were included in this population as control genotypes. The effects of HAL n and RN- heterozygous genotypes on fresh and transformed loins and hams were estimated using a mixed model methodology. The results document the unfavorable effects of both mutations on meat quality. Smaller effects of HAL Nn genotype compared to HAL nn or RN-rn+ genotypes were estimated. Interestingly, effects of HAL Nn genotype on meat pH and loin color could be insignificant at 24-h postmortem, but translate into higher water losses on storage and cooking, and result in tougher cooked loin. Using the same methodology, significant effects of the PRKAG3 (RN) I199 allele on ultimate pH values but not on glycolytic potential were observed. © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Source

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