France Haliotis

Plouguerneau, France

France Haliotis

Plouguerneau, France

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Roussel S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Roussel S.,Agro ParisTech | Roussel S.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Huchette S.,France Haliotis | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Sea Research | Year: 2011

The ormer, Haliotis tuberculata is the only European abalone species commercially exploited. The determination of growth and age in the wild is an important tool for fisheries and aquaculture management. However, the ageing technique used in the past in the field is unreliable. The stable oxygen isotope composition (18O/16O) of the shell depends on the temperature and oxygen isotope composition of the ambient sea water. The stable oxygen isotope technique, developed to study paleoclimatological changes in shellfish, was applied to three H. tuberculata specimens collected in north-west Brittany. For the specimens collected, the oxygen isotope ratios of the shell reflected the seasonal cycle in the temperature. From winter-to-winter cycles, estimates of the age and the annual growth increment, ranging from 13 to 55mm per year were obtained. This study shows that stable oxygen isotopes can be a reliable tool for ageing and growth studies of this abalone species in the wild, and for validating other estimates. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Pichon D.,French Natural History Museum | Cudennec B.,Lille University of Science and Technology | Cudennec B.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | Huchette S.,France Haliotis | And 5 more authors.
Cytotechnology | Year: 2013

The decline of European abalone Haliotis tuberculata populations has been associated with various pathogens including bacteria of the genus Vibrio. Following the summer mortality outbreaks reported in France between 1998 and 2000, Vibrio harveyi strains were isolated from moribund abalones, allowing in vivo and in vitro studies on the interactions between abalone H. tuberculata and V. harveyi. This work reports the development of primary cell cultures from abalone gill tissue, a target tissue for bacterial colonisation, and their use for in vitro study of host cell - V. harveyi interactions. Gill cells originated from four-day-old explant primary cultures were successfully sub-cultured in multi-well plates and maintained in vitro for up to 24 days. Cytological parameters, cell morphology and viability were monitored over time using flow cytometry analysis and semi-quantitative assay (XTT). Then, gill cell cultures were used to investigate in vitro the interactions with V. harveyi. The effects of two bacterial strains were evaluated on gill cells: a pathogenic bacterial strain ORM4 which is responsible for abalone mortalities and LMG7890 which is a non-pathogenic strain. Cellular responses of gill cells exposed to increasing concentrations of bacteria were evaluated by measuring mitochondrial activity (XTT assay) and phenoloxidase activity, an enzyme which is strongly involved in immune response. The ability of gill cells to phagocyte GFP-tagged V. harveyi was evaluated by flow cytometry and gill cells-V. harveyi interactions were characterized using fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. During phagocytosis process we evidenced that V. harveyi bacteria induced significant changes in gill cells metabolism and immune response. Together, the results showed that primary cell cultures from abalone gills are suitable for in vitro study of host-pathogen interactions, providing complementary assays to in vivo experiments. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Courtois de Vicose G.,Instituto Universitario Of Sanidad Animal Iusa | Viera M.P.,Instituto Universitario Of Sanidad Animal Iusa | Huchette S.,France Haliotis | Izquierdo M.S.,Instituto Universitario Of Sanidad Animal Iusa
Aquaculture | Year: 2012

