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Uniyal A.,Canadian Department of National Defence | Tikar S.N.,Canadian Department of National Defence | Mendki M.J.,Canadian Department of National Defence | Singh R.,Canadian Department of National Defence | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases | Year: 2016

Background: Aedes aegypti mosquito is responsible for transmitting human diseases like dengue and chikungunya. Personal or space protection with insect repellents is a practical approach to reducing human mosquito contact, thereby minimizing disease transmission. Essential oils are natural volatile substances from plants used as protective measure against blood-sucking mosquitoes. Methods: Twenty-three essential oils were evaluated for their repellent effect against Ae. aegypti female mosquito in laboratory conditions using Y-tube olfactometer. Results: The essential oils exhibited varying degree of repellency. Litsea oil showed 50.31%, 60.2 %, and 77.26% effective mean repellency at 1 ppm, 10 ppm and 100 ppm respectively, while DEET exhibited 59.63%, 68.63%, 85.48% and DEPA showed 57.97%, 65.43%, and 80.62% repellency at respective above concentrations. Statistical analysis revealed that among the tested essential oils, litsea oil had effective repellency in comparison with DEET and DEPA against Ae. aegypti mosquito at all concentration. Essential oils, DEET and DEPA showed significant repellence against Ae. aegypti (P < 0.05) at all 3 concentration tested. Conclusion: Litsea oil exhibited effective percentage repellency similar to DEET and DEPA. The essential oils are natural plant products that may be useful for developing safer and newer herbal based effective mosquito repellents. Source


Kumar A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Niranjan A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Lehri A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Srivastava R.K.,Fragrance and Flavour Development Center | Tewari S.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Journal of Essential Oil-Bearing Plants | Year: 2016

Abstract: Nagarmotha (Cyperus scariosus) rhizomes collected from 13 locations in India were characterized for oil content using hydro-distillation method. The distilled oil was subjected for estimation of its chemical composition using GC-MS. The oil yield analysed by using hydro-distillation varied from 0.20% Padampur (Orissa) to 0.58% Tilakgram (M.P.). The Gas chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses of the 13 hydro-distilled oils showed considerable differences in their chemical composition. The major compounds present in essential oil of nagarmotha rhizomes were identified as cyperene, longifolin, caryophylline oxide and longiverbenone. The amount of cyperene varied from 5.77% (Tilakgram M.P.) to 24.17% (Raipur, Chhattisgarh), longifolin varied from 5.95% (Raipur, Chhattisgarh) to 20.43% (Panna, M.P.), caryophyllene oxide ranged from 2.42% (Padampur, Orissa) to 10.38% (Tilakgram M.P.) and longiverbenone ranged from 3.96% (Padampur, Orissa) to 12.71% (Badarpur, Orissa). All the nagarmotha rhizomes and oils were also characterized for their carbon isotope composition using Isotopic Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS). The carbon isotope ratio of the oils varied from -11.15 (Ujjain MP) to –15.78 (Sitapur UP) per mil. Similar values of carbon isotope composition were obtained by estimation directly in the nagarmotha rhizome. © 2016 Har Krishan Bhalla & Sons. Source


Kumar A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Niranjan A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Lehri A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Tewari S.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Essential Oil-Bearing Plants | Year: 2015

Adulteration in aromatic oils with natural isolates and identical synthetic compounds is common practice in flavour and fragrance industry. Blending of synthetic materials is done in such a way that the chemical profile by gas chromatography of product (adulterated) oil remains nearly identical to original one. This practice makes complex issue for detection of adulterants in aromatic oil. In the present study, natural and adulterated essential oils of lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) and palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii) were differentiated and identified on the basis of their carbon isotope composition (13C/12C) using isotopic-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) technique. This technique differentiates the natural oils (lemongrass and palmarosa oils) with adulterated oils by showing decrease in their carbon isotopic composition as blending of synthetic compounds viz. geraniol, citral, polyethylene glycol (PEG), dioctyl phthalate (DOP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP) of these adulterants with increasing order (5 % to 50 %). © 2015, Har Krishan Bhalla & Sons. Source


Srivastava R.K.,Fragrance and Flavour Development Center | Singh A.,Fragrance and Flavour Development Center | Srivastava G.P.,Fragrance and Flavour Development Center | Lehri A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy | Year: 2014

Cyperus scariosus R.Br. (Nagarmotha) is pestiferous perennial, delicate slender sedge found wildly in various parts of the country, especially in damp or marshy areas and collected wildly for extraction of its essential oil using steam distillation. The rhizomes of C. scariosus possess pleasant aromatic odour, the essential oil is used as anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and anti-fungal agent and it is also used as one of the ingredients in several formulations for the Ayurvedic systems of medicine. Phytochemical studies have shown that the major chemical components of this herb are polyphenol, flavonol, glycoside, alkaloid, saponins, sesquiterpenoids and essential oil. Rhizome of the plant is used in fever, arthritis, diuretic, nervine tonic, treatment of diarrhea and dysentery, leprosy, bronchitis, amenorrhea and blood disorders. The fruits of the plant are used as carminative, diuretic tonic and have stomachic. The details of plant and its essential oil, chemical constituents and biological activities have been described in this review. Source

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