Framingham State College

State College, MA, United States

Framingham State College

State College, MA, United States
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Singh V.,Framingham State College
Physics Teacher | Year: 2010

Several misconceptions abound among college students taking their first general physics course, and to some extent pre-engineering physics students, regarding the physics and applications of electric circuits. Analogies used in textbooks, such as those that liken an electric circuit to a piped closed loop of water driven by a water pump, do not completely resolve these misconceptions. Mazur1 and Knight,2 in particular, separately note that such misconceptions include the notion that electric current on either side of a light bulb in a circuit can be different. Other difficulties and confusions involve understanding why the current in a parallel circuit exceeds the current in a series circuit with the same components, and include the role of the battery (where students may assume wrongly that a dry cell battery is a fixed-current rather than a fixed-voltage device). A simple classroom activity that students can play as a game can resolve these misconceptions, providing an intellectual as well as a hands-on understanding. This paper describes the "Electron Runaround," first developed by the author to teach extremely bright 8-year-old home-schooled children the basics of electric circuits and subsequently altered (according to the required level of instruction) and used for various college physics courses.

Ratai E.-M.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Ratai E.-M.,Harvard University | Pilkenton S.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Pilkenton S.,Harvard University | And 31 more authors.
Journal of Medical Primatology | Year: 2011

Background Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection and persistent CD8 + lymphocyte depletion rapidly leads to encephalitis and neuronal injury. The objective of this study is to confirm that CD8 depletion alone does not induce brain lesions in the absence of SIV infection. Methods Four rhesus macaques were monitored by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1H-MRS) before and biweekly after anti-CD8 antibody treatment for 8weeks and compared with four SIV-infected animals. Post-mortem immunohistochemistry was performed on these eight animals and compared with six uninfected, non-CD8-depleted controls. Results CD8-depleted animals showed stable metabolite levels and revealed no neuronal injury, astrogliosis or microglial activation in contrast to SIV-infected animals. Conclusions Alterations observed in MRS and lesions in this accelerated model of neuroAIDS result from unrestricted viral expansion in the setting of immunodeficiency rather than from CD8 + lymphocyte depletion alone. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Peter I.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Crosier M.D.,Framingham State College | Yoshida M.,Tufts University | Booth S.L.,Tufts University | And 6 more authors.
Osteoporosis International | Year: 2011

Summary: To determine the association of the Apolipoprotein E (APOE) E4 gene polymorphism with bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures we conducted a meta-analysis of 17 reports. Despite lower trochanteric and lumbar BMD in APOE4 carriers, there is insufficient evidence to support a consistent association of APOE with bone health. Introduction: APOE has been studied for its potential role in osteoporosis risk. It is hypothesized that genetic variation at APOE locus, known as E2, E3, and E4, may modulate BMD through its effects on lipoproteins and vitamin K transport. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of the APOE-E4 gene polymorphism with bone-related phenotypes. Methods: We conducted a meta-analysis that combined newly analyzed individual data from two community-based cohorts, the Framingham Offspring Study (N=1,495) and the vitamin K clinical trial (N=377), with 15 other eligible published reports. Bone phenotypes included BMD measurements of the hip (total hip and trochanteric and femoral neck sites) and lumbar spine (from the L2 to L4 vertebrae) and prevalence or incidence of vertebral, hip, and other fractures. Results: In sex-pooled analyses, APOE4 carriers had a 0.018 g/cm 2 lower weighted mean trochanteric BMD than non carriers (p=0.0002) with no evidence for between-study heterogeneity. A significant association was also detected with lumbar spine BMD (p=0.006); however, inter-study heterogeneity was observed. Associations with lumbar spine and trochanteric BMD were observed predominantly in women and became less significant in meta-regression (p=0.055 and 0.01, respectively). There were no consistent associations of APOE4 genotype with BMD at other skeletal sites or with fracture risk. Conclusions: Based on these findings, there is insufficient evidence to support a strong and consistent association of the APOE genotype with BMD and fracture incidence. © 2010 International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation.