Four diatoms species Amphora sp., Navicula incerta, Nitzschia sp. and Proschkinia sp., were tested as food for Haliotis tuberculata coccinea post-larvae. Larvae were settled on Ulvella lens and Ulva rigida germlings at a density of 0.5larvaecm2 of substrate. Growth and survival, in each dietary treatment, were monitored during ten weeks. Experimental nursery tanks were weekly inoculated with 2L of the different diatom inoculums (105-106cellsmL-1). Proximate biochemical compositions were significantly different for the four diatom species. Amphora sp. presented a significantly higher lipid and protein contents with 7.11±0.29% DW and 18.50±0.97% DW respectively, while Proschkinia sp. presented the lowest protein content and the highest ash content. The fatty acid profiles of the diatoms were variable but remained typical of the diatom family. Larvae contained significantly more lipids (25.30±0.93% DW) than juveniles. The different fatty acid compositions found for the various diatom species were dissimilar to the ones of larvae, juveniles and substrates; (Courtois de Viçose et al., in press-a) the fatty acid compositions of these last two not being different among treatments. 16:4n-3, 20:4n-6 (arachidonic acid, ARA) and 22:5n-3 (docosapentaenoic acid, DPA) were the most abundant fatty acids in juveniles while 20:5n-3 (ecosapentaenoic acid, EPA) was the dominant polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), present at a comparable level in all diatoms. This suggests that the post-larvae and juveniles are capable to absorb a selection of fatty acids from the food source or that they are able to synthesise them from precursor dietary fatty acids. Growth rates obtained in the present study are presenting different phases and diatom diets made little difference to growth rate of post-larvae until reaching around 0.8-1mmSL, after which divergence in growth rate among diets became significant. Post-larvae fed the diatom with the highest protein and lipid contents (Amphora sp.) showed the best daily growth rate (DGR) of 50±3μm over the feeding trial, highlighting the joint influence of diatoms' protein and lipid content on growth. Around 2mmSL, juveniles exhibited increased growth rates, in all treatments, reaching 94μmday-1, indicating a possible shift in nutrition towards green macroalgae germlings and suggesting that U. lens and U. rigida are used as a complement to the diatom diet at this stage. 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 found in high amount in all juveniles as well as in all substrates could be an indication of that nutritional shift and could be involved in growth enhancement. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Van Wormhoudt A.,French Natural History Museum | Roussel V.,French Natural History Museum | Courtois G.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | Huchette S.,France Haliotis
Marine Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Two subspecies of the European abalone have been morphologically recognized: Haliotis tuberculata tuberculata, present in the North Atlantic, and Haliotis tuberculata coccinea, present in the Canary Islands. Among the different nuclear markers used to differentiate these two subspecies, the sperm lysin gene was the most reliable, leading to a 2.2% divergence. Concerning the subunit I of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxydase gene (COI), we observed a difference of 3.3% between the two subspecies. In the North Atlantic, an introgression of mitochondrial DNA from H. tuberculata coccinea to H. tuberculata tuberculata was evident in around 30% of individuals. Due to this difference, we were able to experimentally detect the transfer of paternal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) by specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction measurements. The presence of the two mtDNA signatures was also detected in 20% of individuals tested in the field. Moreover, one mt DNA hybrid sequence was identified. The sequencing of this mitochondrial DNA hybrid revealed a mosaic structure with many specific mutations. The origin of this hybrid sequence is discussed. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Travers M.-A.,France Haliotis | Travers M.-A.,University of Western Brittany | Meistertzheim A.-L.,University of Western Brittany | Cardinaud M.,University of Western Brittany | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology | Year: 2010

Since 1998, episodic mass mortality of the abalone Haliotis tuberculata has been observed along the northern Brittany coast of France caused by a complex interaction among the host, pathogen and environmental factors. In the present study, abalone were submitted to two successive infections with the pathogen Vibrio harveyi under controlled conditions. During the first challenge, infection by V. harveyi resulted in 64% mortality of mature abalone. After a second infection of those surviving the first challenge, only 44% mortality was observed. Physiological variability in the host response appears to be a major determinant in susceptibility to V. harveyi. In order to isolate differentially expressed genes in H. tuberculata challenged with this bacterium, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA libraries were constructed from muscle of moribund abalone (susceptibles), surviving individuals (apparently resistant to the bacterium) and control (unexposed) animals. Of the 1152 clones sequenced, 218 different partial cDNA sequences were obtained and represented 69 known genes. Of these, 65 were identified for the first time in H. tuberculata. Using real-time PCR, a time-course study was conducted on 19 of the genes identified by SSH. A majority of differentially expressed transcripts were down-regulated in susceptible individuals as compared to their resistant counterparts. Bacterial challenge of abalone resulted in the up-regulation of three transcripts (encoding ferritin, heat shock protein HSP84 and fatty acid binding protein FABP) in those that survived exposure to V. harveyi. This study has identified potential candidates for further investigation into the functional basis of resistance and susceptibility to summer vibriosis outbreaks in abalone. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


van Wormhoudt A.,French Natural History Museum | Gaume B.,French Natural History Museum | Le Bras Y.,French Natural History Museum | Roussel V.,French Natural History Museum | Huchette S.,France Haliotis
Genetica | Year: 2011

Analysis of the 18S rDNA sequences of Haliotis tuberculata tuberculata and H. t. coccinea subtaxa identified two different types of 18S rDNA genes and ITS1 regions. These two different genes were also detected in H. marmorata, H. rugosa and H. diversicolor that are separated from H. tuberculata by 5-65 mya. The mean divergence value between type I and type II sequences ranged from 7. 25% for 18S to 80% for ITS1. ITS1 type II is homologous with the ITS1 consensus sequences published for many abalone species, whereas ITS1 type I presented only minor homology with a unique database entry for H. iris ITS1. A phylogenetic analysis makes a clear separation between type I and type II ITS1 sequences and supports grouping H. t. tuberculata, H. t. coccinea and H. marmorata together. The two subtaxa do not show any significant differences between the homologous 18S rDNA sequences. A general structure of the ITS1 transcript was proposed, with four major helices for the two types. The two genes were expressed and, for the first time, a putative differential expression of ITS1 type I was detected in the gills, digestive gland and gonads whereas ITS1 type II was expressed in all tissues. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Lachambre S.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Huchette S.,France Haliotis | Day R.,University of Melbourne | Boudry P.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 3 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2016

Abalone growth rate is often identified among important traits to improve through selective breeding. However, the rapid success of some selective breeding plans has sometimes led to negative effects in some aquaculture species due to trade-offs. One of them is the loss of homeostasis of selected animals which results in the inability to resist the stress experienced during the rearing process. In this context, this study aimed to analyze the phenotypic relationships between growth, and physiological and behavioural traits in Haliotis tuberculata under stressful conditions. Eleven traits related to growth, immunity, reproduction and behaviour were recorded under laboratory conditions. A total of 120 adults from wild or farm origin were first monitored during a 3-week stress period (high density and acute stress handling) during winter, followed by 6. months on-growing in sea-cages. Relationships between parameters were analyzed using a multi-factorial approach. Wild and farm stocks could only be discriminated on behaviour traits, confirming that the French abalone industry is in the beginning of the domestication process. After 3. weeks of chronic stress, the righting latency of an abalone was linked to better survival and faster growth. Abalones having the best growth after 6. months were characterized by higher activity during the previous winter period, whereas an early gonad maturation reduced the growth in summer. Our results provide a basis for the establishment of a multi-trait breeding program to improve the growth rate while controlling the evolution of physiological and behavioural traits. Statement of relevance: The relationships of behavioural and physiological variables with survival and weight gain after application of important stressors were studied in order to provide a better understanding of Haliotis tuberculata biology during early domestication stage. This paper will give information on new targets and tools for selective breeding. © 2016.


Cardinaud M.,University of Western Brittany | Dheilly N.M.,Stonybrook University | Huchette S.,France Haliotis | Moraga D.,University of Western Brittany | Paillard C.,University of Western Brittany
Developmental and Comparative Immunology | Year: 2015

Vibrio harveyi is a marine bacterial pathogen responsible for episodic abalone mortalities in France, Japan and Australia. In the European abalone, V. harveyi invades the circulatory system in a few hours after exposure and is lethal after 2 days of infection. In this study, we investigated the responses of European abalone immune cells over the first 24 h of infection. Results revealed an initial induction of immune gene expression including Rel/NF-kB, Mpeg and Clathrin. It is rapidly followed by a significant immuno-suppression characterized by reduced cellular hemocyte parameters, immune response gene expressions and enzymatic activities. Interestingly, Ferritin was overexpressed after 24 h of infection suggesting that abalone attempt to counter V. harveyi infection using soluble effectors. Immune function alteration was positively correlated with V. harveyi concentration. This study provides the evidence that V. harveyi has a hemolytic activity and an immuno-suppressive effect in the European abalone. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Stonybrook University, University of Western Brittany and France Haliotis
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Developmental and comparative immunology | Year: 2015

Vibrio harveyi is a marine bacterial pathogen responsible for episodic abalone mortalities in France, Japan and Australia. In the European abalone, V.harveyi invades the circulatory system in a few hours after exposure and is lethal after 2 days of infection. In this study, we investigated the responses of European abalone immune cells over the first 24h of infection. Results revealed an initial induction of immune gene expression including Rel/NF-kB, Mpeg and Clathrin. It is rapidly followed by a significant immuno-suppression characterized by reduced cellular hemocyte parameters, immune response gene expressions and enzymatic activities. Interestingly, Ferritin was overexpressed after 24h of infection suggesting that abalone attempt to counter V.harveyi infection using soluble effectors. Immune function alteration was positively correlated with V.harveyi concentration. This study provides the evidence that V.harveyi has a hemolytic activity and an immuno-suppressive effect in the European abalone.


PubMed | French National Center for Scientific Research, Center Experimental, Institut Universitaire de France, University of Kiel and France Haliotis
Type: | Journal: Marine genomics | Year: 2016

The European abalone Haliotis tuberculata is a delicacy and consequently a commercially valuable gastropod species. Aquaculture production and wild populations are subjected to multiple climate-associated stressors and anthropogenic pressures, including rising sea-surface temperatures, ocean acidification and an emerging pathogenic Vibrio infection. Transcript expression data provides a valuable resource for understanding abalone responses to variation in the biotic and abiotic environment. To generate an extensive transcriptome, we performed next-generation sequencing of RNA on larvae exposed to temperature and pH variation and on haemolymph of adults from two wild populations after experimental infection with Vibrio harveyi. We obtained more than 1.5 billion raw paired-end reads, which were assembled into 328,519 contigs. Filtration and clustering produced a transcriptome of 41,099 transcripts, of which 10,626 (25.85%) were annotated with Blast hits, and 7380 of these were annotated with Gene Ontology (GO) terms in Blast2Go. A differential expression analysis comparing all samples from the two life stages identified 5690 and 10,759 transcripts with significantly higher expression in larvae and adult haemolymph respectively. This is the greatest sequencing effort yet in the Haliotis genus, and provides the first high-throughput transcriptomic resource for H. tuberculata.

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