Acharya U.R.,Ngee Ann Polytechnic | Faust O.,Tianjin University | Ghista D.N.,Framingham State College | Sree S.V.,Nanyang Technological University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics | Year: 2013

With this paper we explore systems engineering as a systematic way of designing a cardiac health visualization system. From a biomedical perspective, the system is based on the well-known fact that Heart Rate (HR) signals indicate the activity of autonomous nervous system and therefore such signals are used to investigate the cardiac health of patients. HR signals are highly nonlinear and non-stationary in nature. Hence, we have extracted the salient features using nonlinear signal processing techniques. In this work, we have analysed 285 subjects from eight different cardiac classes. The features extracted are: Normalized bispectrum entropies (P1 and P2), Approximate Entropy (ApEn), Sample Entropy (SampEn) and Recurrence Entropy (REN). Furthermore, we propose a Cardiac Integrated Index (CII) using different entropies. This one value CII can be used to differentiate normal and abnormal cardiac classes. During the work on signal analysis we realized that proposing and testing of algorithms is done in the requirements phase of the systems design. This is an important realization, because it puts the work on algorithms in perspective to all the design steps necessary to build a physical solution for the important problem of cardiac monitoring. © 2013 American Scientific Publishers.

Acharya U.R.,Ngee Ann Polytechnic | Faust O.,Ngee Ann Polytechnic | Sree S.V.,Nanyang Technological University | Ghista D.N.,Framingham State College | And 5 more authors.
Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering | Year: 2013

Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals are difficult to interpret, and clinicians must undertake a long training process to learn to diagnose diabetes from subtle abnormalities in these signals. To facilitate these diagnoses, we have developed a technique based on the heart rate variability signal obtained from ECG signals. This technique uses digital signal processing methods and, therefore, automates the detection of diabetes from ECG signals. In this paper, we describe the signal processing techniques that extract features from heart rate (HR) signals and present an analysis procedure that uses these features to diagnose diabetes. Through statistical analysis, we have identified the correlation dimension, Poincaré geometry properties (SD2), and recurrence plot properties (REC, DET, Lmean) as useful features. These features differentiate the HR data of diabetic patients from those of patients who do not have the illness, and have been validated by using the AdaBoost classifier with the perceptron weak learner (yielding a classification accuracy of 86%). We then developed a novel diabetic integrated index (DII) that is a combination of these nonlinear features. The DII indicates whether a particular HR signal was taken from a person with diabetes. This index aids the automatic detection of diabetes, thereby allowing a more objective assessment and freeing medical professionals for other tasks. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Acharya U.R.,Ngee Ann Polytechnic | Tong J.,Singapore General Hospital | Subbhuraam V.S.,Nanyang Technological University | Chua C.K.,Ngee Ann Polytechnic | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Medical Systems | Year: 2012

Diabetes is a chronic disease that is characterized by an increased blood glucose level due to insulin resistance. Type 2 diabetes is common in middle aged and old people. In this work, we present a technique to analyze dynamic foot pressures images and classify them into normal, diabetes type 2 with and without neuropathy classes. Plantar pressure images were obtained using the F-Scan (Tekscan, USA) in-shoe measurement system. We used Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and extracted the eigenvalues from different regions of the foot image. The features extracted from region 1 of the foot pressure image, which were found to be clinically significant, were fed into the Fuzzy classifier (Sugeno model) for automatic classification. Our results show that the proposed method is able to identify the unknown class with an accuracy of 93.7%, sensitivity of 100%, and specificity of 83.3%. Moreover, in this work, we have proposed an integrated index using the eigenvalues to differentiate the normal subjects from diabetes with and without neuropathy subjects using just one number. This index will help the clinicians in easy and objective daily screening, and it can also be used as an adjunct tool to cross check their diagnosis. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Misra D.,Boston University | Booth S.L.,Tufts University | Crosier M.D.,Framingham State College | Ordovas J.M.,Tufts University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Rheumatology | Year: 2011

Objective. Factors associated with mineralization and osteophyte formation in osteoarthritis (OA) are incompletely understood. Genetic polymorphisms of matrix Gla protein (MGP), a mineralization inhibitor, have been associated clinically with conditions of abnormal calcification. We therefore evaluated the relationship of MGP concentrations and polymorphisms at the MGP locus to hand OA. Methods. Ours was an ancillary study to a 3-year randomized trial assessing the effect of vitamin K supplementation on vascular calcification and bone loss among community-dwelling elders. We studied participants who had serum MGP concentration measured and DNA genotyped for 3 MGP genetic polymorphisms (rs1800802, rs1800801, and rs4236), and who had hand radiographs. We evaluated the cross-sectional associations of serum MGP and the 3 MGP genetic polymorphisms, respectively, with radiographic hand OA using logistic regression with generalized estimating equations, adjusting for potential confounders. Results. Radiographic hand OA in ≥ 1 joint was present in 71% of the 376 participants (mean age 74 years, mean body mass index 28 kg/m 2, 59% women). No significant association between serum MGP concentrations and radiographic hand OA was found [adjusted OR 1.0 (ref), 1.40, 1.21, and 1.21 for quartiles 1-4, respectively]. Homozygosity of the rs1800802 minor allele was associated with 0.56 times lower prevalence of hand OA compared with having ≥ 1 major allele at this locus (95% CI 0.32-0.99, p = 0.046). Conclusion. There may be an association between hand OA and genetic polymorphism at the MGP locus that is not reflected by total MGP serum concentrations. Further studies are warranted to replicate and elucidate potential mechanisms underlying these observed associations. The Journal of Rheumatology Copyright © 2011. All rights reserved.

Liebert A.E.,Framingham State College | Wilson-Rich N.,Tufts University | Johnson C.E.,Tufts University | Starks P.T.,Tufts University
Insectes Sociaux | Year: 2010

Many social insect species have mating systems or recognition abilities that minimize the chance of inbreeding. In haplodiploid systems, inbreeding is especially costly due to the production of sterile offspring such as diploid males. Diploid males (and their triploid offspring) have been identified in invasive populations of the paper wasp, Polistes dominulus, but to date have not been reported in its native populations. Due to the degree of genetic diversity in the invasive populations, it is unlikely that the production of these genetic 'misfits' is the result of a genetic bottleneck alone, but rather that errors in nestmate recognition may play a role. Here, we investigated sexual interactions and nestmate recognition in male and female P. dominulus. We observed nine types of behavioral interactions (55 h of behavioral observation consisting of 1,514 interactions) from triads of paper wasps composed of one gyne (female) and two males-one nestmate male and one non-nestmate male. The frequency of male- or female-initiated aggressive behavior did not differ between nestmates or non-nestmates. Non-nestmates were more likely to attempt to copulate with the gyne, but successful copulations were very rare and occurred between non-nestmates and nestmates. We discuss these results within the context of invasion biology. © 2010 International Union for the Study of Social Insects (IUSSI).

Sudarshan V.,Nanyang Technological University | Acharya U.R.,Ngee Ann Polytechnic | Acharya U.R.,University of Malaya | Ng E.Y.-K.,Nanyang Technological University | And 3 more authors.
IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering | Year: 2015

Myocardial infarction (MI) or acute myocardial infarction commonly known as heart attack is one of the major causes of cardiac death worldwide. It occurs when the blood supply to the portion of the heart muscle is blocked or stopped causing death of heart muscle cells. Early detection of MI will help to prevent the infarct expansion leading to left ventricle (LV) remodeling and further damage to the cardiac muscles. Timely identification of MI and the extent of LV remodeling are crucial to reduce the time taken for further tests, and save the cost due to early treatment. Echocardiography images are widely used to assess the differential diagnosis of normal and infarcted myocardium. The reading of ultrasound images is subjective due to interobserver variability and may lead to inconclusive findings which may increase the anxiety for patients. Hence, a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) technique which uses echocardiography images of the heart coupled with pattern recognition algorithms can accurately classify normal and infarcted myocardium images. In this review paper, we have discussed the various components that are used to develop a reliable CAD system. © 2015 IEEE.

Su Y.,Institute of High Performance Computing of Singapore | Zhong L.,17 Third Hospital Avenue | Lim C.-W.,Institute of High Performance Computing of Singapore | Ghista D.,Framingham State College | And 2 more authors.
Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine | Year: 2012

A computational method for quantifying left ventricle (LV) remodeling using 3D mesh models reconstructed from magnetic resonance imaging is proposed. The underlying geometry of the LV mesh is obtained by using a quadric fitting method, and its quantification is performed by using a curvedness shape descriptor. To achieve robustness, we have performed detailed studies of the effects of n-ring parameter selection on the accuracy of this method with in vitro and in vivo LV models. We have found that curvedness calculations based on a 5-ring selection can accurately depict anomalies in LV shape despite the presence of noise due to manual image segmentation. Our studies show that patients after myocardial infarction exhibit significant LV shape alteration in terms of curvedness, in particular at the apex. The diastole-to-systole change in regional curvedness was significantly lower suggesting regional differences in hypokinesis due to infarcted myocardium. This approach may add new insights into ventricular deformation and enable better discrimination between normal and pathologic conditions. © 2011.

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